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to expect among the set of men, whose attracts the higher classes, or the very low. acquaintance naturally resulted from est class; as if some degree of instruction attaching oneself to the Platonie, the Stoic, and education were requisite to prepare orthe Epicurean, sect. And is not the like the votary—as if a considerable degree of ebservable in our different denominations introduction and education unfitted bila of Christians ?

again for this form of belief. It is often Let the man of fashion be a Catholic. accompanied with a punctilious easeless It is the essence of fashion to fall in, it behaviour, the result probably of a reci. knows not why, with the splendid ceremo- procal inspection and vigilant controul, nial in use among the exalted, and to place devised for purposes of moral discipline, vital perfection in exterior compliance. and incorporated with the constitutions The catholic is the form of Christianity of their congregations. It is often acwhich has been found least unfavourable companied also with an appare't gloom of to the military spirit, and most indulgent mind, the result perhaps of an excessive to the genteeler foibles. It patronizes use among their teachers of terrific dethe fisheries, by its dietetic interference; nunciations; but which to a mere by-stanand the fine arts, by its ostentatious de- der might sorgest the idea of secret relighe in monuments of architecture, of morse, or worldly embarrassment; and thus sculpture, and of painting. But let not tend to affect the moral or pecuniary the entire multitude be catholic. It is credit of these children of dejection. a religion which operates in the inanner Such melancholics are apt to fly for relief of military discipline, so as to secure de- to sottishness. Still the Calvinists, iu cency without reforming the inward man. general, are seen to be industrious, proviWherever the catholic populace have dent, continent, neat, hospitable, but in broken loose, they have exceeded, in a other respects frugal, loth to military sersavage, cruel, and blood-thirsty spirit, the vice, lovers of justice, of order, and of populace of any other sect; and they are civil liberty. These are qualities, on the every where more idle and ignorant than whole, desirable in the numerous class their Protestant neighbours.

of tradesmen: it seems easier to increase Let the magistrate be a Bucerist. Bu- their happiness than their utility. cerism, or else a national establishment, Other sects are insufficiently vast to be favours religious indiference and political appreciated in the gross. One cannot yet toryism. The members of the Church of decide whether the Sucinians owe the meEngland, in general, are apparently free ritorious qualities by which they are disfrom those anxieties of the soul, those tinguished, to their station in society, or mean selfish ambitivus frettings about its to the influence of their favourite writers. future condition, which haunt and vex so Unitarianisın is not yet vulgarized ; but large a portion of the methodistical sect, from the recent reports of the Anti-trinita. They are, in general, inclined to lend the rian missionaries, it may be suspec!ed authority of their support to the ministers that, in proportion as the sect gains ground of the Crown, and to receive with a favour: among the vnlgar, it will have to adopt ing prejudice all the measures of the go- soinething of the cant, the bigotry, and vernment. Such predispositious adapt a the zeal, for positive opinions, which cons justice of the peace to execute the laws monly characterize the vulgar. The liawith tolerance and alacrity. But let not lian and Polish Unitarians appeared, while the mass of citizens be Buccrists. That the sect was new, to aim at allying the habitual antagonism to the party in power, splendid ritual of Rome with the simple which evinpels the discussion of all, and creed of theism, and to aspire at blending the inodification of many, public acts, and the taste of the Catholic, the principle of which presents still more abuses than it the Calvinist, and the liberality of the phicorrects, would want the requisite popular losopher. But notwithstanding the conencouragement, if the inhabitants of our ventions of noblemen held at Vicenza and large towns were not in the main em- at Cracow, the Unitarian party could no bodied under a priesthood less servile where attain the ascendancy, either in than the established clergy. The parlia- the dukedoms of Italy, or in the republic mentary friends of liberty, derive their of Poland. The educated and ambitious popular support almost entirely from dis-, ranks gradually slid back through unbe. senters.

lief to conformity; the forsaken multitude Let the trader be a Calvinist. Auste- was classed withi fanatic Anabaptists, and rity favours frugality and industry. Cal. squeezed, between contempt and oppresvinism, at least where it is a sect, and not, sion, into inactive insignificance. As as in Scotland, an establishment, seldom Socinianism is peculiarly the reverse of a

mystical mystical sect, it must be favourable to the encourage among their children a pre

evolition of the reasoning faculty, and is dilection for soine occupations, which are • therefore perhaps suicidal. In Holland, necessarily held in disrepute; such as

and elsewhere, it died out less from reiu- pedlary, frippery, pawn-broking, and tation, or persecution, than from internal usury. A pedlar will always appear to be causes,

a clieat, because he must always charge The merely pliilosophic sects have also higher than a stationary shopkeeper. In their use. Teachers of this persuasion addition to the regular profit of the rebave been very etlicacious in resisting va. tailer, he inust be paid for the porterage rious pernicious moral prejudices, which of his wares from door to door, and for the have occasionally resulted froin excessive time lost in fruitless applications. Frippery attachment to the sacred books. The will always be held somewhat offensive. attempts of the Anabaptists to introduce The man who sells his cast-off clothes in. community of goods, of the Quakers to stead of giving them away, is ashamed of abolish military service, of the Calvinists the avarice or penury which that implies; to extinguish fornication, of the Catholics he dislikes therefore to see his fripperer, to torture and burn alive for heresy, have which reminds him of a meanness. Pawne been got under, not by the arguments of broking is regulated by law; it is often an theology, but by those of philosophy. There honest and useful employment, and might is a reciprocity of morality necessary in be a most humane and generous occue the external relations of states, to which pation: but it can never be an honour Scripture is less plastic than reason.

able one.

A sense of shame inevitably Hence every civilized society has found baunts the man who pledges his watch, it expedient to keep alive an illuminated or the woman who pawns a cloak, to resect,lilied either by pride or science,abure lieve the necessities even of a sick child. all the forms of popular credulity. In Usury is odious: not merely because the many churches of the once Lutheran pro- lawgiver bas idly made it a crime, but vinces of Germany, the anti-supernatu, because, in all cases of bankruptcy, those ralist christianity of the professors Eiche persons who have received exorbitant horn and Paulus has lately been brought interests for their advances, appear to be to anchor on the sacred books. In China, the only persons benefited at the expense the religious estabiishment of the country of more scrupulous creditors. In all these is habitually engaged in a like hostility branches of commerce, and other such against all the forms of superstition. Yet might be enumerated, the nature of the in Germany, as in China, to a large body employment tends to excite a feeling of of the people, such opinions are unwel. disgust, which is improperly transferred comely licentious.

to the Jewish people, because it happens Nor are the Jews undeserving an ap- that they frequently exercise such empropriate and limited patronage. They ployments. By preferring for their chilbave, indeed, soine usages which interfere dren the more respectable lines of busiwith sociability, and which are necessarily ness, hostile prejudices would abate; but an impediment to that neighbourly intere society would still be compelled to seek course with Christians, which would tend out other persons for this division of lato etface reciprocal dislikes. Such are bour. And to whatever individuals it be their notions about diet. In early and consigned, moral instruction and admoe ignorant communities, it is expedient to nition is surely experient. teach the essential arts of life in the laws. If so many forms of sectarism can We have statutes which direct how to strike root in a given community with brew, and how to bake, and which ren- obvious advantage to the whole, why der criminal a departure from the national should they not be all alike favoured by recipe. We have also laws about fish and the magistrate? They would then seves butcher's meat, which resist the sale and rally be embraced by the adapted conuse of unwholesome food. The Jews verts, and prevail every where in the dehave many such laws, which divide ani- sirable proportions. The charities of mais into clean and unclean, or, as the tolerance abound most where piety bas words ought to be renderer, into whole. many shapes. Moral competition, and some and unwholesome. The Jews wish general instruction, is increased by the tv keep their sabbath on the seventh day; variety of sects. but, since the alteration of the calendar, And why should they not be suffered they, in fact, keep it wrong, and miglit as to ramify within, as well as withoui, the well keep it on the Sunday. The Jews national church:

Suppose Suppose the Act of Uniformity re- patronage indefinitely: and surely the papealed. duke of Grafton might then triotic statesman, instead of making a new present the benefices of which he has the pension for every new exertion, ought to advowson to his Unitarian chaplains. A hold it better to divert into an usefut tord Peire might bestow sinılar prefer- channel some of those preferments which ment on eminent catholics-on a Geddes, are become superfluous to the encourayeor a Milner. If the Jew-banker Gold: ment of theological literature, and which smid acquired with his estate a vacant only operate as bounties for advocating presentation, he might allow the tythe of the cause of ecclesiastic monopoly and his parish to a rabbi. Mr. Wilberforce intolerance. Without burdening afresh could confer livings on his evangelists; the people, the means would thus exist of and lord Sheffield on a disciple of Gibbon. recoinpensing their real illustrators and God keeps many religious, said the Go- benefactors: the mighty machine, erected thic king 'Theodoric, why should not we? by the efforts of a barbaric superstition,

The effects of this change couid not but would retain its energies unimpaired, but be advantageous. Every sect, inasmuch be employed in diffusing the lessons of as it had converted to its pessuasion the civilization, and in remunerating the toily property of the country, would acquire a of unbiassed learning and creative genius. share of the advowsons, and station itself in the national church. A co-establish. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, ment of all religions would be accom- SIR, plished, in which each would have an extent of inflnence equitably proportioned

S I believe no description of Alder

A , to the wealth of its votaries. A consider. Cobalt Mine lately discovered there, able comprehension of dissenters would has yet been published, pernaps the inimmediately result; and with the wish and closed account may be acceptable to power to acquire the use and property of your readers. the established temples, an altered feeling, Alderley Edge is an eminence situthe harbinger of coostitutional loyalty, ated about five miles west from Maccleswould pervade all the ancient separatists. field, from which place the road rises by The danger which the Greek empire for an almost imperceptible ascent through merly, and which our own country lately, narrow sandy lanes; the sand chiefly of incurred, of finding among its schismatics a a reddish-brown colour: so very gradual pernicious foreign faction, would cease is the rise, that when you approach the with the intolerance of the magistrate, western side declivity, which is much which both there and here occasioned that steeper, you are astonished with the vast incalculable evil. The chieftains, not only extent of country which at once opens of the embodied, but of the literary, upon the sight. The whole plain of the sects, finding the ecclesiastic order open county of Cheshire, with a part of Lanto them unconditionally, and without any cashire, stretching froin the feet of the subscribed definitions of opinion, would Derbyshire' and Yorkshire hills to the more generally embrace it: and all classes sea: the pastures, woods, and villages, of public instructors, the men of letters the towns of Stock port and Manchester, and science, tne poets and artists, might the distant smoke of the city of Chester, be conveniently patronized out of the with the blue mountains of Wales on the terenues of the hierarchy. Thus, all sects, horizon, form part of the features of the popular and philosophic, would acquire scene. On the eastern side rise the a common mterest in the preservation of Derbyshire and Yorkshire liills, which such a church, and would join in a cho are part of the central range that passes tus of Esto perpetua!

through these counties. The whole The patronage of the sovereign would prospect comprises a scene of extensive remain as at present in point of amount; and varied magnificence, which can but as the number of claimants on public scarcely be equalled in the kingdom. grounds would be increased, more of After a month's residence anonyst che that patronage would be given to merit, mines and naked mountains of the and less to fasouritism. The right of High Peak, a sudden view of so much presenting prebends to laymen already fertility and grandeur was peculiarly ex. resides in the Crown-Camden liaving hilarating and delightful. The hill on been rewarded for his literary exertions which I stood is low, compared with most by queen Elizabeth with a prebendal of our secondary hills : but being des stall. A repeal of the Act of Uniformity tached froin the central range, and adwould, in fact, extend this right of lay vanced several miles towards the plains

1

of Cheshire, there is nothing to obstruct in the persons employed. I could disa the view from thence to the Irish sta. cern the presence of copper in small But this place is an object of inore in- streaks in the product, by the assistance terest to the mineralogist than the pic- of a lens, and also on the irons employed turesque tourist : in the space of a few to stir the ore when in fusion. The copacres, he may be presented with ores of per ores are found intermixed with those most of the metals found in England, but of lead, lying in the confused state I placed in sucht situations, and presenuing have described. Something like a regu. such appearances, as are rarely to be seen lar vein was opened last suminer, its dielsewere. The bill is evidently of allu- rection nearly vertical, its width about vial formation, being composed chiefly three feet, with a floor of cask interof gravel, and soft white and reddish posed between the ore and the rock on sand-stone; the white is intermixed with one side; the other was united with the rounded quarız pebbles, the red with sand-ruck. The ore, as it was called, particles of mica. In some parts the red was of a reddishi-brown colour, extremely and white sand-stone assume a nearly hard, with quartz pebbles imbedded stratified appearance; in others, the red within it. Neither its specific gravity, stone intersects the white in very thin nor appearance, gave i:idication of the se ams, branching in various directions. presence of copper, On trial, I found In the white sand-stone are found various it precipitated that metal upon iron from Gres of lead, as small portions of compact a vitrous solution. It is more properly galena; and the same in a granular state

an iron-stone combined with copper pyintermixed with sand-stone. In other rites, than an ore of copper: it contains places, particles of blue and brown ore very little of the latter metal. The most were collected in nodules of various sizes, remarkable production of the place is and imbedded along with pebbles in the cobalt ore, which was very recently dissand-rock, like currants in a pudding covered here, existing in the red sande The black ore or earth of lead, is here stone. It had long been unnoiiced or met with; and the carbonate or white employed in mending the roads, until a ore; but intermixed, like the others, with niner, who had worked upon the Contisand-stone. These ores do not lie in nent, and seen the cobalt ores of Saxony, regular veins, horizontally or verti- first discovered it in the estate of a gen. cally inclined, but are found in masses, tleman in the neighbourhood. The at. or intersecting and mixing with the sand- tention of the tenants of the Alderley stone and pebbles. In some few places Mines was then directed to the subject, there are appearances of a regular vein, and the Cobalt mines were let for one in which there are seams of cawk inter- thousand pounds per annum, to a come spersed between the sand-rock and the pany near Pontefract, in Yorkshire, ore; but these appearances are soon lost, The proprietor of Alderley Edge is Sir and the vein is broken off and thrown I. T. Stanley, hart. whose grounds and into a state of confusion. The cawk* seat are in its immediate vicinity. The is also mixed with quartz pebbles. These ores of cobalt, so valuable to the manuores are found in considerable quantities, facturers of porcelain and paper, are very and smelted at the place, but they are scarce in this island. They have been in general poor in quality. Copper ore found in small quantities in Cornwall, was formerly gat here in large quantities, chiefly of the kind called grey cobalt ore, as appears by the scoriæ or slagg which which contains cobalt combined with remains. The works have been discon- iron and arsenic. The ore at Alderley tinued during nearly forty years. The is the black cobalt ochre of mineralogists. copper was taken to Macclesfield; and, It is in the form of grains; of a bluishwith calamine from Derbyshire, made black colour. The best specimens in into brass at that place. Last summer colour and appearance, resemble grains an attempt was made again to get the of gunpowder, disseminated in red sand ore, and a furnace erected for reducing stone, or lying in thin seams between it. I was there the day after the trial, the stone, which has a shistose or slaty which had not succeeded, owing to the fracture. It lies from eight to ten yards poomness of the ore, and want of skill under the surface, and is got out in thin

pieces, and separated afterwards as I regret that I did not examine this sub. - much as possible from the stone; it is sance more particularly ; I suspect it to con- then packed in tubs, and sent near Pontain barosclepite and cals spar, like the awwis tetract, where it is manufactured into f Derbyshire.

suadte Amjust the confusion of mineral

substances substances at this place, there are some

would be found. The gentleman on distinct features of regularity. The co

whose adjoining estate the ore of cobalt bale ore is stratified, and though near, is was first found, has bitherio declined all separate from the other ores: it is chiefly, offers for the purchase of it: it is beif not entirely, in the red sand-stone. It lieved to be of a superior quality to that lies near the surface, and is evidently of at Alderley. The works of the company Jater formation than the other part of at Pontetract, owing to particular circunthe lill; as the red sand-stone, where it stances, and the ditliculties attending is found, always lies upon, or intersects, other extensive speculations, were "usthe wbite. The latter stone is the repo. pended at the close of the last year, 1810. sitory of the other metals.

The general appearance of the miscral The quality of the smalt produced from substances at Alderley, their position it does not equal that made from foreign and intermixture with rounded pieces of cobalt. Whether this inferiority arse quartz, prove, I think, they have been from the nature of the ore, or some de. washed down from higher metalliferous fect in the process of separation, may be hills, once existing near the place, and doubtful. Cobalt is one of the most re- that they have been carried and depofractory metals in the hands of the che- sited in their present situation by cura mical analyst. It is so intimately com. rents and eddies, when the whole plains bined with iron, nickel, and arsenic, that of the counties of Chesbire and Lancaits separation, in a state of perfect purity, shire were covered with the sea ; which is a process requiring great care, and at- has once been the case, there can be lille tended with considerable difficulty. Co- doubt. The existence of pebbles in mebalt, in its metallic form, has not hitherto tallic veins is mentioned by Werner as been applied to any useful purpose. occurring in llesse, and other parts of Amongst German miners cobalt'ores Europe, and he adduces these facts in wete long known, before their nature or proof ot his theory. The same appearuse was suspected. Finding frequently ances at Alderley, I think, prove only a black substance, which impeded their that the hill is composed from the debris progress in the mines, cut across the and ruins of other mines and rocks, and netailic veins, and occasioned them that any general geological conclusions much trouble, they called it cobbel, the drawn from this place, would not be apo name of a fearful Jæmon, the genius of plicable to regular mining districts. these subterranean abodes; against

In a future Number I may probably whose wicked machinations their priests offer some further observations on this biad a Latin forns of prayer, in which he part of the kingdom. In the mean time, is styled Cobalus. In Yorkshire, where I trust you will allow me to correct a nomany Saxon words are retained, ignorant tice respecting myself, whicb has been nurses still appal the terrified imagination inserted in your Magazine of the last of children, with the threatened approach month, in which it is stated that I had of Cobby.

discovered a new mode of analysing soils The ores of cobalt are separated as and ininerals. The error probably arose much as possible from the other minerals from a mistaken idea of an undertaking with which they are combined; the blue in which I am engaged for the mineralooxyd is then fused with powdered flints, gical survey and examination of estates, and forms the substance called zaffre, to ascertain the quality of the minerals used to give the beautiful blue colouring by chemical analysis, and to accompany to china. It is also employed in forming the survey with a manuscript description. blue enamels. With a diớerent portion In the proposals for the execution of this of siliceous earth and potash, it forms a plan, I have laid claim to no discoveries, blue glass, which is afterwards finely pul- but such as are the legitimate deductions verized and washed; this is smalt; which from mineralogical observation and is used to give the blue tint to writing chemical experiment. From these, if paper. From the coarse smalts are made properly applied, landed proprieiors the powder and stone-blue of commerce, might derive more advantage than from used by laundresses. For nearly the almost any other mode of national innwhole of these articles we are indebted provement; for hitherto, the application to the Continent. I think it is highly of mineralogical science to increase the probable, that, were the western side of value of land, has been greatly neglecied our island scientifically explored, many in this country.

ROBERT BAKEWELL. repositories of this valuable mineral Bury-street, St. James's. MoXTILY MAG. No. 209.

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