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green and one of oaken wood, and into a rib, where it turned upward to their great good fortune.” In the year 1801, a Danish ship came into the Cape of Good Hope, in consequence of springing a leak off the Brazil coast. On examination it was found that she had been struck by a sword-fish, the snout of which had penetrated the bote tom, where it still remained, having snapt close to the plank on the exterior side of the vessel. In the same year a small English ship came into Table bay, having received in the Southern Atlantic a stroke from a sword-fish, which buried part of the boney snout so deep in the stern post as to impede the action of the rudder. These two facts consist with my own knowledge, which, together with the piece of plank from the bottom of an East Indiaman, now in the British Museum, transfixed by the sword of this fish, may satisfy the doubts of the most sceptical on a subject which was known to the ancients perhaps more than two thousand years ago, as it is mentioned by Pliny to be a fact indisputably established long before bis time.'
In his schemes of English aggrandizement, we think differ. ently from Mr. B.: but we sympathize sincerely with his truly English Indignation, when he describes the ship The Resolution of the immortal Cook transformed into a smuggling whaler, under the colours of France. The Resolution, as Mr. B. re. marks, should have been preserved for a national monument, as Queen Elizabeth preserved the ship in which Drake sailed round the world.
The next object visited was Rio de Janeiro ; and the ani. mated description of the author, aided by his coloured plates, has so far prevailed over our sedentary indolence, that we have ventured to wish to visit its beauties. The written description of Mr. B., however, goes beyond the sketches of his companion; and if it has not given us clear conceptions, it has at Jeast warmed us: but as we cannot exactly separate the feeling from the conception, we forbear to quote the description, since it may be inefficacious with other readers.
We rather extract what is sufficiently intelligible: viz. Mr. B.'s description of the annoyance with which winged and crawling venomous aniinals infested the
voyagers : • We had little reason to complain of the climate of Rio during our stay. Though the sun was just on the southern tropic, and consequently nearly vertical, during our residence here, yet we seldom suffered any inconvenience from heat, or were prevented from taking our usual quantity of exercise. The general temperature of the air in the day was from 76° to 849 of Fahrenheit. The nights were by far the most disagreeable. If we attempted to walk in the open air, the bats or the fire. flies ( Lampyrus) were every moment threatening to dart against our faces; if we remained in the house, scorpions, and centipedes, and scolopendras were constantly crawling over the door; and a disagreeable, disgusting,
but perfectly harmless insect, a species of cricket (Gryllus Gryllotalpa), as constantly skipped about the plates and into the glasses during supper. But of all the torments I ever experienced, in any part of the world, none in my opinion can be put in comparison with those produced by the stings of the musquitoes of Rio de Janeiro. I have felt the venom of their little pointed beaks in many parts of the world, but never suffered from its virulence any thing like the degree of pain which their puncture occasioned at this place ; nor could the exquisite torment which we suffered be owing to any extraordinary degree of irritability in the habit of body at the time, because the whole party, without a single exception, laboured under the same severity of pain. The eyes, the lips, the forehead, and the cheeks of every individual who slept on shore were inflamed and swollen in such a manner as completely to disfigure the face. Those who had taken the precaution to furnish themselves with curtains of net-work, though they might not suffer in an equal degree with the rest, were not, however, entirely protected. If a single musquito, by any accident, found itself within the net, the perpetual humming noise with which it assailed the face, and the constant expectation of feeling its sting, were nearly as teasing and as preventive of sleep to those who lay enclosed in net-work as to those who were exposed to lheir open attack.
• The swarms of these insects and other kinds of vermin may be attributed rather to the extreme filthiness of the people than to the heat of the climate. The ground floors of the houses are rarely swept : they serve as repositories for fire-wood, for lumber, and for the lodgings of their numerous slaves. The same want of cleanliness is visible in their dress and in their persons. Fe if any, are free from a certain cutaneous disorder, which is supposed in our country to be the joint effect of poverty of food and fith ; many have confirmed leprosy; and the elephantiasis is by no means uncommon. A great part of their diet consists of fish, fruit, and vegetables, with the never failing dish of farinha de pao, or flour of the maniota root ; all their substantial food, whatever it may be, is first dipped in oil or grease, and then rolled in this flour and made up into little balls in the palm of the hand. Milk, butter, and cheese, are rarely used. With the utmost difficulty we procured a little of the first for our tea, and it was miserably bad. Their beef is lean and very indiffercnt, and mutton is scarcely to be had at any rate. Fowls and tur. kies are abundant, and tolerably good; and the market is well supplied with a great variety of very excellent fish. The bread which is made of wheaten flour, the produce of the southern provinces, is exceedingly good. The fruits in general are not excelled in any part of the world.'
In Rio, the travellers discovered, after considerable search, two booksellers' shops, but their contents were absolutely of no value ; yet books might here be manufactured which would be interesting and valuable, since ample materials are to be found in the manners of the people and in natural history. The Monks and Friars, however, who have time and oppor.
tunity, consume neither their days nor their nights in lean and wasteful learning: their occupation consists of tittle-tattle, interference with the domestic concerns of private citizens, and the collection and distribution of scandal. They learn curious and piquant anecdotes by officiating as confessors, and are not, according to Mr. B.'s representation, very honourably retentive of information so obtained.
The ladies of Rio have been accused of easy gallantry: but Mr. B. consigns two or three pages to the vindication of their chastity, and of the playful custom of tossing flowers at strangers. It is a vindication, however, which might well have been omitted, since it is by no means satisfactory.
Chapter V, contains general observations on the Brazils.What New Holland is to us now, Brazil was formerly to the Portuguese : thither they sent all persons accused of witchcraft and heresy, Mohammedans, and Jews. The latter were glad to escape tyranny and persecution in Europe, and, fleeing from oppression, they found riches in South America. Their first object was to gain the favour of the natives; and they were readily permitted to put into the earth both seeds and the cutțings of plants. The sugar cane was raised in Brazil, from cuttings brought from Madeira; it was first cultivated and used as a medicine, then as a luxury, and in a short time it was exported to Europe in such abundance that the court of Lisbon really began to think that a colony might be useful to the mother country, even if it did not produce gold and diamonds.
The question of the Slave Trade is now, we hope, decided for ever, and to the eternal honour of the British Parliament of 1807. It is superfluous, then, to say any more on that subject: but it would be unfair not to notice that the present yolume contains several arguments and representations, all urging the abolition.
It is worth the while, on the grounds of laudable curiosity, to know what Brazil produces and is capable of producing, even if we do not attempt to annex it to the British Empire :
• The fertile and extensive plains (says Mr. B.) of South America abound with innumerable herds of horses and horned cattle; but the richness of the soil, and its total want of culture, produce only such grasses as are too coarse, and their juices too acrid, for the sustenance of sheep. Oxen even do not thrive upon them, without the oc: casional use of salt ; and as the exclusive privilege of importing this article, essential for the preservation both of man and beast, from the islands of Sal and Mayo, is farmed out as a monopoly of the Crown, it is necessarily sold at an extravagant price, and is frequently not to be purchased on any terms. The sait chat would be required to preserve the carcase of an ox costs in general about thrice as much as the whole animal. Yet there is no want of salt on the coast of
Brazil, if the inhabitants were permitted to manufacture it. Wher. ever it is made with facility, or deposited by spontaneous evapora. tion, it is immediately claimed as the exclusive right of the Crown; which, however, has condescended to bestow a remarkable indul. gence to the inhabitants of certain parts of the sea-coast, by allowing them to collect, for their own use, what nature has spontaneously thrown in their way; but they are forbidden, in the inost positive terms, to carry a single grain of it either to St. Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, or any of the principal governments of the Brazils. The monopoly of salt is estimated to produce to the Crown of Portugal about 15,000l. a year. Thus, for the sake of realizing so pitiful a sum, thousands of cattle are suffered to perish, the carcases of such as are slaughtered, for the sake of the hides only, to be thrown away, the fisheries on the coast are checked, and in a great degree rendered useless, and one great source of commerce and navigation entirely dried up. At Rio the price of a moderate sized ox is not more than twenty shillings, and in the interior only from tive to ten shil. lings. In fact, the hide is considered as the only valuable part, and the carcase is left to the tyger or the panther, the eagle, the condor, and such other birds and beasts of prey as abound in the country. The condition of the graziers in the Brazils appears to be pretty much the same as that of the Dutch boors at the Cape of Good Hope. Rich in the possession of thousands of cattle, they are deficient in every comfort of life ; without society, without clothing, and without decent habitations. They are even worse than the Dutch boors, for these can move aliout in their covered waggons over their barren heaths, but in the fertile and well.wooded regions of South America there are yet no roads that will admit the conveni. ence of a wheel carriage.'
Mr. B. confirms the statement which has been frequently made, and from various quarters, that a smuggling trade to a very considerable extent is carried on between the Portuguese in Brazil and English Whalers and Americans. The latter, according to the present writer, take off the surplus produce of the colonies, and pay an annual balance of half a million in hard specie. The colonists employ this cash to purchase slaves : our manufactories, by means of the Whalers and Americans, find an entrance into Brazil; and from the Brazils they are smuggled into the Spanish settlements, by the way of the Rio de la Plata.
Considering the colonizing temperament of the author, we were not surprized to find hiin ogling and holding dalliance with the Brazils and the Spanish colonies : yet he properly admits that a Protestant Government would have immense difficulties to encounter, if it attempted to control the former; and that the project of revolutionizing the latter is not only unsafe in regard to policy, but that in point of humanity, since the slaves exceed the proprietors in a tenfo!d proportion, it would be nefarious and unwarrantable.
After his dissertation on the Brazils, Mr. Barrow proceeds with the narration of his voyage. The islands of Tristan da Cunha and Amsterdam are visited and described; and the description may be useful to those who next approach these islands, though io us it appeared very uninteresting. The avidity of our merchants may however be excited, when they learn that at Tristan da Cunha the largest ships can ride in safety, and can take in water with the greatest ease; and that the place may easily be made impregnable, requiring only a few men for its defence, &c. Should we, therefore, (says Mr.B.) at any future time be so unfortunate as to be excluded from the Brazils and the Cape of Good Hope, this half-way island to India would be found to possess many conveniences. Even those who may contend that our colonial territories are already suffi. ciently extended must at least agree that we can never have too many points of security and accommodation for our ships of war and of commerce.' Mercy, Mercy, good Mr. Barrow: these speculations and projects may be sport to you, but, should they be realised, to us who stay at home and must pay the cost, they will be death.
In the island of Amsterdam, our travellers found Thermal springs : in some, the temperature was that of boiling water, 212°: in others, which were adjacent, they angled, and caught red coloured perch from six inches to a foot in length, of a most excellent flavor; which, (says Mr. B.), with true epicurean want of feeling, we had the cruelty to drop living off the hook into the boiling springs, where it required just fifteen minutes to cook them in perfection.'
We cannot introduce the reader to Cochin China be. fore we have delayed him a short time at Batavia. Of the island of Java, its productions, &e. Mr. B. has communicated several valuable particulars; and respecting the city of Ba. tavia, its pestilence, feasting, and inhabitants, much information and many amusing anecdotes. In his narration on this subject, morearer, he does not disturb our serenity with his foible : he does not recommend, nor even does he wish, the English to attempt the conquest of Batavia. Now what is it that forbids us to attempt the conquest of Batavia ? Principally, the unhealthiness of the climate, for the island is extremely productive, and the whole Navy of England might side in the bay, secure from winds. Several remarkable instances of mortality are mentioned. In the military Hospital, the register of deals for 62 years amounted to 78,000 7