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the immediate seat of sensation ; and the middle, which connects the two former together, and carries the impulse of the air from the one to the other.-Of the first three chapters, which consist merely of anatomical description, we shall not attempt any analysis. The account of the several parts appears to be correct, and as perspicuous as so intricate a subject can be made ; while the accompanying figures are numerous, and well executed. As we do not meet with any thing which can be said to be new, either as to the anatomy or the physiology of the ear, the merit of this part consists in its correctness; on which point it is intitled to much commendation.
Chapter IV. on the diseases of the ear, occupies nearly twothirds of the whole volume, and will by many persons be deemed the most interesting part. Our great ignorance on the subject is generally admitted and lamented; and the obstacles to the acquisition of information respecting it are, as the author remarks, almost insuperable. Nature has placed the greater part of the Ear in a situation absolutely beyond the reach of examination in the living body, and as its diseases are rarely if ever mortal, morbid Ears are seldom dissected in the dead. Such observations as are related have mostly been made on subjects that have casually fallen into the hands of the dissector, and the history of the cases is unknown. These im. pediments seem to have prevented us from attempting to acquire that little knowlege which is within our reach : the diseases of the ear have been almost entirely overlooked' by the regular practitioners; and its morbid anatomy has seldom been an object of attention with the anatomist. In this state of uncertainty, we feel the more grateful to Mr. Saunders; who has not only directed our attention to this object, but has been able to make some important advances in it.
Mr. S. commences with the diseases of the meatus externus; and he particularly describes an herpetic eruption of these parts, by which the integuments are thickened, and a foetid ichorous discharge is produced. The disease is cured by alterative mere curial medicines taken internally, together with the external application of mercurial lotions and ointments. After having noticed some less frequent and less important complaints of the meatus externus, the author proceeds to the diseases of the tympanum. The most serious complaint of this part is acute inflammation, to which may be referred that painful sensation called the earache. When this advances to the state of suppuration, it resembles in some respects the herpetic affection just mentioned: but, as the cure must proceed on very different principles, it is of cousiderable importance to establish the diagnosis between them. This may frequently be done by observing whether the
patient has the power of expelling air through the membrano tympani ; if this membrane be imperfect, it is nearly a certain proof that the disease is seated in the neighbouring parts : but this is not absolutely an unerring criterion: the disease may exist in the tympanum, and yet the membrane may not be ruptured ; while, on the other hand, the membrane may be ruptured, but, owing to the inflammation having extended to the Eustachian tube and closed it up, the patient will not be able to force out the air. When the nature of the disease is ascertained, the cure of it, in the early stages, is to be attempted by the employment of the most powerful antiphlogistic plan, while all stimulants are to be carefully avoided. Unfortunately, however, the opposite system is too frequently practised, and the most acrid substances are employed. After some time, they indeed appear to produce relief :- not by causing a resolution of the inflammation, but by bringing on the suppurative process; a highly dangerous state, which frequently ends in the loss of some part that is essential to the functions of the organ. When this puriform discharge from the tympanum has taken place, it has been a question among practitioners, whether it be more advisable to leave the disease to the operations of nature, or to endeavour to check it by the interference of art. Mr. Saunders argues strenuously in favour of the latter opinion, and, we think, with much propriety. The evils that are supposed to arise from stopping the effusion are merely hypothetical; whereas the most serious injury to the structure of the parts is occasionally induced by permitting the discharge to continue without interruption.
The diseases of the internal part of the ear are much more obscure in their cause than those of the exterior, and lie só far beyond the reach of assistance that, even were their nature accurately ascertained, it is probable that they would in general be irremediable. As the author remarks, they may consistin a want of sensibility in the nerve, some alteration in the structure of the membranes on which the nerve is expanded, or change in the properties of that fluid which is contained in the membranes, and is the immediate agent in impressing the sentient extremities of the nerve. The diseases of this part of the ear have been classed together under the title of nervous ; a term which has been used in a vague sense, to denote all those cases in which no visible defect could be perceived. It may be applied in a more appropriate manner to signify those diseases, the seat of which is in the nerve, or the parts containing the nerve. The symptoms of this species of deafness are very variable: but in general they consist in the perception of different kinds of noises in the lead. This state of hearing
has been referred to a defect in the power of the nerve itself: but the author was led to conclude that it was rather the parts surrounding the nerve, than the nerve itself, which were discased, by observing that a similar species of deafness was occasionally present in syphilitic affections of the throat; and that the operation of mercury, in removing the primary discase, also relieved the deafness. Guided by this analogy, Mr. Saunders resolved to try how far what is usually called nervous deafness might be relieved by a similar plan of treatment; and in some cases, which were not of long standing, he found his hypothesis justified by very considerable success. He enjoined a rigid diet, gave active cathartics, and alterative doses of calomel, for some weeks; and from the result of his experience, he feels himself authorised to conclude that recent cases of nervous deafness may be relieved by a strict antiphlogistic regimen, conjoined with those medicines which are the most adapted for promoting absorption. This suggestion we con. sider as being highly important, and we hope that it will bę confirmed by the experience of other practitioners.
For MARCH, 1807.
pp. 55. sewed.
Art. 15. A short History of Repriles, (extracted from Works of
Credit,) designed as an Introduction to the Study of that Branch of Natural History, and as a Pocket Companion to those who visit Museums.
Darton and Harvey. A BRIEF account of the crustaceous animals is also here annexed
to that of the reptiles : but the whole is a very imperfect and desultory compilation, and, as a scientific manual, 'more calculated to bewilder than to guide. Some of the detached passages may, nevertheless, afford both entertainment and instruction ; and we certainly have been amused with the grave assertion that butterflies, fascinated by toads, will fly down their throats. Indian, English, and Linnéan names are strangely jumbled, and form a rattle, in their way; though not, we appreh nd, of that fastinating power which will compel the devoted shillings to fly into the pockets of the writer.
EDUCATION, Art. 16. A Summary of parental and filial Duties; or an interest.
ing Description of what Parents and Children owe to each other; inculcating also the most valuable Requisites for a liberal Educa. tioa. Extracted from the Works of the Sieur de Charron.
By J Taylor, Head Master of the Academy, Dronfield. 12 mo, Pp. 100. 28. Longman and Co.
A collection of sensible instructions and remarks, which merit the regard both of the parent and the child, as being calculated to contribute to the improvement of each. It was well said by the Latin Poet, Dos est magna Parentum Virtus.-Happy is it, indeed, that, in the clashing vicissitudes of human life, worthy and useful men have arisen from worthless and useless parents ; while, to the grief of many virtuous minds, vicious and wicked descendants have sprung from most honourable ancestry: yet it is true that the mistakes and follies of those to whom the nurture of youth is committed, even of such as are on the whole truly respectable, leave ill impressions which are not easily worn out, and have been productive of great and lasting evils; and that those young persons possess great advantage, whose parents or governors present in their own conduct an example of rectitude and virtue. The tendency of the present publication is to assist both parties; and on the whole it is calculated to effect this design. Art. 17. Twenty-four Lectures on the Italian Language, by Mr.
Galignani: in which the Principles, Harmony, and Beauties of that Language are, by an original Method, simplified and adapted to the meanest Capacity, and the Scholar enabled to attain, with Ease and Facility, a competent knowledge of the Language with. out the Help of any Master. In this Second Edition, the Work is enlarged one-third, by numberless Additions and Improvements, by the Editor, Antonio Monticei, Sanese, LL.D. Italian Mas
8vo. Pp. 340. 75. Boards. Doosey. 1806. Art. 18. Italian Extracts, or a Supplement to Galignani's Lec.
tures ; consisting of an extensive Selection from the best classic and modern Italian Authors, preceded by a copious Vocabulary, with familiar Phrases and Dialogues. By the Editor, Antonio Moniucci, Sanese, LL. D. 8vo. Pp. 376. 7s. Boards. Boosey. 1806.
For several reasons, we furbear to dwell minutely on the merits of these publications. --Of Galignani's original work, we have already spoken at some length in our XXIsť Vol. N.S. p. 87. and the present Editor's ample title pages display the nature and extent of his additions. Besides, as we labour under the disqualification of tramontane birth, we wish not to be taxed by some future compiler of an Italian Grammar and Extracts, with ushering to the public, trash of the most barbarous and despicable kind. On the other hand, we should be grieved to offend a polite Tuscan writer, who talks at his ease of the often detested Veneroni's Dialogues', and of the very coarse packing: cloth of Signor Mossolini.'. In this dilemma, we must observe, ge. nerally, that the Sienese Dr. manifests no ordinary diligence in his labours, and a very intimate acquaintance with the genius and minutiæ of his native language ; that the alphabetical list of the irregular verbs is by far the most complete that has fallen under our notice ; and that, with the exception of heavy and impure English, we may pass the same verdict on this brace of volumes, which the Dr. pro
pronounces on one of his own performances :-" Iltrattato è molto erudito. L'autore ne ha studiato la maleria in eccellenti scrittori." We have likewise to applaud the disinterested spirit of a teacher, who shews how a language may be easily acquired by the meanest capacity without his personal intervention. Health, then, and long life all' Eccel.m Sig.ri Sig.re Prone. Colmo. Il Sig.re Dott. Antonio Montucci ! Art. 19. English Grammar epitomised, for the Use of Schools. 2d Edition.
15. 3d., Button. Art. 20. English Exercises, for the Use of Schools. 4th Edition.
IS, 3d. Button. 1806. Art 21. Introductory Lessons in Astronomy, and other Branches of
Natural Philosophy, for the Use of Schools. 2d Edition. pp 71. 15. 3d. Button.
These publications are compiled by the same author, and, as the titles express, are introductory works for the use of young persons. The English Grammar is a tolerably good abridgment, in which the rules are brief, and well condensed: the English Exercises contain a great variety of lessons for the improvement of young persons in Spelling and Syntax; and the book on Astronomy, which likewise contains lessons on Geography, is, as far as it goes, useful. These works furnish a compendium of the sciences of which they treat ; and for those persons whose stations in life do not require much information, they may be sufficient without having recourse to others. Art. 22. Entertaining Instructions, in a Series of familiar Dialogues
between a Parent and his Children : interspersed with original Fables well adapted to the Capacities of Youth. 12mo. Pp. 150. 35. 6d. Boards. Hatchard.
The author of this work having frequently observed that fables are read by children merely as a temporary amusement, without their paying the smallest regard to the application ; and, judging that a. previous Dialogue, somewhat analagous to the Fable, might impress it deeper on the mind of the young reader than by merely running through a succession of them which are no sooner read than fora gotten, has interspersed a few Dialogues and Fables in such a manner as, from their novelty, may arrest the attention. This idea is commendable, and the volume is well caloulated to fulfil the intention of the author : the subjects are treated in a pleasing and judicious manner; and they are successfully adapted for imparting instruction and amusement to young minds. We have heard the name of a Lady of Distinction mentioned as the writer of these dialogues : but we do not feel at liberty to make it public. Ast. 23. The Second Part of the Pronouncing Spelling Book : containing
Exercises upon Sound, and short Rules for Pronunciation, &c.
The object of this book is to teach young persons, by means of definite sounds given to the letters, the proper mode of pronouncing the English language. To fix standard rules for the pronunciation of a language which is derived from so many sources, and 'which is Rey. MARCH, 1807.