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lizes gaming, but offers a temptation which the poorer classes cannot resist; and while this expedient for raising money is adopted by the state, no measure of this Society can prevent the sad effects which Mr. Bernard enumerates.

An entire remedy for the evils resulting from Mendicity, we are told, cannot obtain till some liberal and enlightened plan of police be adopred ; and we may say of other moral maladies affecting the poor, that for the general cure we must look to a system of well digested and well executed laws.

These remarks are not made to undervalue or to abate the labours of this Society, but to explain the cause of its partial success; to direct the attention of the Legislature to the same object ; and to urge Mr. Bernard to point his arguments, not in a complimentary style to the ministry, but directly and fully to that body in the State, whose duty it is to revise those parts of our code which respect the Poor, and to consider how far it is right to sacrifice the morals of the multitude on the altar of Finance.

We perfectly coincide with Mr. B. in his statement of the effects of a little property on the poor.' “ It communicates a charm (as Dr. Paley remarks) to whatever is the object of it;" and the cottage, the garden, the cow, or the pig, are more essential in promoting industry, prudence, and stability of conduct, than many persons in the present day are inclined to believe. All these plans, institutions, and charities, which foster habits of neatness and regularity among the poor, and which assist them, without taking the care of themselves of their own hands, are most likely to produce good.

Mr. B. concludes bis introductory letter with some pertinent remarks on the subject of Education, which it is unnecessary for us to detail.

Report 19. (the first No. of Vol. iv.) contains Extracts from accounts of a Free. Chapel in West-street Seven Dials ; of a Charity for Lying in Wonien at Ware; and of the Cotton Mills at Rothsay in the Isle of Bute; in which it is said that altention is paid to health and morals : but, as the time of working is from 6 in the morning to 7 in the evening, the interest of the proprietors is more consulted than the health of the working children, which must suffer by such a conti. nuance of labour in heated apartments. To this account is added a report of a select Committee of the Society, on some observations on the late Act respecting Cotton Mills, and on the result of Mr. Hey's visit to a cotton mill at Bura ley; with a subjoined copy of the above mentioned observa. tions, and the resolutions of the magistrates of the county o Lancaster and of the West Riding of the county of York of

the subject. Here we read of proprietors with princely fortunes,' and of poor night-working apprentices, who labour from seven in the evening to six in the morning: on which the Reporters thus very spiritedly comment. "If (say they) we were to read in the history of some part of Asia, or Africa, an account of children who, from seven to twelve years, or from eight to thirteen years of age, were doomed to unceasing labour every night, without the glad and natural return of day,-without a few minutes of respite for their meals, and, (in the winter half years at least) without even an half hour for that relaxation which is the comfort of mature age, but the essential possession of the young, should we not shudder at the perusal ? Should we give very willing credit to any detail that was subjoined of the health and happiness of these children? And if (to pursue the consideration) the government of that country should have prepared for the progressive emancipation of these children, at the end of two years, what language should we hold as to those, who would unite to prevent their receiving the benefit of so just and politic a law ?'

To sacrifice the rising generation of the poor, in order to gratify the avarice of manufacturers with princely fortunes, or for considerations of revenue, is in the highest degree unwise as well as unfeeling; and we warmly applaud the magistrates of Lancaster and of the West Riding of the county of York, in refusing to allow the apprenticing of poor children to the masters of Cotton Mills, by whom apprentices are obliged to work in the night time, or for an unreascnable number of hours in the day. It will be some relief to the humane to find, by this report, that many Cotton-mills are now worked in conformity to the principles of the late act. For the sake of the poor, and indeed of the country at large, we hope that the act will be universally enforced.

The next paper presents an account of the dreadful effects of dram-drinking, with directions for those who are desirous of returning to sobriety and health.' Dr. Willan, the author of this essay, asserts that considerably more than one eighth of all the deaths in the metropolis are occasioned through excess in drinking spirits. Ought, then, Gin-shops to be license ed? Bishops may préach, and Societies for the Suppression of Vice may be instituted: but, while the retailers of ardent spirits are upheld by law, can there be any hope of extensive reformation, especially in a crouded capital?

No. 20 gives details of a supply of blankets for the poor at Hinxton (a charitable measure, wisely conducted,)-of a SoREY. JAN. 1807.


ciety ciety in West-street, for the relief of their poor neighbours,' who were to be sought out by the visitors, -of a supply of food and employment to cottagers' families at Mongewell,of the introduction of the Straw Platt at Avebury.-(Mr. Ber. nard speaks in high terms of the effects of this manufacture, and endeavours to obviate every objection which had been urged against it,)--and of the Ladies' Schools, and some other charities at Leeds. To these accounts, are added lints for the manufacture of Split Straw, and Advice to Foundling Apprentices, on the termination of their apprenticeship:

In No. 21 we have accounts of a contagious fever at Kingston upon Hull-of the mode of introducing the new Rumford Cottage Grates in Cottages (an useful paper)*,-of the Montgomery and Pool House of Industry-of a Sunday school, at Kirkstall, near Leeds, - and of a school for poor children, at Fincham. To these are added a Copy of the regulations of the Society in West-street,' mentioned in the preceding number, and í a statement as to the reception and management of the children in the Foundling-hospital at London.'

This statement is highly creditable to the Governors of this useful charity.

No. 22. relates to the Ladies' Committee for promoting the education and employment of the Female Poor,-to a Lying-in Charity, at Woolwich, -to the provision made for the poor at Weymeswould,--to a Charitable Bank at Tottenham for the savings of the poor (how tantalizing!)--to the parochial returns lately made with regard to the state of education in Ireland to--to a school in the Borough-road, in which education


* Mr. Plumtree remarks; In many places, money is expended by gentlemen to purchase firing for the poor; but I really believe that 58. for a Rumford grate, and the loan of the money for fixing it, to be paid by installments, would go farther in warmth, comfort, and neat appearance, than ten bushels of coals, and that not only for one year, but for every succeeding year.'

+ These returns are from 202 parishes: the evidence collected from which is that above two-thirds of the poor in Ireland are entirely without instruction or the means of education ; that whole parishes are without a bible; that some uncharactered itinerants wander from parish to parish, and teach the poor in some ditch, co. vered with heath and furze, for want of a; and that the Irish poor at the present time are extremely anxious that their children should have the benefit of instruction. Mr. Bernard re. marks on this report that the state of Ireland evinces something defective in point of true policy, and that individual exertions to 17


is conducted with singular economy and dispatch,—and to the House of Refuge at Dublin, a benevolent ayslum. A long Appendix is subjoined, the articles of which we must be excused from enumerating.

The 23d Number is occupied by describing the Mortlake Friendly Society for Women,--a School near Hawkstone, in the County of Salop,--a provision lately made in the island of Tortola; with several papers by way of Appendix, &c.

No. 24 (being the last of this volume) relates to the mode of employing the parish children at Birmingham, and to a Provision for the Poor at Ongar during Sickness. The Appendix includes, among other articles, Lists of the Commit. tee, and Subscribers to this Society.

It is plcasing to trace, in these communications, the bene. volent exertions of individuals; and to observe the various efforts made by Christian charity, to correct the vices and miseries of the times.

ART. XI. The Life of John Milton. By Charles Symmons, D.D. of Jesus College, Oxford. 8vo. pp. 565.

1os. 6d. Boards. Johnsor., &c. OF FTEN as the biographical canvas has been covered with por

traits of the author of “ Paradise Lost,” we cannot regard this additional delineation of him as superfluous. Indeed, could the departed spirit of Milton himself be conscious of sublunary transactions, it would derive no inconsiderable gratification from this generous and masterly exertion in behalf of his injured fame : it would contemplate with high satisfaction a clergyman of the Established Church boldly standing forwards to repel the shafts of party-malice and detraction, and assidu. ously occupied in bestowing ample justice on his distinguished talents and virtues : it would perceive that the cordatior atas, which his prophetic soul anticipated, and the prospect of which solaced him in “ the evil days” of which he complained, was no visionary anticipation, but that the bright beams of his reputation were destined to dissipate those mists and clouds which his enemies had raised to sully or obscure their effulgence. Every measure, which the ingenuity of narrow-minded hostility could invent, has been employed to undermine hig character , and prejudice has feasted with delight on the slan. ders and insinuations, which, in the shape of history, bio. remedy the evil will be ineffectual without the concurrent and re. gular support of Government.


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graphy, and criticism, have been levelled against this our distinguished countryman: but, as truth always gains strength and glory from the contests which error imprudently provokes, so men of great and virtuous minds rise ultimately in the re. gard and estimation of the world, in consequence of the mean attempts of time-serving detractors.

Hume, Warton, and Johnson in particular, looked with " eyes askance” on the stern republican Milton; and because they did not approve of his political and religious principles, they have been unjust to his memory. A zealous and an able advocate, however, here volunteers the defence of our great epic poet against all his enemies; and in the ample view which is taken of his life and writings, Dr.Symmons has composed what we may venture to pronounce a complete and finish'd picture of him. Being a professed whig, and enamoured of the prin ciples of civil and religious liberty, which are interwoven with and constitute the golden threads of the British Constitution, Dr. S. enters on his office con amore ; he venerates the character

which he undertakes to represent; and he apologizes for the · republican of the time of Charles I., without fear of being

branded as a preacher of republicanism at the present day, when we enjoy a form of government fraught with blessings which no republic or purely democratic system is calculated to bestow. We are disposed to other no ordinary measure of approbation of the magnanimity and ingenuousness with which this biographer avows his principles, and on the line of conduct which he has pursued in the memoir before us. .. For the political sentiments discoverable in my work {says Dr. S.) I am neither inclined, nor, indeed, able to offer an apology. They fiow directly from those principles which I imbibed with my first efforts of reflection, which have derived force from my subsequent reading and observation, which have " grown with my growth, and strengthened with my strength." If they should, therefore, unhappily be erroneous, my misfortune, as I fear, is hopelessly irremediable, for they are now so vitally blended with my thought and my feelings, that with them they must exist or must perish. The nature of these principles will be obviously and immediately apparent to iny readers ; for I have made too explicit an avowal of ny political creed, with reference to the civil and the ecclesiastical system, of which I am fortunately a member, to be under any apprehensions of suffering hy misconstruction. If any man should affect to see more deeply into my bosom than I profess to see myself; or to detect an ambush of mischicf which I have been studious to cover from observation, -that man will be the object, not of my resent, ment, but of my pity. I shall be assured that he suffers the infliction of a perverted head or a corrupt heart, and to that I shall contentedly resign him after expressing a simple perhaps, but cer

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