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and dogmatical manner in which they are stated, it is well known that they are contradictory to the experience of those practitioners whose opinion is, on every account, the most intitled to credit.Since the publication of this treatise, Dr. Rowley has been called from this mortal scene of contest, doubt, and difficulty. Art. 33. Serious Reasons for uniformly objecting to the Practice of Vac.

cination : in Answer to the Report of the Jennerian Society, &c. By John Birch, Surgeon Extraordinary to the Prince of Wales, and to St. Thomas's Hospital. 8vo. 38. 6d. Callow, &c. 1806.

On many accounts, the publication of Mr. Birch is more intitled to respect than that of Dr. Rowley. Whatever we may think of the force of his arguments, he at least treats a serious subject in a serious manner; and his pamphlet is free from vulgar scuri ility:

Mr. Birch was one of those whose evidence before the House of Commons was unfavourable to vaccination ; a circumstance for which he assumes to himself great credit :-but, on referring to the ex. amination itself, we are not disposed to regard it as a subject of any particular exultation ; fince Mr. Birch had at that time never practised the vaccine inoculation ; and his answers betray rather an indifference to the subject, or an ignorance of it, than a spirit of patient and deliberate investigation.

Although we have admitted that the treatise before us displays a less objectionable temper of mind than some other publications of the opposers of vaccination, we cannot commend the argumentative part of it. The author takes it for granted, as a fact which requires no farther proof, that small-pox has frequently recurred after vaccination ; that in many instances the local affection of the arm, excited by the insertion of the vaccine virus, has produced fatal consequences ; and that the vaccine disease has given rise to a train of new and distressing complaints, which have barrassed the patients for a long time after the operation. These points are rather assumed, as having been universally admitted, than introduced with that atten. tion to minute detail which is requisite is a discussion of this kind. Were these assertions previously demonstrated, no doubt of the validity of Mr. Birch's conclusions against the cow.pox could remain : but, stated as they are at present, they make no impression on the body of evidence which is adduced on the other side of the question.

- The only argument employed by Mr. Birch against vaccination, which can be considered as in any respect new, is of so extraor. dinary a nature, that it is necessary to state it in the words of the author: · When such pains are taken to magnify the numbers that fall victims to small.pox, ........ why is it not remembered, that in the populous parts of the metropolis, where the abundance of chil. dren exceed the means of providing food and raiment for them, this pestilential disease is considered as a merciful provision on the part of Providence, to lessen the burden of a poor man's family?'

To Mr. Birch's publication, is subjoined a small treatise by Mr. Rogers, who appears to have been the pupil of the former gone tleman, and who embraces the same side of the question, writes much in the same style, and proceeds on the same principles. The positions unfavourable to vaccination are supported by a reference to

facts,

facts, which are loosely or imperfectly detailed; while many cir. cumstances, essential to the determination of the argument, are overlooked or disregarded. Art. 34. A Dissertation on the Failure and Mischiefs of the Disease called the Cow-pox; in which the principal Arguments

in favour of Vaccination are examined and confuted. By George Lipscomb, Surgeon. 8vo. 35. Robinson. Mr. Lipscomb is a decided and zealous opposer of the practice of vaccination; and he has fallen into the error, which unfortunately has been sanctioned by some of those who adopt his view of the subject, of supporting his cause more by declamation and humor, than by sober argument and patient investigation. He sets out with professions of candour and moderation, disclaims all personalities, and resolves to employ no other weapons than those of reason : but his good resolutions soon fail him, and he gradually falls into a strain which would assimilate with the pages of Dr. Row. ley himself.

It appears that Mr. L. was one among those who uniformly opposed the introduction of the vaccine inoculation, from the time at which it was first recommended. He could not reconcile himself to the supposed origin of the disease ; and he conceived it impossible that 80 slight an affection could permanently secure the constitution. His grand objections, however, depend on the degree of uncertainty which still prevails concerning some particular points, even among the warmest advocates for the cow pox. They have differed about its origin, about the occurrence of eruptions, and about the possibi. lity of its being received more than once by the same subject; whence he infers that our knowlege respecting it is not sufficient to coun. tenance the appeals that have been made in its favour. The recur. rence of small-pox after vaccination, and the production' of disgusting and loathsome diseases, he considers as facts so well established as to require no farther proof. He does not, therefore, condescend to state particular cases, but deems it sufficient to appeal in general terms to the body of evidence already before the public. Art. 35. The Vaccine Contest; or, “ mild Humanity, Reason, Re.

ligion, and Truth, against fierce, unfeeling Ferocity, overbearing Insolence, mortified Pride, false Faith, and Desperation;" being an exact Outline of the Arguments and interesting Facts, adduced by the principal Combatants on both sides, respecting Cowe pox Inoculation ; &c. &c. By William Blair, M. A. Surgeon of thc Lock Hospital and Asylum, &c. &c. 8vo. 25. 6d. Murray. 1806.

This work is an answer to the publication of Dr. Rowley; our opinion of which we have just expressed without reserve. It is not easy to decide on the best method of answering such a performance ; its numerous misrepresentations require patient and careful investis gation ; while its popular and declamatory style ought, if possible, to be opposed by something which would equally impress tlie minds of those who are influenced more by feeling than by the calm deduce kions of reason. Mr. Blair has chiefly directed his attention to the latter object ; and in order most completely to expose the publication of his opponent, he has disposed his pamphlet in the form of a dialogue, introducing Dr. Rowley under the name of Bragwell as one.of the interlocutors, and forming his part of the discourse almost eutirely of quotations from his own book : the other speakers being a clergyman, who is supposed to have waited on Dr. Rowley for the purpose of asking his opinion on the merits of vaccination, and a surgeon, who comes in towards the conclusion of the debate, and replies to the arguments used by the doctor ; leaving the clergyman fully satisfied as to the security and safety of the cow.pox.

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Mr. Blair particularly endeavours to point out the misrepresenta. tions of his opponent, and the weak foundation on which his facts are stated Dr. Rowley adduced 504 cases, in which he positively a serts that the small.pox had occurred after vaccination : but, on examining this list, it is found that in 127 of them, the names or places of abode are wanting ; and in 238, it is not mentioned by whom they were vaccinated, or indeed whether they ever had the disease at all In 45 cases, also, it may be inferred that the pa: tients had been exposed to the small-pox infection, previously to the vaccination having been performed ; and it appears that, in these instances, no proof iö given that the constitutional or local symptoms wcie manifested before the exposure to the variolous contagion. It is evident that Dr. Rowley has confounded mere inoculation with actual vaccination. From these observations, our readers will be able to appreciate the value of the doctor's cases; and they will probably agree with us in thinking, that it is unnecessary to pay any farther attention either to his facts or to his arguments.

In the latter part of this pamphlet, we have some interesting infor, mation respecting the effects produced by vaccination in the city of Vienna, and we find that the diminution of deaths from the small. pox has been beyond the most sanguine expectations. The following table exhibits the result of five years :

A. D. Total Deaths. By Small-pox.
1800,
14,600

835
1801,
15,181

164
1802,
14,522

61
14,583

27 1804,

14,035 It is painful to observe, as a contrast to this statement, that in our own metropolis " not less than 550 deaths from the small-pox occurred during the last three months of 1805.” We think that the Jennerian Society is justified in attributing this circumstance " to the contagion of the small-pox, disseminated by the means of the renewed and greatly increased practice of inoculation for this dreadful disease ;” and we do not hesitate to ascribe a part at least of this evil to the mischievous publications of Dr. Rowley and his coadjutors.

In our next number, we shall resume the consideration of this subject, by noticing other publications on this controversy,

31

EDUCATION

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EDUCATION, &c. Art. 36. Tangible Arithmetic; or, the Art of Numbering made

easy, by Means of an Arithmetical Toy, which will express any Number up to 16, 666, 665; and with which, by moving a few Balls, a great Variety of Operations in Arithmetic may be performed. Intended to assist Mothers and Teachers in the lustruc tion of Children. By William Frend, Esq. Second Edition. 12mo. 78. 6d. Mawman. 1806.

We have usually been, but not from intention, very late in no. ticing the ingenious and useful productions of this author. The present little tract deserves, from its intrinsic worth, to have had an carlier notice : but we now recommend it strenuously to those persons for whoni, according to the title page, it was chiefly intended. It contains many useful suggestions and clever artifices of instruction; and the toy, as it is called, is a simple and ingenious machine of computation. It rarely happens that a person of Mr. Frend's accomplishments and attainments descends to the instruction of children ; and when such an event occurs, it becomes the duty of parents to avail themselves of the advantage thus held out to them. Art. 37. Exempla Erasmiana; or, English examples to be turned

into Latin, according to the Order of the Rules in a Compen. " dium of the Latin Syntax by Erasmus ;' to which are added a few English Idiomatical Expressions, by B. D. Free, A.M. 12mo. pp. 138. Robinson. This production, it is said, is intended for beginners, and with that view the examples are made not only few in number, but concise in themselves. It appears to us, however, that the exemplifications and the rules are sufficiently numerous, and the Latin words abounding. However this may be, the author ludicrously estimates both his own ability and the subject on which it is employed, when, having expressed a hope of an indulgent reception, he adds that, should his tract be introduced into schools, and obtain their patronage, he shall exclaim with Horace, “ Exegi monumentum ere perennius. Art. 38. Fenelon's Treatise on the Education of Daughters, translated

from the French, and adapted to English Readers, with an original Chapter on Religious Studies. By the Rev. T. F. Dibdin, B.A.F.R.S. 8vo. pp. 245. 83. Boards. Longman and Co.

It would be almost superfluous, at this period, to undertake an examination of this valuable treatise, with which the illustrious Fene. lon opened his literary career. Shortly after its first appearance, he was appointed, without solicitation, to the important office of preceptor to the French princes, which laid the foundation of his splen. did ecclesiastical preferment. The opinion thus unequivocally and honorably expressed by the court of France has received the fullest sanction from posterity and though more recent publications have contributed to diminish the relative value of Fenelon's work, it will still continue to be read with advantage and delight.

The present translation is evidently the nasty production of a 800 to whom the language of the original is by no means familiar ; and the substituted chapter on religious duties offers little that is new,

and

and still less that is objectionable. --The volume is ornamented with an interesting frontispieces and the typography does great credit to the Cheltenham press. Art. 39. Fables, antient and modern, adapted for the Use of Chil

dren from three to eight Years of Age. By Edward Baldwin, Esq. With Copper Plates. 2 Vols. 12mo.

8s. Boards. Hodgkins.

In the execution as well as the design of this work, the author is intitled to considerable praise The usefulness of Fables in en. forcing the precepts of morality, and in explaining maxims for the co duct of life, has been acknowleged in all ages to bring down, therefore, this method of teaching wisdom to the

comprehension of young children is a ,praise-worthy undertaking The adaptation of the Fables, which are here used, consists in charging the style and language to such as will be proper in the first stages of childhood. in relating the subjects in such a manner as will engage the attention of young minds, and in explaining the several particulars so as not only' to improve the mind with knowlege, but also to engage the affections on the side of virtue. Mr. Baldwin professes that he intended to make the publication a compendium of the most familiar points of natural history, and the knowlege of live, without being subjected to the discouraging arrangements of a book of science ; and to be instrumental in forming the mind of the learner to habits of medi. tation and reflection. The intention was very laudable, and the execution of the design proves how well it has been fulfilled. Art. 40. An Introduction to Geography, intended chiefly for the Use

of Schools : including a short Account of the Solar System, and the Use of the Terrestrial Globe; with some Remarks on the Pronunciation of the Names of Foreign countries, &c. By Isaac Payne. 12 mo. 28. 6d. Boards. Phillips and Fardon. 1806.

Mr. Payne states his object, in the present Introduction, to have been to explain in a clear and concise manner the most useful geographical terms, and to give a short description of the different countries of the world. This description is intended to embrace the boundaries, extent, chief towns, rivers, lakes, mountains, and finally the divisions of each country. He observes that, as the ele. ments of astronomy are connected with geography, it is necessary that the learner should be made acquainted with the true figure of the earth, together with its diurnal and annual motions; as well as be furnished with a slight insight into the planetary system in general. For this reason, in the concluding part of the work, he has given a short account of the planetary system, and has inserted some useful problems on the terrestrial globe.

A few typographical errors disfigure this useful little work; and some of the late geographical arrangements have been overlooked. What will in future belong to Prussia it is not for us to guess, but it was well known that Neuchatel, which is here mentioned as subject to that kingdom, had been for some time severed from it by the heavy hand of France : but mistakes of this kind in the present day are scarcely a reproach.

Art.

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