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of what kind. Definitions of the philosophers and lawyers. Divisions of

the justice of government. A caution respecting these. Vindicatory justice.

The opinions of the partisans. An explication of the true opinion. Who

the adversaries are. The state of the controversy farther considered 249

CHAP. III.

A series of arguments in support of vindicatory justice. First, from the Scrip-

tures. Three divisions of the passages of Scripture. The first contains those

which respect the purity and holiness of God. The second, those which re-

spect God as the judge. What it is to judge with justice. The third, those

which respect the divine supreme right. A second argument is taken from"

the general consent of mankind. A threefold testimony of that consent.

The first from the Scriptures. Some testimonies of the heathens. The se-

cond, from the power of conscience. Testimonies concerning that power.

The mark set upon Cain. The expression of the emperor Adrian, when at

the point of death. The consternation of mankind at prodigies. The horror

of the wicked, whom even fictions terrify. Two conclusions. The third tes-

timony, from the confession of all nations. A vindication of the argument

against Rutherford. The regard paid to sacrifices among the nations. Dif-

ferent kinds of the same. Propitiatory sacrifices. Some instances of them 364

CHAP. IV.

The origin of human sacrifices. Their use among the Jews, Assyrians, Ger-

mans, Goths, the inhabitants of Marseilles, the Normans, the Francs, the

Tyrians, the Egyptians, and the ancient Gauls. Testimonies of Cicero and

Caesar, that they were used among the Britons and Romans by the Druids.

A fiction of Appio, concerning the worship in the temple of Jerusalem. The

names of some persons sacrificed. The use of human sacrifices among the

Gentiles, proved from Clemens of Alexandria, Dionysius of Halicarnassia,

Porphyry, Phiio, Eusebius, Tertullian, Euripides. Instances of human sa-

crifices in the Sacred Scriptures. The remarkable obedience of Abraham.

What the neighbouring nations might have gathered from that event. Why

human sacrifices were not instituted by God. The story of Iphigenia. The

history of Jephtha. Whether he put his daughter to death. The cause of

the difficulty. The impious sacrifice of King Moab. The abominable su-

perstition of the Rugiani. The craftiness of the devil. Vindications of the

argument. The same concluded 379

CHAP. V.

The third argument. This divine attribute demonstrated in the works of Pro-

vidence. That passage of the apostle to the Romans, chap. i. 18. considered.

Anger, what it is. The definitions of the philosophers. The opinion of

Lactantius concerning the anger of God. Anger often ascribed to God in

the Holy Scriptures. In what sense this is done. The divine anger denotes,

1. The effects of anger. 2. The will of punishing. What that will is in

God. Why the justice of God is expressed by anger. The manifestation cf

the divine anger, what it is. How it is revealed from heaven. The sum of

the argument. The fourth argument. Vindicatory justice revealed in the

cross of Christ. The attributes of God. How displayed in Christ. Heads

of other arguments. The conclusion .••••' 399

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CHAP. VIII.

Objections of the adversaries answered. The Racovian catechism particularly

considered. The force of the argument for the satisfaction of Christ, from

punitory justice. The catecbists deny that justice to be inherent in God.

And also sparing mercy. Their first argument weighed and refuted. Jus-

tice and mercy are not opposite. Two kinds of the divine attributes. Their

second and third arguments, with the answers annexed 423

CHAP. IX.

Crellius taken to task. His first mistake. God doth not punish sins as being

endowed with supreme dominion. The first argument of Crellius. The an-

swer. The translation of punishment upon Christ, in what view made by

God. Whether the remission of sins, without a satisfaction made, could take

place, without injury to him to whom punishment belongs. Whether every

one can resign his right. Right twofold. The right of debt, what: and what

that of government. A natural and positive right. Positive right, what: a

description also of natural right. "Concessions of Crellius 427

CHAP. X.

The opinions of Socinus considered. What he thought of our present question,

viz. that it is the hinge on which the whole controversy, concerning the sa-

tisfaction of Christ turns. His vain boasting, as if having disproved this vin-

iV stice, he had snatched the prize from his adversaries. Other clear

itisfaction of Christ, That it is our duty to acquiesce in the re-

God. The truth not to be forsaken. Mercy and justice not

in distinctions of Socinus concerning divine justice. The con-
these distinctions. His first argument against vindicatory jus-

these d

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tice. The solution of it. The anger and severity of God, what. Universal

and particular justice, in what they agree. The false reasoning and vain

boasting of the adversary 433

CHAP. XI.

The arguments of Socinus against punitory justice weighed. A false hypothesis

of his. Sins, in what sense they are debts. The first argument of Socinus,

in which he takes for granted what ought lo have been proved. A trifling

supposition substituted for a proof. Whether that excellence, by virtue of

which God punishes sins, be called justice in the Scriptures. The severity

of God, what. Our opponent's second argument. It labours under the same

deficiency as the first. It is not opposite to mercy to punish the guilty.

There is a distinction between acts and habits. Our opponent confounds them.

The mercy of God infinite, so also is his justice. A distinction of the divine

attributes. In pardoning sins through Jesus Christ, God hath exercised infinite

justice and infinite mercy. The conclusion of the contest with Socinus • • • • 439

CHAP. XII.

The progress of the dispute to the theologians of our own country. The supreme

authority of divine truth. Who they are( and what kind of men, who have

gone into factions about this matter. The Coryphoeus of the adversaries, the

very illustrious Twiss. The occasion of his publishing his opinion. The opi-

nion of the Arminians. The effects of the death of Christ, what. Twiss ac-

knowledges punitory justice to be natural to God. The division of the dispute

with Twiss. Maccovius's answers to the arguments of Twiss. The plan of

our disputation • • • 451

CHAP. XIII.

Twiss's first argument. Its answer. A trifling view of the divine attributes.

Whether God could, by his absolute power forgive sins without a satisfaction:

to let sins pass unpunished, implies a contradiction; and that twofold. What

these contradictions are. Whether God may do, what man may do. Whe-

ther every man may renounce his right. Whether God cannot forgive sins

because of his justice. The second argument. Its answer. Distinctions of

necessity. God doth no work, without himself, from absolute necessity. Con-

ditional necessity. Natural necessity twofold. God doth not punish to the

extent of his power, but to the extent of his justice. God always acts with a

concomitant liberty. An argument of the illustrious Vossius considered. God

a consuming fire, but an intellectual one. An exception of Twiss's. Whe-

ther independent of the divine appointment, sin would merit punishment. In

punishment, what things are to be considered. The relation between obe-

dience as to reward, and disobedience as to punishment not the same. The ,-

comparison between mercy and justice, by Vossius improperly instituted • • 454

CHAP. XIV.

Twiss's third argument. A dispensation with regard to the punishment of sin,

what, and of what kind. The nature of punishment, and its circumstances.

The instance of this learned opponent refuted. The considerations of renew-

ing apd punishing, different. How long, and in what sense God can dispense

with the punishment due to sin. God the supreme governor of the Jewish

polity: also, the Lord of all. The fourth argument of Twiss. The answer.

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Whether God can inflict punishment on an innocent person. In what sense

God is more willing to do acts of kindness than to punish. What kind of

willingness that assertion respects. The conclusion of the answer to Twiss's

principal arguments 461

CHAP. XV.

The defence of Sibrandus Lubbertus against Twiss. The agreement of these

very learned men in a point of the utmost importance. A vindication of his

argument from God's hatred against sin. Liberality and justice different. A

sentiment of Lubbertus undeservedly charged with atheism. What kind of

necessity of operation we suppose in God : this pointed out. The sophisti-

cal reasoning of this learned writer. How God is bound to manifest any pro-

perty of his nature. The reasons of Lubbertus and Twiss's objections to the

same considered. That passage of the apostle, Rom. i. Re considered and

vindicated. His mode of disputing rejected. The force of the argument

from Rom. i. 32. The righteous judgment of God, what. our federal re-

presentative, and those represented by him, are one mystical body. An an-

swer to Twiss's arguments; Exod. xxxiv. 7. The learned writer's answer

respecting that passage. A defence of the passage. Punitory justice a name

of God. Whether those for whom Christ hath made satisfaction, ought to be

called guilty. Psal. v. 5—7. the sense of that passage considered. From

these three passages the argument is one and the same. Lubbertus's argu-

ment from the definition of justice, weighed. How vindicatory justice is dis-

tinguished from universal. The natures of liberality and justice evidently

different. Punishment belongs to God. In inflicting punishment, God

vindicates his right. Will and necessity, whether they be opposite. The

end of the defence of Lubbertus 465

CHAP. XVI.

Piscator's opinion of this controversy. How far we assent to it. Twiss's argu-

ments militate against it. How God punishes from a natural necessity. How

God is a consuming fire. God's right, of what kind. Its exercise necessary,

from some thing supposed. Whence the obligation of God to exercise it

•rises. Other objections of Twiss discussed • • • 475

CHAP. XVII.

Rutherford reviewed. * An oversight of that learned man. His opinion of pu-

nitory justice. He contends that divine justice exists in God freely. The

consideration of that assertion. This learned writer and Twiss disagree. His

first argument. Its answer. The appointment of Christ to death twofold.

The appointment of Christ to the mediatorial office, an act of supreme do-

minion. The punishment of Christ an act of punitory justice. An argument

of that learned man, easy to answer. The examination of the same. The

learned writer proves things not denied; passes over things to be denied.

What kind of necessity we ascribe to God in punishing sins. A necessity

upon a condition supposed. What the suppositions are upon which that

essity is founded. A difference between those things which are necessary

decree. and those which are so from the divine nature. The second ar-

nt of that learned man. His obscure manner of writing pointed out.

ce and mercy different in respect of their exercise. What it is to owe the

of punitory justice to the universe. This learned man's third argument.

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