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ter should be tried by duel between two champions, the victory should go on the one side, and yet if it be tried by the gross, it would go on the other side for excellencies go as it were by chance, but kinds go by a more certain nature; as by discipline in war.
Lastly; Many kinds have much refuse, which countervail that which they have excellent, and therefore generally metal is more precious than stone; and yet a diamond is more precious than gold.
3. Quod ad veritatem refurtur majus est quam quod ad opinionem. Modus autem & probatio ejus quod ad opinionem pertinet hæc est: quod quis si clam putaret fore facturus non
So the Epicures say of the Stoics felicity placed in virtue: That it is like the felicity of a player, who if he were left of his auditory and their applause, he would straight be out of heart and countenance; and therefore they call virtue bonum theatrale: but of riches the poet saith ;
Populus me sibilat
At mihi plaudo.
And of pleasure,
Grata sub imo
Gaudia corde premens, vultu simulante pudorem.
The fallax of this colour is somewhat subtile, though the answer to the example be ready, for
virtue is not chosen propter auram popularem. But contrariwise, maxime omnium teipsum reverere; so as a virtuous man will be virtuous in solitudine, and not only in theatro, though percase it will be more strong by glory and fame, as an heat which is doubled by reflexion: but that denieth the supposition, it doth not reprehend the fallax, whereof the reprehension is a law, that virtue (such as is joined with labour and conflict) would not be chosen but for fame and opinion, yet it followeth not that the chief motive of the election should not be real and for itself, for fame may be only causa impulsiva, and not causa constituens, or efficiens. As if there were two horses, and the one would do better without the spur than the other but again, the other with the spur would far exceed the doing of the former, giving him the spur also; yet the latter will be judged to be the better horse, and the former as to say, tush, the life of this horse is but in the spur, will not serve as to a wise judgment: for since the ordinary instrument of horsemanship is the spur, and that it is no matter of impediment or burden, the horse is not to be recounted the less of, which will not do well without the spur, but rather the other is to be reckoned a delicacy than a virtue; so glory and honour are the spurs to virtue: and although virtue would languish without them, yet since they be
always at hand to attend virtue, virtue is not to be said the less chosen for itself, because it needeth the spur of fame and reputation and therefore that position, nota ejus rei quod propter opinionem & non propter veritatem eligitur, hæc est; quod quis si clam putaret fore facturus non esset, is reprehended.
4. Quod rem integram servat bonum, quod sine receptu est malum: Nam se recipere non posse impotentiæ genus est, potentia autem bonum.
Hereof Æsop framed the fable of the two frogs, that consulted together in the time of drought, (when many plashes that they had repaired to were dry) what was to be done; and the one propounded to go down into a deep well, because it was like the water would not fail there; but the other answered, yea, but if it do fail, how shall we get up again? And the reason is, that human actions are so uncertain and subject to perils, as that seemeth the best course which hath most passages out of it. Appertaining to this persuasion, the forms are: you shall engage yourself on the other side, non tantum, quantum voles sumes ex fortuna, &c. you shall keep the matter in your own hand. The reprehension of it is, that proceeding and resolving in all actions is necessary. For as he saith well,
not to resolve, is to resolve; and many times it
breeds as many necessities, and engageth as far in some other sort, as to resolve. So it is but the covetous man's disease, translated in power, for the covetous man will enjoy nothing, because he will have his full store and possibility to enjoy the more; so by this reason a man should execute nothing, because he should be still indifferent, and at liberty to execute any thing. Besides, necessity and this same jacta est alea, hath many times an advantage, because it awaketh the powers of the mind, and strengtheneth endeavour; cæteris pares necessitate certe superiores estis.
5. Quod ex pluribus constat & divisibilibus est mujus quam quod ex paucioribus, & magis unum: nam omnia per partes considerata majora videntur : quare & pluralitas partium magnitudinem præ se fert: fortius autem operatur pluralitas partium si ordo absit; num inducit similitudinem infiniti, & impedit comprehensionem.
This colour seemeth palpable, for it is not plurality of parts without majority of parts, that maketh the total greater; yet nevertheless it often carries the mind away, yea, it deceiveth the sense; as it seemeth to the eye a shorter distance of way, if it be all dead and continued, than if it have trees or buildings, or any other marks whereby the eye may divide it. So when a great monied hath divided his chests, and coins, and bags, he seemeth to himself richer than he was;
and therefore a way to amplify any thing is, to break it, and to make anatomy of it in several parts, and to examine it according to several cirAnd this maketh the greater shew if
it be done without order, for confusion maketh things muster more; and besides, what is set down by order and division, doth demonstrate that nothing is left out or omitted, but all is there; whereas if it be without order, both the mind comprehendeth less that which is set down; and besides, it leaveth a suspicion, as if more might be said than is expressed. This colour deceiveth, if the mind of him that is to be persuaded, do of itself over-conceive, or prejudge of the greatness of any thing; for then the breaking of it will make it seem less, because it maketh it to appear more according to the truth: and therefore if a man be in sickness or pain, the time will seem longer without a clock or hour-glass, than with it; for the mind doth value every moment, and then the hour doth rather sum up the moments, than divide the day. So in a dead plain the way seemeth the longer, because the eye hath preconceived it shorter than the truth; and the frustrating of that maketh it seem longer than the truth. Therefore if any man have an over-great opinion of any thing, then if another think by breaking it into several considerations, he shall make it seem great