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substances at this place, there are some 'would be found. The gentleman on distinct features of regularity. The co- whose adjoining estate the ore of cobalt balt ore is stratified, and though near, is was first found, has hitherto declined all separate from the other ores: it is chiefly, offers for the purchase of it: it is beif not entirely, in the red sand-stone. It lieved to be of a superior quality io that hes near the surface, and is evidently of at Alderley. The works of the company Jater formation than the other part of at Pontefract, owing to particular circumthe bill; as the red sand-stone, where it stances, and the difficulties attending is found, always lies upon, or intersects, other extensive speculations, were use the wbite. The latter stone is the repo. pended at the close of the last year, 1810. sitory of the other nictals.

The general appearance of the mineral The quality of the smalt produced from substances at Alderley, their position it does not equal that made from foreign and interinixture with rounded pieces of cobalt. Whether this inferiority arise quartz, prove, I think, they have been from the nature of the ore, or some de. washed down from higher metalliferous fect in the process of separation, may be hills, once existing near the place, and doubtful. Cobalt is one of the most re- that they have been carried and depofractory metals in the hands of the che sited in their present situation by cure mical analyst. It is so intimately com. rents and eddies, when the whole plains bined with iron, nickel, and arsenic, that 'of the counties of Chesbire and Lancaiis separation, in a state of perfect purity, shire were covered with the sea ; which is a process requiring great care, and at- has once been the case, there can be lule tended with considerable difficulty. Co- doubt. The existence of pebbles in mee balt, in its metallic form, has not hitherto 'tallic veins is mentioned by Werner as been applied to any useful purpose. occurring in llesse, and other parts of Amongst German miners cobalt ores Europe, and he adduces these facts in were long known, before their nature or proof of his theory. The same appearuse was suspected. Finding frequently ances at Alderley, I think, prove only a black substance, which impeded their that the hill is composed from the debris progress in the mines, cut across the and ruins of other mines and rocks, and metallic veins, and occasioned them that any general geological conclusions much trouble, they called it cobbel, the drawn from this place, would not be apname of a fearful Jæmon, the genius of plicable to regular mining districts. these subterranean abodes; against

In a future Number I may probably whose wicked machinations their priests offer some further observations on this had a Latin form of prayer, in which he part of the kingdom. In the mean time, is styled Cubalus. In Yorkshire, where I trust you will allow me to correct a nomany Saxon words are retained, ignorant tice respecting myself, which has been nurses still appal the terrified imagination inserted in your Magazine of the last of children, with the threatened approach month, in which it is stated that I had of Cobby.

discovered a new mode of analysing soils The ores of cobalt are separated as and ininerals. The error probably arose much as possible from the other minerals from a mistaken idea of an undertaking with which they are combined ; the blue in which I am engaged for the mineralooxyd is then fused with powdered flints, gical survey and examination of estates, and forms the substance called zaffre, to ascertain the quality of the minerals used to give the beautiful blue colouring by chemical analysis, and to accompany to china. It is also employed in forming the survey with a manuscript description. blue enamels. With a different portion In the proposals for the execution of this of siliceous earth and potash, it forms a plan, I have laid claim to no discoveries, bloe glass, which is afterwards finely pul- but such as are the legitimate deductions verized and washed; this is smalt; which froin mineralogical observation and is used to give the biue tint to writing chemical experiment. From these, if paper. From the coarse smalts are made properly applied, landed proprietors the powder and stone-blue of commerce, might derive more advantage than from used by laundresses. For nearly the almost any other mode of national iinwhole of these articles we are indebted provement; for hitherto, the application to the Continent. I think it is highly of mineralogical science to increase the probable, that, were the western side of value of land, has been greatly neglected our island scientifically explored, many in this country. ROBERT BAKEWELL. repositories of this valuable mineral Bury-street, St. James's. MOXTULY Mac, No. 209,




To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. The Cave of Punishment is next deSIR,

scribed. At its entrance the Furies :

a A has been found the following analysis

In sentry see these haggard crones, whose

brows of Scott's Human Life, a poem of the last Rude locks o'er hang, a frown their forehead half century, which is now but little read,

plows; and which is, in fact, a versified and em. High brandishing her lash, with stern bellished translation of the celebrated

gard Greek Picture of Cebes, the model of so Stands Punishment, an ever-waking ward; many modern allegories. Dr. Johnson, While sullen Melancholy mopes behind, in bis Vision of Theodure, has profusely Fix'd, with her head upon her knees reclin'd; borrowed fivin it; and to Aikin's Hill of And, frantic with remorseful fury, there Science it has perhaps, though less obvia Fierce Anguish scamps, and rends her shaggy


hair. ously, furnished some hints. poem, if elegant, is diffuse aud tedious; Loud Lamentation, wild Despair, are also but, as its moral tendency entitles it to personified; and to some of these the capJasting respect, it may possibly be wel- tive is consigned, come to your readers to possess a con- Uuless, rare guest, Repentance o'er the gloom eise sketch of its contents.

Diffuse her radiance, and repeal his doom. The poem introduces certain strangers, In this case, the hand-maids of Truth, who are are ushered into a Theban tem"ple, where votive offerings were suspendo him to True Wisdom, who is sometimes

Right Opinion, and Good Desire, lead ed, and whose attention is drawn by a tablet, designed for a picture of Human personated by False Philosophy. Life. It represented a walled court; distinctive marks the true can be known

The strangers now enquire by what whence rose another; and higher still, a

from the counterfeit Wisdom. Their rethird. At the gate of the nether area a

gard is directed to the second court, in vast crowd seemed to wait. A hieropliant approaches the strangers, Here are assembled wrangling sophists,

which is pourtrayed the Studious Life. and, after a short preliminary address,


poets, laborious pedants; expounds to them the delineation. The “natal" gate, represents the num

all, who in learned trifes spin their wit, bers thronging into mortal life. On one Or comment on the works by triflers writ. side the good genius of mankind exhibits In the walks of this academic court the code of Reason and Delusion, on the certain active ard bewitching females are other offers a bowl, whence all drink, present, who resemble lewd harlots, and some to fall excess, others but taste, who frequently entangle Art, Wit, and less erring and less blind.

Reason, in their toils; until awakened tu a He then proceeds to describe the first sense of their condition, the seduced shall court, or the Sensual Life, with its attende have found

ant moral. The Desires, Pleasures, and Th’exalted way to Truth's enlightened ground: Opinions, entice with powerful charms and, having quaffed her cathartic, are the unguarded mind. whom Wisdom tutors, and consigns to cleansed, healed, and saved. Yet, by right opinions.

loitering here, they are still in danger of The strangers then behold a globe on

degeneracy. which stands Fortune, blind, frantic, and

The strangers now ask the faithful road, deaf, whose tottering and unstable ball, Which mounts us to the joys of Truth's do when most trusted to, is most likely to bode, deceive the footstep. Fortune is adored, A strait and lonely gate is pointed out, or carst, by her various suitors, according its avenue a rugged rocky soil; beyond to their success.

the wicket rises the craggy mountain of Their attention is next directed to the Difliculty: garden of Sensuality. Here ·

each edge a brink Sin her powerful spells employs ; Whence to vast depth dire precipices sink. See Lewdness, loosely zon'd, her bosom bares; Two sister figures stand on the mountain, See Riot her luxurious bowl prepares. Continence and Patience, stationed there

There stands Avidity, and dimpling by Wisdom, to urge on her sons. These Adulation—all in watch for prey; while generous guides, swist desceeding, draw the prodigal, bereft at length of all re- up their trembling charge, “with their own source, are left in the dire gripe of Pú- force his panting breast they arm," and aswishment,

sist bis progress along the road to Virtue,

whore whose blissful land is freed from the an- fund, laid the foundation of the evils. noyance

which followed ; these have rendered the Of thorny evil, or perplexing fear.

machinery so very complex, that very few,

even of the lawyers themselves, understand The third court, or the Virtuous Life, the subject. The number of legal deciis now to be exaniined by the strangers. sions of the superior courts upon SettleLoliy groves, and delicious bowers, en- ment Cases, from the Quarter Session, circling a luminous enamelled meadow, form as complete a code of laws for beare there depicted: these are the abode wildering and contounding the judgment, of all the Virtues, and of Happiness, as ingenuity could suggest. whose palace, encircled by a golden wall, This statute, in the same breath in has a gate of diamond.

which it announced a great national prinHence are expelled Blindness and Error, ciple, crippled and bound it in swaddling, and high-boasting Pride, Intemperance, clothes, by declaring, that every parish Lust, Wrath, Avarice, and all the Plagues should maintain its own poor; for, questiwhich, in the first court, oppressed the ons arising who where to be considered pupil. On his admission, the Virtues

as the poor of the parish, several acts afapproach to hail their enraptured guest. terwards passed to ascertain them. To See Knowledge grasping a refulgent star; enter into the detail would be tedious; but See Fortitude in panoply of war;

from the multiplicity of statutes and de.. Justice hier even scale aloft displays,

cisions, the setilement of the poor now And rights both human and divine she weighs. depends upon ten distinct general heads: There Moderation, Liberality, Temper. Birth, Apprenticeship, Certificute, Estate, ance, Meekness, Probity, attend to lead Hiring and Service, Murriage, Office, Purtheir votary to Happiness, the rewarder of chuse, Rating, and Renting a l'enement. the just.

Funds destined to the relief of the languid They are then directed to a lofty castle. and distressed, have been dissipated in This majestic pile extends its front above attempting to remove the burtien of a hill, whose boundless prospect com- maintenance from limits, in which the unmands the courts below. Within the happy wanderer sought shelter. porch, high on a jasper throne, sits Hap- For more than two centuries have the piness, the imperial mother, who adorns poor been driven up and down, often afher hero with a starry crown,

Aicted with disease and infirmity, to the honourable meed

imminent danger of life. Let us imagine Of conquests won by many a valiant deed.

a poor woman just delivered of a child, The curiosity of the strangers enquires deserted by her husband, and cast upon what conquests. They learn that these the parish, waiting for the Doctor's cer. were of the moral kind': that be had subo tificate of her being sufficiently recovered dued the Bad Habits, formidable beasts, to be removed to a distarit settlement to which he was once a weak prey, nearly in an inclement season. Upon such ocdevoured; until rouzed from his sloth, he casion, an appeal to the passions may be attacked them and curbed with a power. fairly allowed, for it is only by arousing fal chain. The hierophant describes the feelings, we hope to meliorate the these foes of mankind, Error, Ignorance, condition of the poor. Impatience, Incontinence, Avarice, and National protection is not confined to numbers more; and again panegyrizes, as locality, nor can the pauper receive a bete man's proper bliss, independent of power ter or cheaper maintenance, by transporto and wealth, a self-approving conscience, ing him to a place of settlement near 200 the true substantial peace.


If the desire for reform be sincere, we To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, must not affect alarm at novelty in pracSIR,

tice, convinced by experience of the utter EFORE the destruction of monas- insufficiency of particular systems: to sufo tection of the church, afterwards commit- against the light, and sinning against conted to parish-officers; and the very excellent viction. To meliorate what is false, is a principle established by the statute of vain attempt; radical defects may be reElizabeth, for their food, clothing, and em- moved, but never admit of improvements, ployment, was only deleated by the mode Many laws have passed; and as many thouadopter for enforcing it the principle , sands pursuing the same plan, would be was national; the practice, parochial. equally fruitless. What is the cause of the Limiting the burthen to a inere parocbial removal? the answer is, to get rid of the




burthen Then let the fund be national, county treasurer; the latter, in like manand instantly vanish parish removals, ner, receive from, or pay to, the national appeals, certificates, and settlement

The accounts of district treacases, with all the miserable train of end- surers certified to the county treasurers, Jess litigation upon questions of no other those of the latter to the national ireaimportance, than as the poor man's natu- surer: deficiency in the national treasury rai liberty is abridged, and to encourage provided for by the ensuing raie. Dise a practice which obstructs labour, and is tricts, guilty of wanton excess in expentherefore at once an injury to the state diture, chargeable with it. and an aggravation of distress. Treat- 5th. Paupers not removable without ing the poor as the children of a particular their consent; and all reinovals with such district, is a petty expedient; and this consent, at the public expence, subject forsooth, because it was the place where to the discretion of the Board of Govertheir parents were born, or casually resided. Is not the king intiiled to their 6th. The Boards may convert parish allegiance, as members of the state; and work houses, or any other parochial builare they, on account of poverty, to be ex- ding, into teniporary lodginys for them cluded from the ordinary pale of pro- within the district, and out of the savings tection, and to be imprisoned within their may, erect schools of industry, purchase own parish? The enjoyment of natural materials and implements for their emliberty, not incompatible with public plovment, appoint officers, and make safety, night be allowed as their consola- weehiy allowances to each pauper, or tion—Their country should be their set- family, according to the numbers. tlement, the nation their guardians. 7th. All beggars to be apprehended

In order to economy, the plan must be and conveyed before the governors, who simple and universal. Under the fostering should commit them to hard labor to the hand of national protection, the poor House of Correction within the district, would feel that they have a home to tight ar for the county, for one week: for every for, a country to delend. This grand ob- subsequent ottence, the quantum of the ject accomplished, the vessel of state, preceding punishment doubled. although on a dangerous sea, in a tempest, 8th. The Boards to make other regulamay yet brave the storm; but when every tions necessary to forward the general heart and hand are wanted in the steer- plan, and to carry the law into execu. age, leave none to perish on the rocks, tion. nor unprotected after her arrival in port.

1st. Establish a national fund by an For the Monthly Mugasine. equal annual pound-rate on all visible On the CUMPULSIVE BINDING-OUT off property throughout the country; the POOR CHILDREN APPRENTICES, without first not exceeding the average of the pre- their own, or the consent of their sent rates.

ad. Establish Boards of Governors, HAVE omitted longer than I could applicable as near as may be to an equal


have wished, the case of binding-out as number of inhabited houses; one in the an apprentice a child to a great distance most extensive parishı; and where two or from the father by compulsion. more are of nearly an equal extent, they If proper persons can be found in the may for this purpose be joined, under the same parish, they ought certainly to be direction of the Quarter Session.

preferred. 3d. Justices resident within the divie The act of binding-out a child, without sion, qualified for governors, to act with either its own consent or that of its six others, returned by the division, parents, tends so much to violation of chosen by ballot: each person assessed, ló humanity and natural right, without vote.

which there is no true policy, that it 4th. Appoint three sets of treasurers, ought to be most strictly watched. It for promptitude in payments, and tó depends on 43 Eliz. c. 2. $5, which facilitate reimbursements to districts is the foundation of the English systein and counties in which the expenditures of the Poor Laws. I cannot say that I may have exceeded their respective quo- think this the best part of it.

By this tas--a treasurer for each district, a coun- act, a male child, if it appear that his ty and a national treasurer; the rates parents are not able to maintain it, payable to the treasurer of the district; either the child or they being chargeable declare the balance annually; let him ac- to the parish, may be bound out to Bordingly receive from, or pay to, the twenty-one, and a female to twenty-one,


cease to exist.

or marriage, by the parish-oficers, with excite painful associations, or any strong the assent of tivo justices, to be apprei- emotion. tices where they shall see convenient. The tranquillising power of nusic is no

And it has been determined, that both new idea. It is a fact of repeated expejustires must be present, for that it is a rience, more or less observed in every judicial* act, and not merely ministerial; age and country; and whether we regard they being bound to exercise their best that assemblaye of sensative powers, deliberation as to the fitness of the per- which we call our body, or that active son, the place, and the employınent, to energy which we denominate mind, the which the apprentice is to be bound.' It salutary and benign influence of harmowould be void, if they were not both nious sound appears every way conforinpresent at the binding: their assent is able to Nature. not formal, but necessary; and they are Nov. 22, 1810. CAPEL LOFFT. bound to withhold it if they see any reasonable objection.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, It is manitest that convenient means SIR, what is filting, (rabrizar) in every

view. The circumsiances of the case must be ' WAS exceedingly glad to see the sub

ject of the present war taken up by peculiar and clear, and very strongly your correspondent, “A True Briton ; * proved, that would justify binding-out to and I further hope that it will be rea very great distance from the dwelling sumed in every succeeding Magazine, till of the child, or of the parent; much the thing itself, melancholy and distresmere from almost one side of the island ing in every point of view, shall wholly to the other.

lí an evident abuse of power should in Descriptions of this kind, in order to any such case be detected, the justices leave behind them a due impression on would, of course, be criminally answer. the reader's mind, should be as brief as able; either by indictment or informa- possible; and therefore I shall instantly tion, according to the circumstances; or proceed to answer your correspondent's the father might bring an action of spec questions. cial trespass on the case.

1, What are the English fighting for? The binding-out of apprentices at the I was about to amend this interrogaage of ten years, under 3 Anne, c. 6, tory, and to make it “compelled to is certainly an exceedingly strong in- fight for," till I recollected that, from the stance of legislative interference. most artful means that perhaps have

P.S. Where an incorporated hundred in. ever been practised, the very people terfered to bind-out a child to service, with themselves have been deluded into a out consent of the child, the legislature not belief in the justice and necessity of the having entrusted them with such a power, it measure. Indeed, a very considerable met with the strongest reprehension from portion of the public, in the various Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough.

shapes of loan-mongers, contractors, I should greatly doubt the validity of a arniy agents, newspaper editors, taxbinding under either Act, where the child gatherers, gun-smiths, gun-powder merwas not present at the binding: for how chants, and merchants of all kinds, are otherwise are the justices to judge of its ftness to be bound as proposed.

most materially benefited by a continu.

ation of the war. The wild beasts too ILLNESS MITIGABLE BY MUSIC.

at the City Menagerie, the Stock

Exchange, In a late illness, which has been and is

incessantly grunting the subject of public solicitude, I take against peace, or roaring for eternal war, the liberty of intimating, and especially inuocent men. All the jubilee tribe too

that they may faiten on the carcases of considering the habitual predilection of the sufferer for the highest compositions and there is some reason

are greatly interested on this occasion;

to fear that in that divine art, that the disorder may iley, or their descendants, will celebrate be at least considerably alleviated, and

another jubilee for the fiftieth year of the possibly even removed, by music; mean

Even a branch of the constitution ing, assuredly, music of the slow, soft, jiself, the chief member of which we dcand soothing, kind. In the selection, clare, and indeed happily know to be care would of course be taken, if it should be thought adviseable to try its incapable of doing wrong, might be ininfluence, to avoid every thing likely to

plicated in the suspicion of being inierested in the profits of the war, if we

did not likewise know that all the proT. 29, E. III. K. v. Hams call Ridwaer. fits, or droits, as they are legally termed,




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