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or other prove as useful, are ftill entirely neglected. I should be remiss, I am sure, were I to forget my acknowledgments to the gentleman I have just mentioned, to whose benevolence I owe the use of feveral of the scarceft quartos, which I could not otherwise have obtained; though I advertised for them, with sufficient offers, as I thought, either to tempt the casual owner to fell, or the curious to communicate them ; but Mr. Garrick's zeal would not permit him to withhold any thing that might ever fo remotely tend to shew the perfections of that auchor who could only have enabled him to display his own.

It is not merely to obtain justice to Shakespeare, that I have made this collection, and advife others to be made. The general interest of English literature, and the attention due to our own language and history, require that our ancient writings should be diligently reviewed. There is no age which has not produced fome works that deserved to be remembered ; and as words and phrases are only understood by comparing them in different places, the lower writers must be read for the explanation of the highest. No language can be ascertained and settled; but by deducing its words from their original sources, and tracing them through their successive varieties of signification; and this deduction can only be performed by consulting the earliest and intermediate authors. · Enough has been already done to encourage us to do more. Dr. Hickes, by reviving the study of the Saxon language, seems to have excited a stronger curiosity after old English writers, than ever had ap. peared before. Many volumes which were mouldering in dust have been collected ; many authors which were forgotten have been revived ; many laborious catalogues have been formed; and many judicious glossaries compiled : the literary transactions of the darker ages are now open to discovery; and the language in its intermediate gradations, from the Con


quest to the Restoration, is better understood than in any former time.

To incite the continuance, and encourage the extension of this domestick curiosity, is one of the purposes of the present publication. In the plays it contains, the poet's first thoughts as well as words are preserved; the additions made in subsequent impresfions distinguished in Italicks, and the performances themselves make their appearance with every typographical error, such as they were before they fell into the hands of the player-editors. The various readings, which can only be attributed to chance, are set down among the rest, as I did not choose arbitrarily to determine for others which were useless, or which were valuable. And many words differing only by the fpelling, or serving merely to shew the difficulties which they to whose lot it first fell to disentangle their perplexities must have encountered, are exhibited with the rest. I must acknowledge that some few readings have sipped in by mistake, which can pretend to serve no purpose of illustration, but were introduced by confining myself to note the minutest variations of the copies, which foon convinced me that the oldest were in general the most correct. Though no proof can be given that the poet superintended the publication of any one of these himself, yet we have little reason to suppose that he who wrote at the command of Elizabech, and under the patronage of Southampton, was so very negligent of his fame, as to permit the most incompetent judges, such as the players were, to vary at their pleasure what he had set down for the first single editions; and we have better grounds for a suspicion that his works did materially suffer from their presumptuous corrections after his death.

It is very well known, that before the time of Shakespeare, the art of making title-pages was practised with as much, or perhaps more success than it has been since. Accordingly, to all his plays we find


long and descriptive ones, which, when they were first published, were of great service to the venders of them. Pamphlets of every kind were hawked about the streets by a set of people resembling his own Autołycus, who proclaimed aloud the qualities of what they offered to fale, and might draw in many a purchaler by the mirth he was taught to expect from the bumours of Corporal Nym, or the swaggering vcine of Auncient Pistoll, who was not to be tempted by the representation of a fact merely historical. The players, however, laid aside the whole of this garniture, not finding it so necessary to procure success to a bulky volume, when the author's reputation was established, as it had been to bespeak attention to a few straggling pamphlets while it was yet uncertain.

The fixteen plays, which are not in these volumes, remained unpublished till the folio in the year 1623, though the compiler of a work, called Theatrical Records, mentions different single editions of every one of them before that time. But as no one of the editors could ever meet with suchi, nor has any one else pretended to have feen them, I think myself at liberty to suppofe the compiler supplied the defects of the list out of his own imagination; since he must have had fingular good fortune to have been poffeffed of two or three different copies of all, when neither editors nor collectors, in the course of near fifty years, have been able fo much as to obtain the sight of one of the number.

Ac the end of the last volume I have added a tragedy of King Leir, published before that of Shakespeare, which it is not improbable he might have seen, as the father kneeling to the daughter, when she kneels to ask his bleiling, is found in it; a circumstance two poets were not very likely to have hit on separately; and which seems borrowed by the latter with his usual judgment, it being the most natural passage in the old play; and is introduced in such a Vol h



manner, as to make it fairly his own. The ingenious editor of The Reliques of Ancient Poetry having never met with this play, and as it is not preserved in Mr. Garrick's collection, I thought it a curiosity worthy the notice of the publick.

I have likewise reprinted Shakespeare's Sonnets, from a copy published in 1609, by Ġ. Eld, one of the printers of his plays; which, added to the consideration that they made their appearance with his name, and in his life-time, seems to be no slender proof of their authenticity. The fame evidence might operate in favour of several more plays which are omitted here, out of respect to the judgment of those who had omitted them before 3.

It is to be wished, that some method of publication most favourable to the character of an author were once established; whether we are to send into the world all his works without distinction, or arbitrarily to leave out what may be thought a disgrace to him. The first editors, who rejected Pericles, retained Titus Andronicus ; and Mr. Pope, without any reason, named The Winter's Tale, a play that bears the strongest marks of the hand of Shakespeare, among thofe which he supposed to be spurious. Dr. Warburton has fixed a ftigia on the three parts of Henry the Sixth, and some others :

Inde Dolabella est, atq; hinc Antonius,

and all have been willing to plunder Shakespeare, or mix up a breed of barren metal with his purelt ore.

Joshua Barnes, the editor of Euripides, thought every scrap of his author so sacred, that he has preserved with the name of one of his plays, the only

3 Locrine, 1595. Sir John Oldcastle, 1600. London Prodigal, 1605. Pericles Prince of Tyre, 1609. Puritan, 1600. Thomas Lord Cromwell, 1613. Yorkshire Tragedy, no date.

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remaining word of it. The same reason indeed might
be given in his favour, which caused the preservation
of that valuable trifyllable; which is, that it cannot
be found in any other place in the Greek language.
But this does not seem to have been his only inotive,
as we find he has to the full as carefully published
feveral detached and broken fentences, the gleanings
from scholiasts, which have no claim to merit of that
kind; and yet the author's works might be reckoned
by fome to be incomplete without them. If then
this duty is expected from every editor of a Greek
or Roman poet, why is not the same insisted on in
respect of an English classick? But if the custom of
preserving all, whether worthy of it or not, be more
bonoured in the breach than the observance, the sup-
pression at least should not be considered as a fault.
The publication of such things as Swift had written
merely to raise a laugh among his friends, has added
something to the bulk of his works, but very little
to his character as a writer. The four volumes that
came out since Dr. Hawkesworth's edition, not to
look on them as a tax levied on the publick (which
I think one might without injustice) contain not more
than sufficient to have made one of real value; and
there is a kind of disingenuity, not to give it a harsher
title, in exhibiting what the author never meant should
see the light ; for no motive, but a sordid one, can
betray the survivors to make that publick, which they
themselves must be of opinion will be unfavourable
to the memory of the dead.

Life does not often receive good unmixed with evil. The benefits of the art of printing are depraved by the facility with which scandal may be diffused, and secrets revealed; and by the temptation by which traffick solicits avarice to betray the weaknesses of passion, or the confidence of friendship.

I cannot forbear to think these posthumous publications injurious to fociety. A man conicious of

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