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How awful such a meeting !-how vast the subject !--Dy the power of his eloquence – the augustnessa of the assembly is | lost in the dignity of the orator; and the importance of the subject, for a while, superseded by the admiration of his talents.
2. With what strength of argument, with what powers of the fancy, with what emotions of the heart, does he assault and subjugate the whole man; and, at once, captivate his reason, his imagination, and his passions! To effect this, must be the utmost effort of the most improved state of human naiure.-Not a faculty that he possesses, but is here exerted to its highest pitch. All his internal povers are at work; all his external, testify their carcrgies.
3. Within, the memory, the fancy, the judgment, the passions, are all busy; without, (very muscle, every nerve is exerted ;-10t a feature, not a liml), but speaks. 'The orgars of the body, attuned to the exations of the wind, through the kindred organs of the hearers, instantancousty vibrate those energies from soul to sou. Notwithstanding the diversity of minds in such a multitude, by the ligitung of eloquence they are inclted into on. Diss;--the whole assembly, actuated in one and the same way, b come, as it were, but one mani, and have but one voice--The universal cry is --Let us march against Philip, let us fight for our liberties let us conquer or die.
Panegyric on the eloquence of fr. Sheridun. 1. MR. SHERIDAN has this dar surprised the thousands who hung with rapture on his accepts, hy such an array of talents, such an exhibition of capacity, such a display of powers, as are unparalleled in the annals of oratory ;-a display hat reflected the highest honor on himself--luster upon letters-nown upon parliament-glory upon the country.
2. Of all species of rhetoric, of every kind of eloquence, that has been witnessed or recorded, either in ancient or modern times; whatever the acuteness of the bar, the dignity of the Senate, the solidity of the judgment-seat, and the sacred morality of the pulpits have hitherto furnished; nothing has equaled what we have this day heard in Westminster hall.
3. No holy seer' of religion, no statesman, no orator, no man of any literary description whatever, has come up, in the one instance to the pure sentiments of morality, or in the other, to that variety of knowledge, force of imagination, propriety and vivacity of allusion, beauty and elegance of diction, strength and copiousness of style, pathos and sublimity of conception, to which we this day listened with ardor and admiration. From poetry up to eloquence there is not a species of composition, of which a complete and perfect specimen might not, from that single speech, be culled and collected.
a Augustinngs, majasty, grandeur. b Su Der.solid, displaced.
c Seer, a prophet.
Extract from Mr. Pitt's Speech in the British Parliament,
Jan. 20, 1775.
1. WHEN your lordships look at the papers transmitted to us from America, -when you consider their decency, firmness, and wisdom, --you cannot but respect their cause, and wish to make it your own. For myself, I must declare and avow, that in all my reading and observation, (and it has been my favorite study: I have read Thucidydes, and have studied and admired the master-spirits of the world,) I say I must declare, that for solidity of reasoning, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusion, under such a complication of difficult circumstances, no nation nor body of men, can stand in preference to the General Congress at Philadelphia.
2. I trust it is obviousd to your lordships, that all attempts to impose servitude upon such men,-to establish despotismo over such a mighty continental nation,-must be vain, must be fatal. We shall be forced, ultimately, to retract; let us retract while we can, not when we must. I say we must necessarily undo these violent and oppressive acts. They MUST be repealed. You will repeal them. I pledge myself for it, that you will in the end repeal them. I stake my reputation on it:-I will consent to be taken for an idiot, if they are not finally repealed.
3. Avoid, then, this humiliating, disgraceful necessity. With a dignity becoming your exalted situation, make the first advances to concord, to peace and happiness: for it is your true dignity to act with prudence and justice. That you should first concede, is obvious from sound and rational policy. Concession comes with better grace, and more salu
a Dic-tion, manner of expression.
b Par-lia-ment, the legislature of Great Britain.
c Thu-cyd'-1-des, a Greek historian,
tary effects, from superior power; it reconciles superiority of power with the feelings of men; and establishes solid confidence on the foundation of affection and gratitude.
4. Every motive, therefore, of justice and of policy, of dignity and of prudence, urges you to allay the ferment in America, by a removal of your troops from Boston,-by a repeal of your acts of Parliament, and by demonstration of amicablea dispositions toward your colonies. On the one hand, every danger and every hazard impend, to deter you from perseverance in your present ruinous measures. Foreign war hanging over your heads by a slight and brittle thread; France and Spain watching your conduct, and waiting for the maturity of your errors, with a vigilant eye to America and the temper of your colonies, more than to their own concerns, be they what they may.
5. To conclude, my lords, if the ministers thus persevere in misadvising and misleading the King, I will not say, that they can alienateb the affections of his subjects from his crown; but I will affirm, that they will make the crown not worth his wearing: I will not say that the King is betrayed ; but I will pronounce, that the kingdom is undone.
SECTION V. Extract from a Speech of Patrick Henry, before a Convention
of Delegates for the several counties and corporations of Vir. ginia, in Märch, 1775.
1. MR. HENRY rose with a majesty unusual to him in an exordium, and with all that self-possession by which he was so invariably distinguished. “No man,” he said, “thought more highly than he did, of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who had just addressed the house. But different men often saw the same subject in different lights; and, therefore, he hoped it would not be thought
disrespectful to those gentlemen, if, entertaining as he did, - opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, he should speak forth his sentiments freely, and without reserve.
2. This was no time for ceremony. The question before the house was one of awful moment to this country. For his own part, he considered it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery. · And in proportion to the magnitude of the subject, ought to be the freedom of the debate. It was only in this way that they could hope to arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibilityd which they held to God and their a Am-i-ca-ble, peaceable.
c Ex-or-di-um, introduction." • A-lien-ate, to estrange.
d Re-spons-i bil-i-ty, liability to pay.
country. Should he keep back his opinions at such a time, through sear of giving offense, he should consider himself as guilty of treason toward his country, and of an act of disloyalty toward the Majesty of Heaven, which he revered above all carthly kings.
3. “ MrPresident, it is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our, eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that syren, till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous“ struggle for liberty ? Were we disposed to be of the number of those, who having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not the things which so nearly concurn tieir temporal salvation? For his part, whatever anguish of spirit it might cost, he was willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst; and to provide for it.
4. “The had but one lamp by which his feet were guided ; and tiat was, the lamp of experience. He knew of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, he wished to know what there had been in the conduct of t'ie British ministry, for the last ten years, to justify those hopes, with which gentlemen had been pleased to solace themselves and the house? Is it that insidious' smile with which our petition has been lately received ? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betraved with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition, comports with those warlike preparations, which cover our waters and darken our land.
5. “ Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Wave we show ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled, that fores must be called in to win back our love? Let is not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugation,--the last argument to which kings resort. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assion any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any chemy in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies?
6. “No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us: they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains, which the British ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument ? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we any thing new to offer upon the subject ? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every
a lilu'-sions, deceptive appearances. cAr-du-ous, difficult.
b Syren, a goddess who enticed men byd the charms of music.
in-sid-i ous, deceitful, sly.
light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we find, which have not been alrcady exhausted ?
7. “Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves longer. We have done every thing that could be done, to avert the storm which is now coming on. We hare petitioned ; we hare remonstrated ;a we have supplicated;" we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition, to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded ; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne.
8. “In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any rcom for hope. If we wish to be free-if we mean to preserve inviolate these incstimable privileges for which we have been so long contending --if we mean not basely to abandon the nelle struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ours lvcs nerer to abandon, untill the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained, ---We must fight !--I repeat it, sir, we must fight!! An appeal to arms, and to the God of Hosts, is all that is left us!
9. “They tell us, sir, that we are weak---mable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger ? Will it be next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a Eritish guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effcctual resistance by lying supinely on our backs, and bugging the delusive phantom of hope until our enemies shall have bound us, hand and foct ? Sir, we are not wrak, if we make a proper use of those means which the God of nature has placed in our power. Three millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us.
10. “ Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God, who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat, but in submission and slavery!
a Re-mon'stra-ted, urged reasons c In-vin'-ci-ble, cannot be conquered. against.
d E-lection, choice, preference. o Sup'-pli-ca-ted, entreated, beseeched.