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and two white. Six cotton night caps. Two hats, one three çor. nered. Two pair of shoes. Two combs, and a comb brush. A clothes brush. A plate and goblet of silver, or other metal, at the choice of the parents, and marked with the number of the scholar, which is also put on his other effects, that no other may use them.
• After this first equipment, no further expence is incurred for the children, whether sick or in health. The dress and all the other articles are renewed at the expence of the institution, during the whole course of the studies, except losses positively ascertained to have been made by the 'scholars themselves. For books, maps, and paper, used in the third course, there is an additional charge of twenty-five franks, or a guinea a year. The trunk, except the sheets and napkins, is returned when the scholar leaves the Lyceum; and as only French manufactures are permitted, the articles, in case of difficulty, may be easily procured at the house.
• The boys educated at this seminary are very numerous, generally appear stout and healthy, and possessed with an interesting emulation. The military part of their education is rather to be regretted; but it is to be feared that the ambition of France will render it necessary in other countries.'
As “ Education forms the common mind," and as the cha. sacter of a people must be in a great measure impressed by their systems of instruction, it is impossible for the sensible part of our readers not to reflect with seriousness on the account presented in the foregoing quotation. France may be considered as a military academy; and if, under this impression, we calculace her population, what may we not apprehend from the fostering care of this martial spirit? We ought maturely to weigh the tendency of this mode of education, as being more a cause of alarm than all the present conquests and acquisitions of our enemies.—The speech of Fourcroy, director-general of public instruction, delivered in August ( 805, receives some comments from Mr.P. which ought not to be overlooked :
· When the orator proceeds to shew the advantages of a mix. ture of military education, his judgment seems to be warped by the necessity of pleasing a military monarch. He observes that all the French are, by the law, called at a fixed age to the defence of the state ; and that this law cannot be considered as unjust, as by some years' fatigue and danger, the repose and security of life are procured, as by the payment of a part of property the remainder is preserved. He praises the conscription as the guarantee of the extent of the French empire, and preserving equality by equality of service. "In the feudal times,” says he; "we were divided as it were into two nations, the people and its masters, and the former could not pretend to military dignities. But at present officers are appointed only by merit ; the career of honour is open to every man of courage ; titles are only to be acquired by service, and service alone gives a
right to distinction. Hence, he adds, the inequality of ranks is totally destroyed, and even the last vestiges of feudality have disappeared: the heirs of ancient families not being respected for their birth, though many of them continue to be honoured for their ser: vices to the empire. Nor does the new order of things permit the transmission of hereditary dignities, but the heir must distinguish himself before he can aspire to the glory of his father; whence France is certain of seeing brave leaders at the head of brave armies.'
Notwithstanding the general decline of commerce, and the complaint in the cities of the weight of taxes, it is asserted that the grand staple of France, agriculture, has certainly been benefited by the revolution. More land, we are told, is actually cultivated than before, the farms are more divided, greater skill and industry are exerted, the stock of cattle is increased, and greater comfort prevails among the peasantry. The revenue of France is computed to be thirty-two millions of pounds sterling.
Among the topics not necessarily connected with Recollections of Paris, are Considerations on a commercial treaty with France ;' bun, though this chapter might have been spared, we do not object to the nature of its contents. If the two nations were in a temper adapted to the fair discussion of its merits, both would feel themselves obliged to Mr. Pinkerton for his hints: but, as things are, he will be thanked by neither, and his remonstrances will be poured surdis auribus. As, however, it may not be altogether useless to record good advice, though for the present the parties concerned are not disposed to follow it, we shall copy a small part of these considerations :
• Anger and enmity are indeed the blindest of all the passions, and will sometimes incur even great personal injury, in order to hurt an adversary. But wicked and designing men, who wish to rob during the confiagration, can alone desire to encourage or prolong such diabolical passions, attended with consequences abhorrent to humanity, not to speak of christianity, between the two most powerful nations of the globe, and formed by nature for mutual assistance, intercourse, friendship, and esteem. It is time that an end be put to the collision of the mean and ridiculous intrigues of concubines, priests, and pretended statesmen ; and that the voice of nature and nations be heard. Above all, if we wish for durable prosperity, we must, instead of combating against the decrees of providence, lezra to avail ourselves of repeated lessons, and of the existing circumstances. Where the events can no longer be controlled by counsels, wisdom will seek to accommodate the counsels to the events. An oriental proverb deelares, that a wise man may change his opinion, but a fool never : and it is indeed in the very nature of ignorance, not to know the real nature and influence of the events, and of obstinacy, its most usual concomitant, to endeavour a vain struggle against them. .
Supposing that no relations of friendship or enmity had ever existed betwcen this island and France, supposing that it had moved from one part of the world to another, and had unexpectedly been placed in the immediate neighbourhood of a great and powerful empire, ever celebrated for the military ardour of its people, and with three times our population, would it not have been accounted imprudent to seek occasions of war against this mighty neighbour? But when it came to be discovered that this large adjacent territory produced articles of which we stood much in need, while it wanted many of our manufactures and commerce ; would it not be accounted still more imprudent to exchange the advantages of commerce and mutual intercourse, for the privations of war, and the incalculable detriment of mutual enmity? If we were placed in the situation of Japan, we should, by parity of reasoning, enter into constant warfare, patriotic rancour, and most honourable jealousy against the potent empire of China.'
The author represents the geographical situation of Great Britain and France as exactly similar to that of the kingdoms of Japan and China.-We shall not attend to his new plan of restoring the balance of power in Europe under the form of five great empires : since the sword of the conqueror, and not the discussions of philosophers, will mark the boundaries of nations.
The letters to Mr. P. from his Polish friend Mr. Orchowski, on Polish literature, and on the present state of Poland, are of some interest : but they do not belong to his professed subject.
Mixing intimately with the respectable society of the French capital, the author was qualified for discussing the forms of etiquette, and for stating the order of the dishes at a fashionable French dinner. The superiority of the luxury of Paris compared with that of London is asserted, however reluctant Englishmen may be to credit it. - A distinct chapter is assigned to the geography of French wines,' from which it might be inferred that the Parisians are addicted to the pleasures of the bottle : but the contrary, however, is the fact. Their potations are moderate, in spite of the temptation of an abundant variety ;
the abominable practice of toasts,' as Mr. P. terms it, is not in --use among them ; drunkenness is a phænomenon in the superior classes of the community; and it is added that the head of the empire is ' a model of the severest temperance.'
In giving these views of the Parisian character, and even in the accounts which are presented of the mineralogy of the environs of the French metropolis, Mr. Pinkerton may have drawn on the bank of his Recollection :--but certain make-weight articles appear, which are evidently derived from another quarter. The chapters intitled " Small Talk,' and ' Fragments,' are mostly extracted from journals, and books of bon mots; and
many of them no otherwise pay for their transcription than by occupying space. This species of patch-work is very easy. Unus et alter assuitur pannus; and thus handsome looking volumes are produced.
The route of the author's return to his own country being through Flanders and Holland, sketches of the characters of those people, as well as of their chief towns, are subjoined. It is said that the devotion of the Flemings, which formerly depended on the wealth and influence of the clergy, has disappeared, and has given place to a taste for the theatre and other social amusements,' and of the Dutch it is observed that • money and Calvinism form' the sole objects of their meditations.' On his taking leave of the continent, he cautions us against French Emigrants, as the betrayers of their unsuspecting benefactors, and urges the policy of sending them all, with granıs of land, to Canada; and though a strong predilection for French manners seems to betray itself in his delineation of Parisian enjoyments, • a flush of satisfaction which doubled the sensation of existence was felt by Mr. P., as he informs us, at the moment of alighting on English ground, on being
delivered from the police of Paris, from passports, garrisons, commissaries, and consuls.'
Some pompous words occur, as well as a few errors; and some things are recollected iwice, as the derivation of the word calembourg in vol. i. p. 462. and vol. ii. p. 370.
Art. X. An Inquiry into the Requisite Cultivation and Present Stale
of the Arts of Design in England. By Prince Hoare. 12mo. 78.
Boards. R. Phillips, . INQUIRY is a term of high import, and a duty of sacred obli
gation If ably and rigorously executed, it may materially promote the rights of truth and the interests of knowlege: but if superficially or partially pursued, it may either seriously injure or finally retard them.-_When our scientific luminary, the illustrious Bacon, had dispersed the mists of vulgar and interested prejudice, which had been thickened into overshadowing obscurities by the intrigue and selfishness of the cloistered ages, nothing was taken for granted, but was submitted to the ordeal of investigation. Yet so tenacious of their dogmas had been the cowl'd impostors, that it was heresy to doubt their promulgated tenets, however repugnant to common sense, to truth, and to the advantages that might be derived from the knowlege and practice of true religion: while with superstition the genius of the Arts lay buried in legen
dary dary tales—The good Erasmus also exposed to the world the venality, pride, and intolerance which had coalesced to stifle reason, and the noblest function of man, the use of his senses ; and he manifested how much the Cloisters were aware that ignorance and credulity have ever been inseparable com. panions.
Since that period, many writers have assumed the specious name of Inquirers; perhaps to answer very little other purpose than to make a plausible attempt at establishing some party hypothesis favourable to a Sect, Society, or Institution : to all which cases, we may apply the emphatic expression of the great promoter of science already mentioned, '“ such are liable to suspect.”_Where flattery has much concern, it may be feared that truth is little consulted ; and how often are realities found totally different from their superficial appearances :
“ So may the outward shows be least themselves;
The world is still deceived with ornament.
Obscures the show of evil?" SHAKSPEARE, Philosophy, stedfast to the investigation of truth, is of no party; neither have been the liberal Arts, in those countries in which they most have flourished: but the very term, of liberal Arts, should tell us that to thrive they must be free.
False critics have produced as much mischief perhaps as false prophets; since, instead of aiding the progress of true Art, they have contributed to weaken it by the incongruities of flippant observations and erroneous conclusions. Whether this evil proceeded from vanity, from interest, or from any other cause, is immaterial; the effect produced on the public mind is the same. We regret to say that, in several instances, blame of this nature attaches to the late ingenious Horace Walpole ; who has given a certain degree of currency to assumed corol. laries and trifling remarks. If“ a little learning is a dangerous thing,” so is a little knowlege of the vast field of Art.
Experience amply shews that the state of public manners and morals has ever influenced and regulated that of the liberal Arts.-In every age and country, in which the generality of pursuits are at best trifling, the study of tbe Arts will be proportionably insignificant. It was more the labours of the mind than of the hand, that gave to the culture and execution of them in Greece the high pre-eminence to which they had attained. The minds of Pericles and of Phidias were equally illumined; and their abilities differed only in relation to the mechanism of workmanship, by drawing the “ existing figure from its