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[Lo thus Jove's purpose was fulfill d] e'er since
• What God involv'd them in that dire debate
The two great leaders of th' united host :' This translation may be serviceable to young students in assisting them to understand the meaning of the original ; and the critical notes which accompany it will be perused by them with profit. In this respect, it will answer the end of the author; who, in a part of his preface, says that it is chiefly intended for the Novice in Greek learning, and that the comparing of different translations with each other, and the original, may tend, if not to ascertain the author's exact cast and expression, yet probably to form the young
scholar's taste and improve his judgment.'
At the end of the book, are Conjectures concerning the Origin of the Poetic Fiction that the summit of Olympus was the place where the Gods assembled in Council ;' in which the translator supposes that the appearance of the Aurora Borealis was the origin of the fiction in question.
MEDICAL, &c. Art. 31. Cases and Cures of the Hydrophobia, selected from the Gentle
man's Magazine : containing many curious and interesting Accounts relative to that alarming Malady. 8vo. 25. Stace. 1807.
The compiler of this pamphlet has probably been induced to undertake the task, in consequence of the reports that have lately prevailed respecting the frequency of this dreadful malady. As a sci. entific work, however, it can be intitled to very little commendation ; anonymous papers in a magazine not being sources from which a medical man expects to acquire any very important addition to his professional knowlege. Yet the publication is not without some value, as exhibiting, in a connected view, the state of opinion on a subject in which the welfare and feelings of the community are intimately concerned. We think that it may be inferred from this compilement, that credulity on medical topics is on the decline. Half a century ago, specifics poured in from every quarter, many of them sanctioned by the highest authority, which appear to have acquired universal repute: but we believe that it may be confidently affirmed that if a second Dr Mead should appear in the present age, he would not venture to propose liverwort as an infallible remedy for Hydrophobia.
Art. 32. En Examination into the Principles of what is commonly called
the Brunonian System. Introductory to a Series of Aphorisms upon Life and Mind, Health and Disease ; with an Attempt to form a more simple and philosophical Arrangement of Diseases, upon the present state of our Knowledge of the Animal Economy. By Thomas Morrison, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London. 8vo. 48. Boards. Highley.
The late Dr. Garnett was well known to have been one of the most zealous defenders of the Brunonian hypothesis; and in his posthumous work, intitled Lectures on Zoonomia, he employed it very extensively in the explanation of the placenomena of the animal cconomy. The publication of that book appears to have been the principal motive with Mr. Morrison, for giving liis sentiments on this subject to the world ; since, conceiving that the hypothesis was foundcd in error, and might lead to dangerous practical consequences, he was anxious to counteract these evils by exposing its failacy. In pursuance of this intention, he proposes to consider the Brunonian system in four points of view; endeavouring to prove, in the first place,
• That its principles are not foundied upon the true laws of the animal economy ;
* Next, That they are contradictory and inconsistent in themfelves ;
· Thirdly, That they are not sufficiently general in their application to Diseases ;-and,
Finally, That they may lead to dangerous errors in practice.' Mr. M. commences his strictures by some remarks on the new terms adopted by Brown, especially the one so frequently employed, 'excitability. He endeavours to shew that Brown himself had not a perfectly clear conception of its import, and that his disciple, Dr. Garnett, is liable to the same imputation : but be alleges a more serious charge against the Brunonians, for he attempts to prove that, in the idea which they have given of excitability, they have confounded cause and effect : they explain this word as being synonimous with life or vital principle, while they affirm that life is the result of powers acting on the excitability. After the numerous controversies to which this subject has given rise, and the various explanations and illustrations of it that have been attempted, it cannot be espected that we should be able to throw much light on it in the narrow limits to which we are restricted. We shall only remark that we conceive the terms life and vital principle to have been used in at least as vague a manner as excitability; being sometimes intended to express the effect of the animal powers, its exhibited in the living body, and at other times the cause of these effects, the irritability of the muscular fibre and the sensibility of the nervous system. The Brunonians appear to have used it in the latter sense: but they have exhibited in a striking mavner their inattention to che phenomena of vitality, in confounding the actions of these two distinct systems, which had been so clearly discriminated by many of their predeceso sors. This spirit of generalization we regard as the prominent error in the hypothesis, and as a principal cause which must sender it of little value, either in the speculations of the physiologist or the practice of the physician Notwithstanding the genius of Brown, it appears to us sufficiently evident that he had not a distinct conception of the whole of his hypothesis ; and that he did not attach a definite idea even to its fundamental propositions. An inconsistency of this kind is pointed out by Mr. Morrison in the account which is given of this same property, excitability; a circumstance which lies at the very foundation of his system, and on which its merits must in a considerable degree depend. We are told that the nature of excitability is altogether unknown ; and that therefore we are not to conceive of it as a thing to which me sures of quantity can be applied, although the poverty of language may occasionally render such expressions necessary : but can any one have paid the slightest attention to the subject, without being convinced that not merely the expressions, but the very substance of the whole theory, consist in ascertaining the increase or diminution of this property; and that its boasted simplicity entirely depends on reducing all diseases to a scale of quantity?
Mr. M. farther attacks the Brunonian hypothesis on the manner in which the exciting powers are supposed to produce the two states of direct and indirect debility, which in his opinion involves a palpable contradiction. We are first informed that, by diminishing these powers, the excitability or vital principle is accumu. lated; whereas we are afterward told that, by the progressive removal of the exciting powers, the vital principle is gradually diminished, until it is at length extinguished. The idea of the Brunonian indirect debility appears to this author equally paradoxical. In this condition of the system, the vital principle is supposed to be accumulated in the highest degree, and yet it is exhausted by the most trilling exertion ; so that the more of life the body possesses, the less able is it to perform the actions of vitality.
The vague and ill defined manner, in which the term stimulus was employed by Brown, affords another striking instance of his tendency to premature generalization; in fact, the word stimulus, as used by this sect, means nothing more than action or effect ; for what farther resemblance can be traced between the operation of lightening, arsenic, food, and alcohol, all which are referred to the head of stimulants ?
Although we think that this treatise exhibits marks of ability, it has not that decided excellence which can enable it to make any great impression on the public mind. Indeed, our opinion is that the popularity of the Brunonian doctrine is rapidly declining ; and though it may continue to catch the attention of the student by its boldness and simplicity, the absolute impossibility of reconciling it to the phänomena of disease must be an insuperable bar to its reception by the experienced practitioner.
MISCELLANEOUS. Art. 33. A Letter to Samuel Whitbread, Esq. M.P. containing some
Remarks on the Poor Laws, leading to a Description of the peculiar Poor Situation of the Hamlet of Mile End New-Town,
Stepney. By the Rev. John Cottingham. 8vo. Pamphlet. 1807.
After some general observations on the imperfection of our System of Poor Laws, Mr. C. proceeds to corroborate the statement of Mr.
Hale, (see an account of his pamphlet in our last Number, P: 331) respecting the distressed situation of the Hamlet of Mile-End New Town; the features of its misery being without a parallel, and admitting no prospect of relief within itself. It may be presumed that this singular case will not be overlooked by the Legislature, and that some means will be devised to alleviate the hardships which so greviously oppress this district. Art. 34. The Principles and Regulations of Tranquillity' ; an Institution
commenced in the Metropolis, for encouraging and enabling industrious and prudent Individuals in the various Classes of the Community, to provide for themselves, by the Payment of small weekly Sums, in such a Way as shall secure to each Cont-ibutor, or to his Widow and Children, the Benefit of his own Economy; for receiving the Savings of Youth or both Sexes, and returning the same at the Time of Marriage, with Interest and proportionate Premiums there. upon ; for enabling Parents, by the Paiment of small Su ns at the Birth of their Children, to provide Endowments for them at the Age of 21 Years; and also for other useful and important Purposes, particul rly for concentrating and applying the Exertions of the Liberal to the Benefit of the Indigent, so as to prevent the Unworthy claiming, or the Impostor abusing, their Benevolence and thus affecting the gradual Abolition of the Poor's Rate, whilst it increases the Comforts of the Poor By John Bune, Author of an “ Outline of a Plan for reducing the Poor's Rate, &c. in a Letter to the Right ton rable George Ruse, M. P.” Svo. Pp. 99 38 6d. Asperne. 105.
So ample a title fully informs the reader of the nature of the pamplilet : but the subject is too great to be treated in the cursory way of which our plan, as it respects tracts of this sort, will admit The zeal, activity, and diligence, displayed by the writer, are highly commendable ; and persons who direct their attention to the important matters here under consideration, whatever they may think of the scheme, will meet with hints and observations which are well worthy of consideration. Art. 35. The Speech of Randie Jackson, Esq. addressed to the Honorable
the Committee of the House of Commons, appointed to consider the State of the Woollen Manufacture of England, on Behalf of the Cloth-workers and Shearmen of the Counties of Yorkshire, Lan. cashire, Wiltshire, Somersetshire, and Gloucestershire. P blished by them from the Short hand Copy of Mr. Gurney. 8vo. pp. 79. is. 6d. Stockdale 1806.
This speech is professedly in behalf of that description of mann. facturers named in the title, whose case, from their having been for three or four years under Mr. Jackson's paternal guidance and di section,' is supported with considerable zeal. With the interests of his clients, however, the speaker combines views of a public nature. While the Cloth-workers and Shearmen complain of the Gig.nilis and Shearing Frames, on account of their effect in throwing them out of employment, their advocate enlarges on the depopulating tenden. cy of these machines ; on their being injurious to the fabric, the foro Tier by over stretching, and the latter by knibbing or enting holes; and he calls on the legislature to interpose its authority in preserving the reputation of the woollen manufacture, which is in danger, accord. ing to his representation, of falling a sacrifice to private avarice. Mr. Jackson contends that the reputation of the great staple mantle ficlure of the country ought not to be surrendered, without check, to the self interested views of the manufacturer; and he recommends it to the legislature to support and invigorate the system of searching and sealing. In the last place, le offers his protest against the abolition of the system of apprenticeship.
The credit of Great Britain in the forrign market must certainly depend on the excellence of its fabrics; and, disapproving of the modern cant as he calls it, that men's own interest is a sufficient se: curity for the observance of right," Mr. Jackson urges the policy of placing the manufacturer under wholesome regulations.
SINGLE SERMON S. Art. 36. A Defence of the established Protestant Faith, preached in
the Parish Church of St. Mary, Newington Butts, in the County of Surrey, October 19, 1806, being the Sunday following the Interment of the late Right Rev, the Lord Bishop of St. Asaph; with an Appendix containing a Sketch of the Life of the Bishop By Robert Dickenson, Curate and Lecturer. 8vo. Ric vingtons.
Did the preacher intend, by this discourse, to convince his audience that he had caught the late Bp. of St. Asaph's mantle? If this was his design, he has rather overacted his part. Dr. Horsley, with all his zeal against sectaries, would not have been so indiscreet as to assert, with Mr. D., that the Church has shewn a peaceable disposition in permilling sectaries to follow quietly their own approved principles.' Would this preacher claim a merit for our Established Church, because she abstains from persecuting her quiet Protestant brethren? Wien such assertions are made, we may fear that some few of her members, if left to themselves, would not permit the sectary to follow his principles ; especially after we have read in a note that, if our Saviour was to pass by a certain methodistic place of worship in Newington Butts, inscribed the House of God, he would enter in and scourge them out for a den of thieves. To this illiberal language, so ill suited to the 19th century, is subjoined a wish that the public influence of sectaries was abolished by authority of Parliament.' How ignorant must Mr. D. be of the principles of religious liberty, or of the true policy of States ! On the treatment of sects, the advice of Gamaliel is wisdom.
The memoir briefly notices the prominent events in Dr. Horsley's learned and active life. He was born at Thorley in Essex, in Ociober 1733, vad died at Brighton, October +, 1806.