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Ethelbert, the Saxon King of Kent, soon after his conversion to Christianity, founded the church of Canterbury; and, determining to form similar establishments in other parts of his kingdom, he next fixed upon Rochester. This was called by the Saxons, Hroffe-ceaster, that is, Roffe's city, so named, it is said, from one Roffe, a chief, who first began to build there.
The see of Rochester was founded about the year 600; but although one of the most ancient, it is one of the smallest in the kingdom. The manor of Bromley was given to it in the eighth century; and the bishops of Rochester have ever since had a palace there. The benefactions to this see have been few, and, indeed, at present its revenues are extremely small; one great cause of which may be found in the frequent and ruinous inroads made by the Danes. At the time of the Conquest, the church of Rochester was in such a state of poverty, that divine service could not be kept up in it; but it was soon afterwards re-established, chiefly by the zeal and influence of Laufranc, archbishop of Canterbury.
The Cathedral is in the form of a double cross, and consists of a body and two aisles. It extends, from the west door to the choir steps, 150 feet, and thence to the east window, 156 feet, being in all, 306 feet. At the entrance into the choir is a great crossaisle (or west transept), over the centre of which stands the tower, now presenting a modern appearance, in consequence of a restoration made ten years since, when the spire which surmounted it was taken away. The length of the west transept, from north to south, is 122 feet. At the upper end of the choir, between the bishop's throne and the high altar, is another cross-aisle (or east transept), about 90 feet across. Between these two transepts on the north side, adjoining the church, stands an old ruined tower, not higher than the roof of the church. It was called the five-bell tower, and was built in the reign of William Rufus, by the famous Gundulph, the thirtieth Bishop, for the purpose of containing bells, or perhaps as a repository for records. It is also sometimes called the Mint. This tower is of amazing strength, the walls being ten feet in thickness, though the whole forms a square of only forty feet on the outside. The same Gundulph is celebrated for building the keep or great tower of Rochester Castle, which is still nearly perfect as to its outward figure, and is one of the most curious specimens of Norman castlearchitecture now existing in England. He was also employed in constructing the White Tower, in the Tower of London.
The nave of the cathedral, and the noble west front, with the exception of some of its parts, were the work of the same skilful architect. The north side of the west transept was erected after a conflagration, which had destroyed a great portion of the structure, in 1179, and the south side was added early in the following century. The choir and east transept were built in the reigns of John and Henry the Third, from the produce of oblations made at the shrine of St. William. This saint was a pious and wealthy baker, a native of Scotland, who had undertaken a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; but, when on the road to Canterbury, he was robbed and murdered by his servant, near Rochester; and, having been buried in the Cathedral, was canonized on account of some miracles which were alleged to have been performed at his tomb.
The west front is very beautiful, but exhibits different periods of architecture. The principal doorway opens in a recess, under a bold semicircular arch, which is richly orftftmantod. The wall above
this arch seems to have been divided into ranges of niches with small arches over them, adorned with zig-zag mouldings. Many of these niches end abruptly, having evidently been cut through, to make way for the grand west window. This window is of a later age than the parts just described; and, having shared in the late alterations, has a look of freshness which does not harmonize with the other parts. The extensive repairs made in Rochester cathedral were, however, in a great degree, required, on the score of safety, some of the pillars on the south-east side having evidently got out of the perpendicular.
On entering by the west door, there is a descent of several steps into the nave, the greater portion of which retains its original character: the first five columns on each side, and half of the sixth, being in the massive Norman style, with plain capitals supporting semicircular ornamented arches. No two of the columns on the same side are alike, though each exactly agrees with the one immediately facing it in the opposite row. Above the arches is another tier, of the same size, between which are smaller arches, with short, thick columns. Here is also a gallery communicating with the circular staircases in the angles of the west front. The more eastern arches of the nave are in a less ancient style, having rich grooved mouldings, and rising from clusters of slender pillars. The roof is of timber, on the parts supporting which are carved figures of angels with shields of arms.
A flight of ten steps leads into the choir through a plain arch, under a simple stone screen, on which are the organ-gallery and organ. The architecture of this part of the building is of the pointed style throughout. The choir was newly paved and pewed, about 1743, when an altar-piece, the bishop's throne, and stalls for the dean and chapter, were added.
The west transept is nearly in the same style. The east transept is divided into two aisles, over the easternmost of which, in both divisions, are apartments, ascended by winding staircases in the wall. In these were nightly deposited the vestments, jewels, sacred vessels, and other treasures belonging to the altars and shrines of St. William, St. Paulinus, and others, which stood in different parts of the choir. The northern part of this transept is called the chapel of St. William, from the reputed saint whose remains were there enshrined. The crypt, extending beneath a great part of the structure, has been thought by some to be of the Norman age; but it is probably not so ancient as the west front, or as Gundulph's tower.
Many ancient and curious monuments are found in this cathedral. Among them may be mentioned a plain stone chest, standing in the south-east corner of the choir, said to have contained the remains of Bishop Gundulph; under the next window to this, westward, is another stone chest, over which is the figure of a bishop carved in Petworth marble. There are other similar receptacles of the dead, well worthy of notice, particularly a fine monument, partly of alabaster, of Walter de Merton, founder of Merton College, Oxford, but of modern date, compared with that of the time in which he lived. The east aisle of St. William's chapel contains the monument of Bishop Warner, who, besides other important charities, founded Bromley College, a comfortable asylum for widows of clergymen. A richly-coloured tomb and figure of one of the early bishops was discovered, during the repairs made by Mr. Cottingham.
In the south part of the west transept, is the monument, with a bust, of R. Watts Esq., who was recorder of Rochester, and member of Parliament in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He died in 1579, and by his will founded an alms-house in Rochester, under strange terms and conditions, as will be seen by the following inscription in front of the house, which is in the midst of the city.
Richard Watts, Esq, by his will, dated 22nd August, 1579, founded this charity for six poor travellers, who, not being Rogues or Proctors, may receive gratis, for one night, lodging, entertainment, and four-pence each; &c.
This old house is neatly kept, and the object of the founder fulfilled. There is a good-sized room, in which the poor travellers take tea, and they have small but clean beds in separate rooms.
The reason sometimes given for Mr. Watts's excluding proctors from a share in his hospitable design, is, that when suffering under an alarming illness, he had employed a proctor to make his will; and that, on his unexpected recovery, he found that the lawyer had made over the estates to himself. But the most probable explanation is, that he disliked those Proctors, otherwise Procurators, who, in the reign of Elizabeth, had dispensations from the Pope to absolve the queen's subjects from their allegiance. The mansion which he left to be sold for this endowment, was called Satis; and it is said to have received its name from the following circumstance. Mr. Watts had the honour of entertaining Queen Elizabeth at this house on one of her progresses. On this occasion, he apologized to his Sovereign on her departure, for the smallness and inconvenience of his residence; to which she replied shortly, but to the point, by the word " Satis" (Sufficient).
ENGLISH PROSE WRITERS. No. III. Lord Bacon, Francis Bacon, the son of Sir Nicholas and Lady Anne Bacon, was born at York-House in the Strand, on the 22nd of January, 1560-1. Queen Elizabeth was so struck by the steadiness and ability which he displayed, at a very early age, that she called him "her young lord keeper." He was entered of Trinity College, Cambridge, June 10, 1573, and is said, not only to have mastered all the branches of science, as they were then taught, before he was sixteen, but to have arrived at the opinions he afterwards entertained, of the impossibility of acquiring a true knowledge of the laws of nature, without a complete change in the manner of studying them. On leaving Cambridge, he went to reside under the roof of Sir Amias Powlet, the English ambassador at Paris, whose opinion of his ability and discretion was such, that he intrusted him with an important commission to the queen, which he executed to his complete satisfaction. At the age of nineteen, he published, A Succint View of the State of Europe, the fruit of his observation on the continent. After his return, which took place upon his father's death, he entered himself of Gray's Inn, for the purpose of studying the law, though he was so far from confining himself to his intended profession, that he took a comprehensive survey of the whole state of science, and planned, and probably sketched, the philosophical work, which is the great monument of his fame. His progress in his professional and public life, was less rapid than might have been expected, from his extraordinary powers and family influence: but at last, in 1616-17, he was raised to the highest dignity of his profession, that of Lord Chancellor, having passed through the offices of Solicitor and Attorney General, and that of Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and acquired a great reputation, by many learned works. He was created Baron Verulam in 1618, and afterwards, Viscount St. Alban's. Lord Bacon is justly considered as the father of
modern science. The great doctrine which he taught, and which was soon to be followed so successfully by Newton, was, that the foundation of all reasoning on scientific subjects must be laid in facts, collected by patient observation. The laws of nature can only be discovered by observing the operations of nature: and it is not till they are certainly established by observation and experiment, that they can be made the subjects of reasoning, and pushed to their consequences. It was a favourite saying of this great man's, "that the kingdom of science, like the kingdom of God, could only be entered in the character of a child j" another was, that " a blind man in the right road, would outstrip a swift runner in a wrong one." He employed all his powers in establishing this new method, the importance of which was foreseen by him, and is constantly receiving additional proof. He pointed out the principal errors by which the human mind is apt to be misled; and laid down numerous rules, for contriving and conducting profitable experiments; but he did not himself leave any successful example of his own method, and was even behind some of his contemporaries, especially Galileo, in scientific knowledge. His language is so stately, so rich in figures ,and comparisons of extraordinary force and aptness, so nervous, and yet full, that the admirer of Bacon is justly attached to the very words of his master: and the Christian is gratified by the powerful and splendid passages, in which the truth as it is in Jesus is professed by this great philosopher. I cannot refrain from here inserting one short composition of his,
The Student's Prayer.
"To God the Father, God the Word, God the Spirit, we pour forth most humble and hearty supplications; that he, remembering the calamities of mankind, and the pilgrimage of this our life, in which we wear out days few and evil, would please to open to us new refreshments, out of the fountains of his goodness, for the alleviating our miseries. This' also we humbly and earnestly beg, that human things may not prejudice such as are divine; neither, that from the unlocking of the gates of sense, and the kindling of a greater natural light, any thing of incredulity, or intellectual night, may arise in our minds towards divine mysteries. But rather, that by our mind thoroughly cleansed and purged, from fancy and vanities, and yet subject and perfectly given up to the divine oracles, there may be given unto faith, the things that are faith's.—Amen."
Painful, most painful it is to hear, that this great, and in mind and knowledge, Christian philosopher, fell into a great sin; and that not from any strong temptation, not in any doubtful matter, but in the obvious and easy duty of judicial integrity. He was accused and convicted of having received bribes, and that frequently, and to a great amount, " to blind his eyes therewith." This conviction was followed by a heavy fine and by disgrace, from which he never entirely recovered himself. We are told by Rushworth, that "he treasured up nothing for himself or his family, but was over-indulgent to his servants, and connived at their takings, and their ways betrayed him into that error:" and that "though gifts rendered him suspected for injustice, yet never any decree made by him was reversed as unjust." This is some palliation of the crime, but cannot be admitted as a sufficient excuse.
Let us hope that his fall was followed by a godly sorrow, working repentance; and, with respect to ourselves, let it remind us of the vast superiority of religious practice over religious knowledge. If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them.
T. K. A.
In the parish of Kirkoswald, upon the north-west point of a rocky angle of the coast turning towards Girvan, are the ruins of the ancient and once celebrated Turnberry Castle. It originally belonged to Alexander Earl of Carrick, who died in the Holy Land, and left three daughters. The eldest, named Margaret, married to Allen Lord of Galloway; Isabella; and Adama, the youngest, who espoused Henry Lord Hastings. Isabella the second daughter, married Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale, in 12/4; and from this marriage sprung the kings of Scotland, of the race of Stuart. The successors of Bruce, till the period when they ascended the throne of Scotland, were styled Earls of Carrick.
Turnberry Castle was in the hands of the English in the expedition of King Edward the First. In 1306, Bruce, having taken shelter in the Isle of Arran, sent from thence a trusty confidant into Carrick, to learn how his vassals in that territory stood affected to the cause of their ancient lord. If he saw that the dispositions of the people were favourable, the messenger was directed to make a signal on a day appointed, by lighting a fire on an eminence, above the Castle of Turnberry. The messenger found the English in possession of Carrick; Percy with a numerous garrison at Turnberry; the country dispirited, and in thraldom; no one i ready to espouse the party of Bruce; and many whose inclinations were hostile.
From the first dawn of the day appointed for the signal, Bruce anxiously looked towards the coast of Carrick, and, soon after noon, perceiving a fire on the eminence above Turnberry, he flew to his boats; but night surprised him and his associates while they were yet on the sea. Guided by the fire, they reached the shore, where the messenger met them, and reported that there was no hope of aid: " Traitor!" exclaimed Bruce, "why did you make the signal." "I made no signal," was the reply; "but observing a fire on the eminence, I feared it might
deceive you, and I hastened hither to warn you from the coast."
Amidst the dangers which encompassed him, Bruce hesitated what to avoid, or what to encounter. At length, yielding to the dictates of courage and despair, he resolved to persevere in his enterprise. He attacked the English, who were carelessly cantoned in the neighbourhood of Turnberry, put them to the sword, and pillaged their quarters. Percy, from the castle, heard the uproar, yet durst not issue against an unknown enemy. Bruce, with his followers, not exceeding three hundred in number, remained for some time near Turnberry; but, succours having arrived from the neighbouring garrisons, he sought shelter in the mountainous parts of Carrick.
Some years after this, Bruce stormed Turnberry Castle, and pursuing his policy of disabling all the fortifications of this kind which fell into his possession, nearly destroyed it; the ruins which remain are those of the original castle, for it does not appear ever to have been rebuilt. He saw that the English, by means of forts judiciously placed, had maintained themselves in Scotland with little aid from their sovereign, and wished to prevent such a misfortune from occurring for the future; perhaps also he apprehended, that when the country should become settled in peace, the possession of fortified castles might render his own barons no less formidable than the English garrisons had been.
The situation of the Castle of Turnberry is extremely delightful, having a full view of the Frith of Clyde, and its shores. Upon the land-side, it overlooks a rich plain of about 600 acres bounded by hills which rise beautifully around. There are still to be seen the vestige of a ditch, and part of the buttresses of the drawbridge. Beauties of Scotland.
Those who understand the value of time, treat it as prudent people do their money; they make a little go a great way. Hanway.
II. Metals. Colours.
In a former paper on Heraldry, we treated of the Shield; in the present, we will enter on the TincTures, used in Heraldry.
Shields were originally covered on the outside, either with a plate of metal, a hard wood, or the thick skin of some animal. The metal shield of a remarkable person would soon become washed either with gold or silver; the wood would in a short time be painted, or the skin would be selected with regard to beauty. Hence the Tinctures of Heraldry.
The most simple plan of dividing these Tinctures, is to consider them as three;—Metals, Colours, and Furs. To begin with the
Metals. Two only are used in Heraldry, namely, Gold, and Silver, which are called by their French names, Or, and Argent; indeed, we may remark, once for all, that the language of Heraldry is generally drawn from the French. Of these metals, Or, both from its splendour, and from the superior value of the metal itself, ranks first: in painting these Tinctures, yellow, of which chrome is the best, is substituted for Or, and white for Argent, when the metals themselves cannot be laid on; in engravings, Or is represented by an indefinite number of minute spots spread over the shield, while argent is left by the engraver plain, as in the annexed examples.
Though Heraldry uses only two metals she has been more liberal in the
Colours, of which she permits seven—which are thus named; Gules (red), Azure (blue), Vert (green), Purpure (purple), Sable (black), Teiuie (orange), and Sanguine (blood colour.)
Gules, which is a brilliant shade of red, has by many been supposed to be derived from the colour of blood. Indeed, we may easily imagine a warrior, proud of his shield sprinkled with the blood of a formidable antagonist; or that some follower, perhaps a son, who had with great hazard rescued the bloody corpse to which his affections were united, might determine, either in warlike pride, or in the warmth of piety, that the blood-stained shield should never again depart out of his house. This might be accepted as a reason why Gules was admitted among the colours of Heraldry; indeed, in the coat-armour of the noble houses of Hay and Keith, and in the imperial coat of Austria, Gules was introduced as representing blood; but the legends which prove this are better referred to another paper. The etymology of the word, however, would point to another origin, and one which, with our ancestors, was second only to their habit of war, a fondness for the chase. Gules, is evidently derived from the French gueule, a word signifying the jaws and throat of an animal, particularly the dog—whence our vulgar word gullet: and when we remember the beauty of the colour of that part of the animal, the constant display of it by the dog, both in the cry of the chase, and in his fawning on his master, and the affection which exists between the sportsman and his hound, we may
A Sure, (blue.)
probably conclude that this was one reason why the colour was selected. In painting, Gules will be well represented by a mixture of vermilion, with a little lake and white; in engraving, it is delineated by a series of fine perpendicular lines.
Azure, the second colour used in Heraldry, is probably taken from the clear blue of the heavens. The shields of the Saxon Kings of England and the Kings of France will appear to fortify this opinion; but the description of these shields must also be deferred, because, at present, the reader is not informed sufficiently in the terms of Heraldry. In painting, Azure is well produced by ultra-marine, with a slight admixture of white; in engraving, the colour is designated by fine horizontal lines.
We may well conceive that Vert, the third colour in Heraldry, is taken from hunting scenes, and the green shades of the forest. Vert is grass-green, and produced by the combination of yellow and blue. It is represented by the engraver by lines falling, diagonally, from the dexter * (or right hand) and upper part of the shield to the base.
Purpure.—The language of heraldry is generally derived from the French; this word, however, retains its original Greek aspect, and the colour purple, and the name, have evidently been handed down to us from the throne of the Caesars. There is, we believe, some uncertainty as to what was the exact shade of the imperial purple, and it is very possible that Heraldry may throw some light on this question. The colour purple, as appearing in coat-armour, is the compound tint of blue and red, in which the red is just sufficiently predominant to give it warmth, and we may, with every probability, connect this colour with antiquity, when we consider, that the Popes, on their obtaining the supremacy at Rome, adopted the imperial colour, and from their example it was used by noble ecclesiastics in their armorial bearings; this colour, indeed, has generally, both in modern and ancient heraldry, originated with the clergy: nevertheless, in the arms of the kings of Leon, and of the noble family of Lacey, earls of Lincoln, there appears a " Lion purpure." This colour is also introduced in the coat of the ancient family of Burton of Longuor, near Shrewsbury. The learned Dr. Burton, Regius professor of Divinity at Oxford, is descended immediately from this house. Purpure is delineated in engravings by lines falling diagonally from the left-hand side of the shield to the base. The arms of Leon are annexed in order to give the reader a first view of the complete heraldic shield, a bearing on a different tincture; namely a lion purpure, on a shield or; the general mode of describing this coat for the sake of brevity would be " Or, a lion rampant purpure."
. ARM! Or LEON,
a shield, or; liou rampant,
* In speaking of the dexter and sinister (or left hand) parts of s«, shield, it is always supposed that the shield is carried on the
Sable.—The ancient warrior armed himself in black, probably under the idea that his appearance would be more terrific to his enemy. It is possible that, in some cases, Sable was chosen as a mourning tint for the loss of some favourite leader. A modern instance of this feeling occurs in the conduct of the Brunswick Hussars, who, after the death in battle of the late Duke of Brunswick, always appeared in the field in black. The engraver delineates Sable by perpendicular and horizontal lines crossing each other.
Tenne and Sanguine, which are orange and blood colour, are terms mentioned in old books on Heraldry. Their use, however, in blazonry, is so rare as to give rise to the suspicion, that, whenever they were borne it was merely the fanciful deviation of some individual, and not the habit of any house. They are now, we believe, never introduced. Tenni probably has given rise to the word Tawney. In foreign Heraldry, Tenne" is borne by the royal family of Holland, in allusion, it is supposed, to the principality of Orange.
In Blazonry, colour is never blazoned on colour, nor metal on metal; the interchange is universally required.
As this paper on colour is necessarily extended to a length too great to admit, at present, the description of the Furs, we will close it by stating what colours and metals have been more generally borne by the different grades of society among our ancestors.
Royal houses and the great noblesse, generally, in their arms adopted the more brilliant contrasts, and used Or very constantly interchanged with Gules or Azure. The coats of England and France are familiar examples of this. A vast majority of the noble followers of William the Conqueror used also the same metal and colours, and so generally, that a very few only lowered the brilliant effect of these combinations, by admitting the colder tincture Argent. Vert, though a beautiful colour in itself, has been very little used in Heraldry. We are not aware that any royal house has adopted this colour. However, though its appearance is not frequent in coat-armour, it has still, in a few instances, been selected by some of the most ancient houses in the kingdom, and also by some who were very noble. Among these we will mention the baronial families of Berners and Poynings, and the knightly house of Drury, of Saxham, in Suffolk. The family of Drury is still remaining in the male line, though its origin is as ancient as the Conquest. To these we may add the very ancient house of Whitmore, of Apley Park, in Shropshire. All these families, distinguished by antiquity, admitted Vert in their armorial ensigns.
The generality of the English gentle-houses who bore arms, do not appear to have assumed splendid tinctures in their heraldry. Azure they frequently combined with argent; gules they mostly interchanged with the same metal; but the contrast they commonly used was the most modest of all, argent and sable. We will mention a few instances of this blazonry among the English gentry, premising that many of the families noticed are of extreme antiquity,—none of later date than from three to four hundred years.
In Lancashire, Hoghton of Hoghton; in Cheshire, Warburton, of both branches; in Nottinghamshire, Clifton of Clifton; in Derbyshire, Harpur of Calke; in Leicestershire, Burton of Stockeston; in Northperson of the warrior, and, consequently, the dexter part is opposite the left hand of the spectator.
amptonshire, Langham of Cottesbroke; in Staffordshire, Wrottesley of Wrottesley; Pigot, of Pats Hull; Littleton of Teddesley; Lawley, Lord Wenlock, of Can well: in Shropshire, Hill of Hawkstone; Lyster of Rowton; Cludde of Orleton and Cludleigh; Smythe Owen of Condover: in Worcestershire, Sebright of Besford; in Warwickshire, Boughton of Lawford, and Shuckburgh of Shuckburgh; in Gloucestershire, Hale of Alderley, Kingscote of Kingscote; in Devonshire, Wrey of Tawstock, Prideaux of Netherton, the family of Buller; in- Cornwall, the house of Trelawney; in Hampshire, the Astons of Farnham; in Essex, Wiseman of Canfield Hall; in Sussex, Mill of Camois Court; in Cambridgeshire, Cotton of Landwade; in Rutlandshire, Harrington of Redlington; in Lincolnshire, Thorold of Syston, and the House of Ingilby; in Yorkshire, Kaye of Woodesham, Lawson of Brough Hall, Tempest of Tong, Stapyltonof Myton; and in Durham, Smythe of Esh, are some of the instances which abound, of gentle families who blazoned merely in the humble tinctures of black and white.
In later days, commercial wealth has very much interfered with family distinctions; and, in Heraldry, the more novel coats have generally displayed, perhaps, even a gaudiness in tincture, with crowded and discordant bearings.
In our next Heraldic notice we will treat on the furs.
We read in our books of a delicate Athenian being entertained by one much given to hospitality. Finding anon that another was received with like courtesy, and then a third, he grew very angry: "I thought," said he, "I had found a friend's house, but I am fallen into an inn, to entertain all comers, rather than a lodging for some private and especial friends." On this story, the admirable Hales thus expresses himself: "Let it not offend any, that I have made Christianity rather an inn, to receive all, than a private house, to receive some few; for so both precept and example teach us to extend our good offices, not to this or that man, but to mankind; like the sun, which ariseth not on this or that nation, but on all the world. Julian observes of the fig-tree, that above all trees, it is most capable of grafts and scions of other kinds, so far as that all variety will be brought to take nourishment from one stock. Beloved, a christian must be like unto Julian's figtree, so universally compassionate, that so all sorts of grafts, by a kind of Christian inoculation, may be brought to draw life and nourishment from his root." Hales.
A Mouse, that had lived all his life in a chest, says the fable, chanced one day to creep up to the edge, and, peeping out, exclaimed with wonder, "I did not think the world was so large."
The first step to knowledge is, to know that we are ignorant. It is a great point to know our place: for want of this, a man in private life, instead of attending to the affairs of his "chest," is ever peeping out, and then he becomes a philosopher! He must then know every thing, and presumptuously pry into the deep and secret councils of God: not considering that man is finite, he has no faculties to comprehend and judge of the great scheme of things. We can form no other knowledge of spiritual things, except what God has taught us in his word, and where He stops we must stop.—-cecil.
The note of the cuckoo, though uniform, always gives pleasure, because we feel that summer is coming: but this pleasure is mixed with melancholy, because we reflect that it will so soon be going again. This is the consideration which imbitters all sublunary enjoyments. Let the delight of my heart, then, be in thee, O Lord and Creator of all things, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of changing. Bishop Horne.
Real worth Hots not with people's fancies, no more than a rock in the sea rises and falls with the tide. Fui