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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

N the Monthly Magazine of last

1807, M. Foaques, Chimiste Manufacturier, as he styles himself, published the result of his enquiries into the nature of this kind of syrup obtained from grapes growing near Paris, and in the beginning of the last year, the following remarks:

a claim the in

1. That 4 hundred weight of the must of these grapes evaporated at the heat of So degrees of M. Reaumur's thermometer, produces 125 pounds of syrup, without any art or extraneous addition, congealing into crystals of a spherical shape; and these being dried on linen cloths, through which all the more fluid moisture passes, a quantity weighing about 75 pounds is left.

2. That there remains, after the crystals are pressed out with proper force, 60 pounds.

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3. That after having been purified and refined, it yields 40 pounds of beautiful cassonade sugar.

vention of the means of relieving ships in
distress by firing a shot fastened to a
rope, made by Mr.Carey. I think it but
justice to others to mention, that near
twenty years ago, I remember the same
mode was suggested by Mr. Edward
Brim, a brazier, of Portsea; and the
experiment was actually tried, as I un-
derstand, in the presence of two naval
officers of the first eminence. A similar
experiment was tried here about fifteen
years ago, by a serjeant Bell, of the Artil-
lery. How far Mr. Carey, or Captain
Manby, is entitled to the merit of the dis-
covery, may therefore be very fairly ques-
tioned.
W. N.

Portsea, Jan. 14, 1811.

4. That, should this be again refined and clarified, so as to possess a whiteness equal to French Orleans sugar, it may be formed into loaves like the West India sugar, but at a reduction of the quantity to 16 pounds.

5. That it is in this shape so compact and firm in all its parts, as to be able to bear exportation.

6. That a single pound evaporated to sugar lumps, leaves only 10 or 11 ounces. II. The Reverend Mr. Schregel's Sugar from the Stalks of Turkey Wheat.-Several years ago, Mr. Schregel, Pastor of Schwedt, tried to extract a syrup from the stalks of Turkey wheat, and the experiments made on a small quantity were very successful. He sowed a whole acre, Magdeburgh measure, (about 1 acre English) with five metzen, (somewhat more than of a bushel) of this grain, which produced about one wispel, for 575 London bushels,) in grain, and about 250 pounds of leaves, at the same time that four horse-waggon loads of turnips grew in the intermediate spaces. The heads, after the grain is taken off, are a very profitable fuel, and yield ashes, of which one-fourth part is potash. Mr. Schregel made a report on this subject to the king of Prussia, offering to publish instructions relative to the best mode of cultivation, and to

might be turned to the greatest advantage. His majesty commanded his privy Counsellor, Mr. Thaer, to examine the facts more closely, and to report accordingly.

To

the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

reply to Whistensis, on the game of Whist, I should conceive when win two double games, and B. B. one single, A.A. have gained four points: for this viz. A.A.'s two double games constitute a rubber, or five points; but B.B. having won a single game, deduct it from A.A.'s score, which leaves four points.

reason,

If A.A. win two doubles, and B.B. one double, three points are in favor of A.A.: likewise, when A.A. win one double and one single, and B.B. one single, A.A. gain three points: when A.A. win one double and one single, and B.B. one when A.A. double, A.A. gain two: win two singles, and B.B. another single, A.A. gain two: when A.A. get two doubles, and B.B. none, A.A. must gain a bumper, which consists of five points; when A.A. get two singles, and B.B. none, A. A. gain three: and, in the instance of A. A. winning two singles, and B.B. one double, A.A. consequently gain only one point thereby.

A.A. and B.B.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

6

TOUR Yorkshire correspondent of desires I would give him information on the following points: The species of grapes formerly raised in the vineyards of this country; and whether there be any treatise extant in our language, which describes

county treasurer; the latter, in like man-
ner, receive from, or pay to, the national
treasurer. The accounts of district trea-
surers certified to the county treasurers,
those of the latter to the national trea-
surer: deficiency in the national treasury
Dis-
provided for by the ensuing rate.
tricts, guilty of wanton excess in expen-
diture, chargeable with it.

burthen Then let the fund be national,
and instantly vanish parish removals,
appeals, certificates, and settlement
cases, with all the miserable train of end-
less litigation upon questions of no other
importance, than as the poor man's natu-
rai liberty is abridged, and to encourage
a practice which obstructs labour, and is
therefore at once an injury to the state
and an aggravation of distress. Treat-
ing the poor as the children of a particular
district, is a petty expedient; and this
forsooth, because it was the place where
their parents were born, or casually resi-
ded. Is not the king intitled to their
allegiance, as members of the state; and
are they, on account of poverty, to be ex-
cluded from the ordinary pale of pro-
tection, and to be imprisoned within their
own parish? The enjoyment of natural
liberty, not incompatible with public
safety, might be allowed as their consola-
tion-Their country should be their set-
tlement, the nation their guardians.

5th. Paupers not removable without their consent; and all removals with such consent, at the public expence, subject to the discretion of the Board of Gover

nors.

6th. The Boards may convert parish workhouses, or any other parochial building, into temporary lodgings for them within the district, and out of the savings may erect schools of industry, purchase materials and implements for their employment, appoint officers, and make weekly allowances to each pauper, or family, according to the numbers.

7th. All beggars to be apprehended and conveyed before the governors, who should commit them to hard labor to the House of Correction within the district, or for the county, for one week: for every subsequent offence, the quantum of the preceding punishment doubled.

8th. The Boards to make other regulations necessary to forward the general plan, and to carry the law into execution.

In order to economy, the plan must be simple and universal. Under the fostering hand of national protection, the poor would feel that they have a home to fight for, a country to defend. This grand object accomplished, the vessel of state, although on a dangerous sea, in a tempest, may yet brave the storm; but when every heart and hand are wanted in the steerage, leave none to perish on the rocks, nor unprotected after her arrival in port.

1st. Establish a national fund by an equal annual pound-rate on all visible property throughout the country; the first not exceeding the average of the pre

sent rates.

2d. Establish Boards of Governors, applicable as near as may be to an equal number of inhabited houses; one in the most extensive parish; and where two or more are of nearly an equal extent, they may for this purpose be joined, under the direction of the Quarter Session.

Sd. Justices resident within the division, qualified for governors, to act with six others, returned by the division, chosen by ballot: each person assessed, to

vote.

4th. Appoint three sets of treasurers, for promptitude in payments, and to facilitate reimbursements to districts and counties in which the expenditures may have exceeded their respective quotas-a treasurer for each district, a county and a national treasurer; the rates payable to the treasurer of the district; declare the balance annually; let him acordingly receive from, or pay to, the

For the Monthly Magazine.
On the COMPULSIVE BINDING-OUT of
POOR CHILDREN APPRENTICES, without
their own, or the consent of their

PARENTS.

HAVE omitted longer than I could

case binding-out as

I

an apprentice a child to a great distance from the father by compulsion.

If proper persons can be found in the same parish, they ought certainly to be preferred.

The act of binding-out a child, without either its own consent or that of its parents, tends so much to violation of humanity and natural right, without which there is no true policy, that it ought to be most strictly watched. It depends on 43 Eliz. c. 2. § 5, which is the foundation of the English system of the Poor Laws. I cannot say that I think this the best part of it. By this act, a male child, if it appear that his parents are not able to maintain it, either the child or they being chargeable to the parish, may be bound out to twenty-one, and a female to twenty-one, or

or marriage, by the parish-officers, with the assent of two justices, to be appreu tices where they shall see convenieut.

And it has been determined, that both justices must be present, for that it is a judicial act, and not merely ministerial; they being bound to exercise their best deliberation as to the fitness of the person, the place, and the employment, to which the apprentice is to be bound. It would be void, if they were not both present at the binding: their assent is not formal, but necessary; and they are bound to withhold it if they see any reasonable objection.

It is manifest that convenient means

The is fitting, (xabuxos) in every view.

circumstances of case must be peculiar and clear, and very strongly proved, that would justify binding-out to a very great distance from the dwelling of the child, or of the parent; much more from almost one side of the island to the other.

If an evident abuse of power should in any such case be detected, the justices would, of course, be criminally answerable; either by indictment or information, according to the circumstances; or the father might bring an action of special trespass on the case.

The binding-out of apprentices at the age of ten years, under 3 Anne, c. 6, is certainly an exceedingly strong in stance of legislative interference.

P.S. Where an incorporated hundred interfered to bind-out a child to service, with out consent of the child, the legislature not having entrusted them with such a power, it met with the strongest reprehension from Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough.

1. What are the English fighting for? I was about to amend this interroga tory, and to make it "compelled to fight for," till I recollected that, from the most artful means that perhaps have ever been practised, the very people themselves have been deluded into a belief in the justice and necessity of the measure. Indeed, a very considerable portion of the public, in the various shapes of loan-mongers, contractors, gatherers, gun-smiths, gun-powder merarmy-agents, newspaper editors, taxchants, and merchants of all kinds, are most materially benefited by a continu. ation of the war. The wild beasts too at the City Menagerie, the StockExchange, are incessantly grunting against peace, or roaring for eternal war, inuocent men. that they may fatten on the carcases of All the jubilee tribe too and there is some reason to fear that are greatly interested on this occasion; they, or their descendants, will celebrate another jubilee for the fiftieth year of the war. Even a branch of the constitution itself, the chief member of which we de clare, and indeed happily know to be incapable of doing wrong, might be implicated in the suspicion of being interested in the profits of the war, if we did not likewise know that all the pro

↑ T, 29, E. ¡II. K. u. Hams tall Ridwaer. fits, or droits, as they are legally termed,

were

I should greatly doubt the validity of a binding under either Act, where the child was not present at the binding: for how otherwise are the justices to judge of its ftness to be bound as proposed.

excite painful associations, or any strong emotion.

The tranquillising power of music is no new idea. It is a fact of repeated experience, more or less observed in every age and country; and whether we regard that assemblage of sensative powers, which we call our body, or that active energy which we denominate mind, the salutary and benign influence of harmonious sound appears every way conform able to Nature. Nov. 22, 1810.

CAPEL LOFFT.

ILLNESS MITIGABLE BY MUSIC.

In a late illness, which has been and is the subject of public solicitude, I take the liberty of intimating, and especially considering the habitual predilection of the sufferer for the highest compositions in that divine art, that the disorder may be at least considerably alleviated, and possibly even removed, by music; meaning, assuredly, music of the slow, soft, and soothing, kind. In the selection, care would of course be taken, if it should be thought adviseable to try its influence, to avoid every thing likely to

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

I

WAS exceedingly glad to see the subject of the present war taken up by your correspondent, "A True Briton;" and I further hope that it will be re sumed in every succeeding Magazine, till the thing itself, melancholy and distresing in every point of view, shall wholly

cease to exist.

Descriptions of this kind, in order to leave behind them a due impression on the reader's mind, should be as brief as possible; and therefore I shall instantly proceed to answer your correspondent's questions.

were generously applied towards the reduction of the public expences, or in rewarding the merits and services of eminent characters. But to return to the question: it is to gratify all the above classes, with the last exception; it is to humour and administer to the spleen and malice of clumsy, baffled, and dis. appointed, ministers, against a successful foe, who has by their means alone been elevated to his present height of glory and pre-eminence; it is to satisfy their unquenchable thirst after power and patronage, that we are still pursuing a hopeless and indefinite contest, and that we are bleeding at every pore.

the concerns of the state, or in sober re-
flection on the miseries that await thein:
and fourthly, though not lastly, by any
means, from the terror that almost every
honest individual feels of the conse-
quences to his interest, from any resist
ance to the principles of those on whoi
they may have dependance.
Liverpool, Nov. 8, 1310.
Z.

2. What have been the motives and objects of those persons who are the promoters and abettors of this war?

Their motives and objects are to enrich themselves and their adherents at the public expence; to accumulate all the wealth, and consequently the power, of the country into their own hands; and by the continuance of a war of unexampled expenditure, and which has created taxes to an amount unknown in any other time or country, to extinguish the middle classes of society, and to depress that spirit of independance which, by constitutional exertions, could alone defeat their purposes.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

IN

N the Life of Mr. Beddoes, lately
published by me, an accidental error
has been detected, which I should be
happy to avail myself of the medium of
your Magazine to correct.

From the account given at page 389,
it would appear as if Dr. Craufuird had
expressed a wish that further advice
should be called in, when the alarming
change had already taken place, which
so shortly preceded Dr. Beddoes's dis-
solution. The fact however is, as I have
since been informed, that this wish was
expressed not by Dr. Craufuird, but by
some members of the family, and, though
complied with on his part, was accoin-
panied by a remark that it must neces-
sarily be useless.
J. E. STOCK.
Bristol, Dec. 19, 1810.

For the Monthly Magazine.

3. How are we to account for the apparent apathy and indifference of the On CONTINENTAL SUBSTITUTES to regreat mass of the people to the destrucmedy the SCARCITY of SUGAR. tive, impoverishing, and truly calamitous, By a German. effects of this long-protracted war? The answer is variously-as 1. From the gross and general corruption of the times. 2. From the selfishness of the commercial part of the community, which, whilst it maintains by means of war carried on at the expence of others, a proud preeminence in wealth, feels not for the distresses of those who are ruined by the war, and its unjust and unequal pressure. 3. From the monopoly of wealth in the hands of a few persons, and the consequent interest which those persons have, and the unfortunate power they possess, of governing and deluding others.

4. From the interest which the nume rous classes of individuals adverted to in the answer to question 1, have in the prosecution and continuance of the war.

5. From the great mass of the people themselves being driven from necessity to get money by every means in their power, whether honest or otherwise; from the consequent destruction of the moral principle, as well as of the means, and even time, to occupy themselves in

THE
HE still-repeated attempts of the
people of the Continent to find out
some tolerable substitute for West India
sugar, evidently proves that those
already discovered, are not fully satis-
factory, and that all the improvements
and refinements of art and science have
not been able to supply the obvious de-
ficiency of this almost indispensable ar-
ticle to the comfort of life, to which
the greatest part of Europe is condemn-
ed, by the stubbornness of a tyrannic
usurper. The endeavours of Dr. Achard
to procure it from turnips, &o. are too
old and too well-known to need to be
mentioned. Two other experiments
seem about to share the same fate.

I. M. Parmentier's Syrup of Grapes, -This syrup was at first so much ap proved of in the south of France, that in the autumn of 1808 nearly 200,000 cwt. were made, each valued at 100 franks, and it was called Sirop de Parmentier, to declare the common sentiments of gratitude entertained towards its inventor. In the mouth of December, 1807,

1

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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

1807, M. Foaques, Chimiste Manufac. turier, as he styles himself, published the result of his enquiries into the nature of this kind of syrup obtained from grapes growing near Paris, and in the beginning of the last year, the following remarks:

IN

1. That 4 hundred weight of the must of these grapes evaporated at the heat of SO degrees of M. Reaumur's thermometer, produces 125 pounds of syrup, without any art or extraneous addition, congealing into crystals of a spherical shape; and these being dried on linen cloths, through which all the more fluid moisture passes, a quantity weighing about 75 pounds is left.

N the Monthly Magazine of last month, I observe a claim to the invention of the means of relieving ships in distress by firing a shot fastened to a rope, made by Mr.Carey. I think it but justice to others to mention, that near twenty years ago, I remember the same mode was suggested by Mr. Edward Brim, a brazier, of Portsea; and the experiment was actually tried, as I understand, in the presence of two naval officers of the first eminence. A similar experiment was tried here about fifteen years ago, by a serjeant Bell, of the Artillery. How far Mr. Carey, or Captain Manby, is entitled to the merit of the discovery, may therefore be very fairly ques tioned. W. N.

2. That there remains, after the crystals are pressed out with proper force, 60 pounds.

Portsea, Jan. 14, 1811.

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3. That after having been purified and refined, it yields 40 pounds of beautiful cassonade sugar.

4. That, should this be again refined

SIR,

and clarified, so as to possess a whiteness To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. equal to French Orleans sugar, it may be formed into loaves like the West India sugar, but at a reduction of the quantity to 16 pounds.

N

5. That it is in this shape so compact and firm in all its parts, as to be able to bear exportation.

6. That a single pound evaporated to sugar lumps, leaves only 10 or 11 ounces. II. The Reverend Mr. Schregel's Sugar from the Stalks of Turkey Wheat.-Several years ago, Mr. Schregel, Pastor of Schwedt, tried to extract a syrup from the stalks of Turkey wheat, and the experiments made on a small quantity were very successful. He sowed a whole acre, Magdeburgh measure, (about 1 acre English) with five metzen, (somewhat more than of a bushel) of this grain, which produced about one wispel, (or 575 London bushels,) in grain, and about 250 pounds of leaves, at the same time that four horse-waggon loads of turnips grew in the intermediate spaces. The heads, after the grain is taken off, are a very profitable fuel, and yield ashes, of which one-fourth part is potash. Mr. Schregel made a report on this subject to the king of Prussia, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. offering to publish instructions relative to the best mode of cultivation, and to explain the means by which the whole might be turned to the greatest advantage. His majesty commanded his privy Counsellor, Mr. Thaer, to examine the facts more closely, and to report accordingly.

Whitensis, on the game of

this

Whist, I should conceive when A.A. win two double games, and B. B. one single, A.A. have gained four points: for reason, viz. A.A.'s two double games constitute a rubber, or five points; but B.B. having won a single game, deduct it from A.A.'s score, which leaves four Points.

If A.A. win two doubles, and B.B. one double, three points are in favor of A.A.: likewise, when A.A. win one dou ble and one single, and B.B. one single, A.A. gain three points: when A.A. win one double and one single, and B.B. one when A.A. double, A.A. gain two: win two singles, and B.B. another single, A.A. gain two when A.A. get two doubles, and B.B. none, A.A. must gain a bumper, which consists of five points; when A.A. get two singles, and B.B. none, A. A. gain three: and, in the instance of A. A. winning two singles, and B.B. one double, A.A. consequently gain only one point thereby.

A.A. and B.B.

SIR,

YOUR

·

YOUR Yorkshire correspondent of last month, A Constant Reader,' desires I would give him information on the following points: The species of grapes formerly raised in the vineyards of this country; and whether there be any treatise extant in our language, which describes

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