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rate References to all the Books of the Old and New Testaments, designed to facilitate the study of these invaluable Records. By Joseph Priestley, LL.D. F.R.S. 12mo. 58. Boards. Johnson,

The makers of indexes and of dictionaries (says Dr. P.) are never allowed the praise of much genius; but these works certainly require the exercise of judgment:' he might have added, and of patience. This voluminous writer speaks of the present little work as the most laborious that he ever undertook, though he acknowleges that he derived considerable assistance in its compilation from Mr. Pilkington's Rational Concordance, or Index to the Bible, printed at Nottingham in 1749. Acquainted with the utility of index-making, as well as with the labour that attends it, we are always inclined to bestow praise on those who condescend in this way to become the finger-posts of literature. The work before us will be found very useful to those who wish to refer to the various subjects of sacred Scripture, and is much more portable than a concordance. It is very probable that many persons, who disapprove of Dr. P. as a commentator, will commend him as an index-compiler; and will wish, as he himself suspects, that he had aimed at nothing higher.

Art 36. Sermons on varicus Subjects; by Alexander Hewat, D.D, Vol. II. 8vo. PP. 447. 75. Boards. Cadell and Davies. We mentioned the former Volume of Dr. Hewat's Sermons in our number for January 1804, and made sufficient remarks on their characteristic merits, as well as some extracts in exemplification of the Dr.'s manner. On the present occasion, we need only to refer to that article, and state that the subjects of these nineteen discourses are the ensuing:-The folly of distrust in regard to Providence; habitual awe of God; maternal obligations; education of children; education of youth; manlike conduct and character; right use and improvement of old age; mysteries; Christ's rule of equity; Christ's claim to the reward of spotless innocence, and perfect obedience; incredulity of Thomas; rise, progress, and establishment of Christianity; glorifying in the Cross of Christ; obligations on all Christians to live in peace; office and authority of conscience; forgiveness of offences: commemorating Christ's sufferings and death; joys and comforts of a Christian life.

Art. 37. Further Evidences of the Existence of the Deity. Intended as an humble Supplement to Archdeacon Paley's Natural Theology. By George Clark. 8vo. 2s. Faulder.

Practical atheism is not uncommon, but we hope that speculative atheism exsists in the mind of very few. It cannot be denied, however, that the latter occasionally occurs, and is even abetted by some. thing in the form of argument: yet that the argument has no real strength has been repeatedly and most satisfactorily demonstrated. Dr. Paley has remarked that, in order to refute the atheist, he would be contented with taking his stand in human anatomy; since the design, contrivance, and adaptation of parts in the animal frame are indisputable proofs of pre-existing and superintending Intelli gence. Mr. Clark assumes this ground: but he satisfies himself with resting his proofs of a Deity on the constitution of the sexes,

which manifests pre-cogitation, a previous intention, and a pre-ordination. After having exposed the ridiculous hypothesis of Mirabeau relative to the energies of matter, he observes ;


If we were to allow, for argument's sake, that an animal might have been produced by the incre energies of matter, it will be too much to admit, that an animal with a Six, could have been so produced, because that circomst nce necessarily pre-supposes two things, an increase of the species by generation; and, to that end, 2. the production of another animal of the same kind, but of the ; and these anticip tions could exist only with mind or inIt would be a con radiction to the plainest dictates of com · t, tay, that they could exist where design or purpose were that sign or purpose could be, where there was tot miad, A is mind and intelligence can only exist with a h... sentient agents it follows incontestibly, that design, intent, and purpose, were employed in the formation of animals, and that there did previously exist a LIVING, SENTIENT GENT, OF, FIRST







This argument is conclusive; and it is no small compliment to Mi Clark to add that he has furnished a Supplement to the Nataral Theology" of Dr Palcy, which that ingenious writer, were he alive, would not object to patronize.


Art. 38. A Defence of the Slave Trad, on the Crounds of Huma. nity, Policy, and Justice Svo 2s. Highly.

A defence of per,ecution on the ground, of humanity would not Le more revolting to common sense, than a defence of the slavetrade on this principle. The history of slavery cannot be the history of human happiness; and when it becomes an article of trade and commerce, it cannot be conducted without considerable cruelty. Writers may endeavour to throw some bright tints over the picture: but, after their most laboured efforts, it must be revolting to the eye of the philanthropist. We are told that the slave trade prevents a greater evil, viz. murder; but it is difficult to prove this assertion to such an extent as the argument r qires. It is more rational to sup. pose, calculating on the effects of avarice on man, that this trade stimulates the Africans to make war on each other; and that, if Puro. peans withdrew from this acfarious commerce, a powerful temptation to crime in the negroe princes would cease: but, supposing more cruelty to exist in Africa than we are able to prove, is the slave-trade such a remedy as we should be induced to apply, were all motives of interest out of the question? When the word policy stands coupled with humanity, we have reason for surmising that the latter is not of the true Christian stamp. This writer tells us how well-fed and happy the negroes are in the West ladis: but does this assertion quare with the declaration that it is necessary, in order to keep up the population of the blacke, to have a large annual importation from Africa? After so many hundred thousands of negroes have been conveyed from their native land to the West India Islands, had motives of humanity operated as much as a regard to self interest, the


necessity of a farther importation, we should think, would before this time have been at an end. We would not overlook the interest of the West India planter, but his interest ought not to be promoted by an unjustifiable waste of human life, even in a black skin.

Art. 39.

Substance of the Debates on a Resolution for abolishing the Slave Trade, &c. which was moved in the House of Commons, toth June, 1806, and in the House of Lords, 24th June, 1856. With an Appendix, containing Notes and Illustrations. Cr. 8vo. pp. 216 48. boards. Phillips and Fardin. 1806.

At length the public his been gratified by the success of the attempt to procure an abolition of the odious traffic in human liberty and happiness; and it will receive with pleasure the present record of the debates in both houses of parliament, which inmediately led to the recent ratification of the ministerial plans for accomplishing this laudable design. The speeches appear to be in substance carefully detailed; and the notes afford various interesting exemplifications of the argument.

Art. 40. The genuine Art of Guaging made easy and familiar, exhibiting all the principal Methods actually practised by the O ficers of his Majesty's Reven 1e of Excise and Customs, also the established Rules for finding the Areas and Contents of Stills, &c &c. By Peter Jonas, Late Supervisor of Excise. 8vo. 9. boards. Dring and Page, Tooley Street.

The genuine art of guaging, as the author calls it, is explained sa tisfactorily and fully in this treatise: indeed too fully, since the bulk of the volume might have been considerably contracted. What neces aity was there for making a discourse on decimal fractions, and on square and cube roots, as an introduction to this genuine art? Are not these things learat previously by him who undertakes to make, himself master of the science and practice of guaging? With equal reason, the author might have transcribed Fuclid's Elements into his treatise. In page 77, he has restricted the meaning of the word parallelogram; and according to him a parallelogram must be a rectangle.

This work, as it must necessarily happen, has excited in our minds but small interest: we have, however, examined several of its rules, and they appear to us sufficiently commodious. The author speaks of Clarke's hydrometer. Is not this instrument, by a lite regulation, ordered to be disused, and another substituted in its


Art. 41. Public Characters of 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806. 8vo. 3 vols Ics. 63. boards, each. R. Phillips.

In noticing the former volumes of this compilation, we sufficiently pointed out the general objections to which all living biography must be liable, and those in particular to which the present work was exposed, on the score both of selection and of composition. The same remarks apply to the subsequent volumes: but the same recommendations also continue, which seem to insure to the design a degree of public countenance. These recommendations are, its indulgeace of a spirit of curiosity which is ever calling for gratification, its supply


of interesting anecdotes, its occasional delineations of amiable traits and instructive examples, and its record of facts and dates. On these grounds, the publication has claims to patronage and in the latter point of view, especially, it may supply materials for more complete biography and history: but it must ever be consulted with grains of allowance, not only where partiality or hostility is obvious, but even with respect to the total suppression of disobliging circumstances. We could point out some instances of hiatus of this kind, which leave the chain of events most staringly open.

Art. 42. A complete Verbal Index to the Plays of Shakspeare, adapted to all the Editions. Comprehending every Substantive, Adjective, Verb, Participle, and Adverb, used by Shakspeare; with a distinct Reference to every individual Passage in which each Word occurs, By Francis Twiss, Esq. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 1180. 31. 3s. boards. Egerton, &c.

If it be drudgery to compile an Index, what must be the task of reviewing it by an ample verifying examination? We can boast of being equal to the former, but from the latter we shrink with fixed despair. The renowned Jedediah Buxton, of word catching memory, is, alas! no more, and we know not any worthy successor to his fame. Were he living, his talents might, in this industrious age, be made subservient to literature, in index-making, or in index revising; and on the present occasion, we should eagerly have sought his assistance. Seriously, however, the merit of an index can only be ascertained by experience, by a trial nearly as long as that to which Horace would submit an original composition: but the utility of such an achievement as that of a verbal index to Shakspeare, must be as obvious as its labour; and to Mr. Twiss, for having accomplished this Herculean service, the thanks of the public are due, in a mode in which we trust he will copiously receive them.

Mr. T. justly observes that, by the aid of such an index, many obscure passages in our great dramatic author may be more readily illustrated; and that it will be eminently serviceable even to those who do not study him as a national classic, but recur to him as a writer abounding in common places, whose works contain something applicable to the occurrences of almost every hour.' He fairly admits that accuracy constitutes the sole merit of such a work, and that errors can scarcely have been avoided in several hundred thousand refer. ences but he asserts that he has spared no pains either in the notation of the words, or in the correction of the press and to the praise of general correctness he boldly puts in his claim.' The last labours of Mr. Stevens, as an editor of Shakspeare, being given to the world during the progress of this compilation, Mr.Twiss submitted to the duty of collating that edition with the one which he had used; and wherever any deviation in the text, not merely literal, was detected, he has inserted double references: thus adapting his index to every edition of Shakspeare's writings. He has also considered the play of Pericles as the composition of our celebrated bard, on the authority of Mr. Malone and Mr. Stevens, and has indexed it accord. ingly. The reader is not to expect from the phrase in the title page, complete verbal index, that he will here find a reference to every word

used in Shakspeare, but must attend to the restrictive denominations of words which follow in the title. Pronouns, for instance, are excluded, and therefore he must not seek for the constantly recurring monosyllables, I, thou, he, we, you, they, &c.-nor for all the host of prepositions, conjunctions, relatives, articles, &c.

In the year 1790, the late Mr. Ayscough published an index to passages and words in Shakspeare, but it was more particularly constructed for the edition to which it was then appended. We gave an account of it in our 4th vol. N. S. p. 421. and not only made some remarks on the nature of the undertaking which will apply to Mr. Twiss's production, but produced a few samples of criticism, which perhaps we might parallel on this occasion: but, if any circumstances can make Every Gentleman his own Reviewer, this is one of them.

Art. 43

Memoirs of the Life of Horatio Lord Viscount Nelson, &c. &c. with the Account of the last Honors paid to his Remains by a grateful Country, &c. By J. Hardy, Esq. 12mo 15. Crosby and Co. A concise and cheap compilement, which may serve for the more ordinary purposes of circulating the records of Nelson's great deeds, but puffed with claims to which it is not intitled, and intended to be sanctioned by a name which may be mistaken for that of the hero's Captain, and which we suspect to be only assumed for that purpose.


Art. 44. The Duty of Stedfastness in Church Communion. By Edward Pearson, B D. Rector of Rempstone, Nottinghamshire. 6d. Hatchard.


Though the antient Jews occasionally yielded to that intercommunity of worship which was prevalent among idolaters, it was inconsistent with their faith in Jehovah as the only true God, and is justly reprobated by the prophet. Jehovah and Baal could not be both acknowleged, in the same manner a. 1 Gentile might, without any violence offered to his creed, present offerings to Minerva at Athens, and to Jupiter Capitolmus at Rome. Mr. Pearson supposes that no more fellow.hip ought to subsist between the Protestant Established and the Protestant Non established Churches of this country, than between the communions of Jehovah and Baal; and he severely reprobates those who attend the service of the Church on one part of the Sunday, and that of the Meeting-house on the other. He considers these accommodating Christians as "halting between two opinions," (text Kings xviii 21) and seriously urges them to refket on the impropriety of their conduct. He charges them with violating the unity of the Church, with the sin of schism, and with pronouncing the sentence of their own condemnation. Assuming, perhaps, a loftier attitude than becomes a Protestant, he reminds the Meeting-house frequenter that, in the most important concern possible, he gives up a certainty for an uncertainty; that dissenters in general are not as safe in separating from the Church of England as the Church of England from the Church of Rome;'- and that we have ground from Scripture for supposing that there is an efficacy in the offices of religion, when they are administered by persons who are duly authorized to administer them, which they have not when ad


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