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THE HUMAN HAND. There is inconsistency, and something of the child's propensities, still in mankind. A piece of mechanism, as a watch, a barometer, or a dial, will fix attention; a man will take journeys to see an engine stamp a coin, or turn a Jock; yet the organs through which he has a thousand sources of enjoyment, and which are, in themselves, more exquisite in design and more curious, both in contrivance and in mechanism, do not enter his thoughts; if he admire a living action, his admiration will, probably, be more excited, by what is uncommon and monstrous, than by what is natural and perfectly adjusted to its office—by the elephant's trunk, than by the human hand. This does not arise from an unwillingness to contemplate the superiority or dignity of our own nature, nor from an incapacity of admiring the adaptation of parts. It is the effect of habit. The human hand is so beautifully formed, every effort of the will is answered so instantly, as if the hand itself were the seat of that will, that the very perfection of the instrument makes us insensible to its use; we use it as we draw our breath, unconsciously, we have lost all recollection of the feeble and ill-directed efforts of its first exercise, by which it has been perfected, and we are insensible of the advantages we derive from it. The armed extremities of a variety of animals, give them great advantages; but if man possessed any similar provisions, he would forfeit his sovereignty over all. As Galen long since observed, "did man possess the natural armour of the brutes, he would no longer work as an artificer, nor protect himself with a breast-plate, nor fashion it sword or spear, nor invent a bridle to mount a horse, and hunt the lion. Neither could he follow the arts of peace, construct the pipe and lyre, erect houses, inscribe laws, and through letters and the ingenuity of the hand, converse with the sages of antiquity." Sir Charles Bell's Bridgwater Treatise.

Peace On Earth.—At the glad period of our Lord's Nativity there was peace in all the earth. The prevalence of public peace upon earth, had ranked among the number of those interesting signs and tokens which were to accompany the coming of the long-expected Saviour to the scene of his ministry. When we read in the page of prophecy, of the myrtle and the fir-tree taking the place of the bramble and the thorn ■ when we hear of swords beat into pruning-hooks and plough-shares; we are led to fix our attention on that state of outward peace in this world which was to form the commencement of the Gospel age, and to denote the time of the Redeemer's manifestation among men. Accordingly, these predictions were fulfilled in a remarkable manner at the date of our Lord's birth, which may be regarded as the commencement of his kingdom upon earth. Thus, the reign of Augustus Caesar, after its first conflicts were decided, was accompanied by a season of profound and settled peace. The temple of Janus at Rome, which had been shut but twice since the foundation of the city, was at that time closed in token of this public peace. Archdeacon Pott.

Tkk First Hospital for the reception of the diseased and the infirm, was founded at Edessa, in Syria, by the sagacious and provident humanity of a Christian Farther. The history of this memorable foundation is beautifellT given by Sozomen, in his account of St. Ephrem Syrus.

"A grievous famine, with all its inseparable evils, having befallen the city of Edessa, its venerable deacon, at the call of suffering humanity, came forth from the studious retirement of his cell, whither he had long withdrawn, that he might devote his latter days to met tation on the deep things of God. Filled with emotion it sight of the misery which surrounded him, with the warmth of Christian charity, he reproved the rich men c£ Edessa, who suffered their fellow-citizens to perish, from want and sickness; and who preferred their wealth, st once, to the lives of others, and to the safety of their own souls. Stung by his reproaches, and awed by his reverent virtues, the citizens replied, that they cared not for their wealth; but that, in an age of selfishness and corruption, they knew not whom to intrust with its distribution. "What," exclaimed the holy man, "is your opinion of me?" The answer was instant and unanimous: Ephrem was every thing that was holy, and good, and just. "Then," he resumed, "I will be your almoner. For your s <k.•. I will undertake this burden." And receiving'their no* willing contributions, he caused about three hundred beds to be placed in the public porticoes of the city, for the reception of fever-patients: he relieved, also, the furnishing multitudes who flocked into Edessa, from the adjoining country; and rested not from his labour of love until famine Th as arrested, " and the plague was stayed." Then, once more, he returned to the solitude of his beloved cell; and, in a few days after, breathed his last!"

Consider the wisdom and happiness which is found among a swarm of bees; a pattern to all human societies. There is perfect allegiance, perfect subordination; no time is lost in disputing or questioning; but business goes forward with cheerfulness at every opportunity, and the great object is the common interest. All are armed for defence and ready for work; so that in every member of the community, the two characters of the soldier and the labourer are united. If you look to the fruits of this wise economy, you find a store of honey for them to feed upon, when the summer is

passed, and the days of labour are finished. Jones of


Who taught the natives of the field and wood,
To shun their poison and to choose their food?
Search the least path creative power has trod,
How plain the footsteps of the apparent God.



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CAPTAIN FRANKLIN'S FIRST JOURNEY. When Captain Parry was despatched on his first attempt to explore the Polar Sea, with a view to the discovery of a passage into the Pacific Ocean, it was considered, not only that the expedition might be assisted in that object, but also, that material advantage might be rendered to geographical science, by the advance of a party over land to the shores of the Polar Sea, following the route by which Hearne had reached it in 1772. Accordingly, on the recommendation of the Lords of the Admiralty, Lieutenant (now Sir John) Franklin was appointed by Earl Bathurst, the then Secretary of State for the Colonies, to the command of a party for this service, consisting of Doctor John Richardson, a naval surgeon, well skilled in natural history; Messrs. Hood and Back, two admiralty midshipmen; and two English seamen, named Hepburn and Wilks.

This party left Gravesend on the 23rd of May, 1819, in the Hudson's Bay Company's ship, Prince of Wales; and on the 30th of August reached York Factory, the principal depot of the Hudson's Bay Company. Here they received every possible assistance from the servants of the Company, who used the utmost endeavours to forward their progress, and readily instructed them as to the different modes of- travelling which it might be advisable to adopt. On the 9th of September, the party commenced their river journey into the interior, and on the 22nd of October, reached Cumberland House, having travelled a distance of C90 miles. The winter was now beginning to set in; and the effect of a few day*' host convincing them of the impracticability of a further advance that season, they resolved to remain at this post until the

Vol. III.

ensuing spring. A conversation, however, with the gentlemen who had the charge of the establishment, was sufficient to assure Captain Franklin of the necessity of his proceeding, during the winter, into the Athabasca department, in order that he might be enabled to secure guides, hunters, and interpreters, and obtain information as to the countries lying to the north of the great Slave Lake, before the season for active operations had begun. Accordingly, on the 18th of January, 1820, he departed for Fort Chipewyan, accompanied by Mr. Back and the seaman Hepburn; leaving Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood at Cumberland House, to devote the remainder of the winter to scientific pursuits, with the intention that they should follow with the baggage early in the spring, as soon as the navigation was open. The other seaman, Wilks, having proved to be quite unequal to the fatigue of the journey, was discharged, and sent home by the next ship.

The mode of winter-travelling practised in these countries is twofold,—by conveyance in dog-sledges, or by walking in snow-shoes. The sledge is slight, and simple in its construction, consisting merely of two or three thin boards, which curve upwards in front, and are fastened together by pieces of wood running across their upper side. Its length is eight or ten feet, but the breadth inconsiderable; and the edges have a lacing attached to them, which serves to secure the lading. When used by the trader for his personal conveyance, it assumes a more finished character and appearance, under the name of cariole. A covering of leather is then fixed so as to protect the lower part of the body; and the whole machine is painted and ornamented according to the taste of the proprietor.


A mow-shoe is made of two light bars of wood, connected by several transverse bars, the Spaces between which are filled with a fine netting of leathern thongs. To this the foot is attached by straps passing round the heel, but only fixing the toes, so as to allow the heel to rise after each step. To those who are unaccustomed to the use of these implements, the miseries occasioned by walking in them are said to be dreadful in the extreme. Galled feet and swelled ankles, and a track marked with blood, are the invariable accompaniments of the traveller's first trial; but the acuteness of his sufferings is gradually diminished, and soon ceases altogether.

More than two months had elapsed before Captain Franklin reached Fort Chepewyan, the distance being 857 miles from Cumberland House. The whole of this journey lay through an inhospitable region, barren and almost uninhabited. The party travelled by day, and rested at night. Their mode of encampment was simple, and exposed them sufficiently to the severity of the weather. It consisted merely in clearing away the snow from the ground, and covering the space with pine-branches, over which the party spread their blankets and coats. A store of fuel was collected for the night, and the fire then kindled; the sledges were unstowed, the dogs unharnessed, and the provisions hung upon the trees out of the reach of these voracious animals. Supper was then cooked, and the weary travellers, ranging themselves round the fire with their feet towards it, at length slept in warmth nnd comfort, without any other canopy than the heavens. The engraving in page 252, from Captain Franklin's Narrative, will convey a corroct notion of the manner of making this resting-place.

On the arrival of spring, Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood rejoined their companions at Fort Chepewyan; and active preparations were now made for the advance of the expedition. A party of Indians were procured, to serve as guides and hunters, until they reached the mouth of the Coppermine River, and undertook to join them at a subsequent stage, where they were also to be met by a Mr. Wcntzel, a clerk of the North West Company, who ofTered himself as a medium of communication with those people, among whom ho had lived long and familiarly. Sixteen Canadian voyagers were also engaged to accompany them throughout the whole journey; and with these our five countrymen set out, on the 18th of July, for Fort Providence, which they reached on the 29th. Here they were joined by Mr. Wentzel and the Indians, and, on the 2nd of August, Anally departed, hoping to reach the mouth of the Coppermine, before the season should expire. A variety of impediments, however, so obstructed them, that they were far distant from that point, when they found it necessary to form their winter-establishment. The spot selected for this purpose, was reached on the 19th, and a house was there built, which was afterwards named Fort Enterprise. In the mean while, an excursion waB made by the officers to the head of the Coppermine River, at Point Lake, about sixty miles to the northward, in order to satisfy themselves of its size and position.

The winter wag passed in dull monotony; the officers employed themselves in writing out their journals, constructing the charts, and other similar occupations; and the men wore chielly engaged in seeking firewood. The provisions, however, of the party, were greatly reduced, and their ammunition nearly expended, even at this early period. To procure a further supply, and hasten the transport of the stores expected from Cumberland House, Mr. Back proceeded to Fort Chepewyan; and returned after an absence of nearly five months, during which he had travelled 1104 miles in snow-shoes, with no other covering in the woods on the wintry nights, than a blanket and deer-skin. A part of this extraordinary journey lay across the Great Slave Lake; and the mode of travelling practised there is represented in the engraving at p. 249.

During his absence, a large party of the Copper Indians arrived at Fort Enterprise, and the impression which their kindness and attention produced was favourable. Captain Franklin relates an amusing incident, which strongly marks their simplicity. An old guide had a daughter, who was considered by her tribe to be a great beauty, insomuch that, although under sixteen years of age, she had already belonged successively to two husbands. Mr. Hood drew an accurate portrait of her, much to the annoyance of her mother, who was afraid, she said, that reSid«aU?n4rS,hk« W°«W induce the great chief, who rested m England, to send for the original. This portrait

of Green Stockings, (as the young lady wu called from her dress,) with that of her father, forms one of the plates which illustrate Captain Franklin's narrative.

It was not until the 14th of June, 1821, that the expedition was able to leave Fort Enterprise. Almost a yen hod now elapsed, since they had quitted Fort Providence, and by this time their provisions were greatly reduced. As they proceeded down the Coppermine, however, the grassy plains on its banks afforded them an abundant supply of game. Deer and musk-oxen were also found in large herds, followed, as usual, by great numbers of bears and wolves. These last are gregarious animals, and so sagacious as rarely to be caught in any trap. The stratagem which they practise against the poor deer is as curious as it is successful, on plains bounded by precipitous cliffs.—" Whilst the deer," says Dr. Richardson," are quietly grazing, the wolves assemble in great numbers, and, forming a crescent, creep slowly towards the herd, so as not to alarm them much at first; but, when they perceive that they have fairly hemmed in the unsuspecting creatures, and cut off their retreat across the plain, they move more quickly, and with hideous yells terrify their prey, and urge them to flight by the only open way, which is that towards the precipice, appearing to know, that when the herd is once at full speed it is easily driven over the cliff, the rearmost urging on those that are before; the wolves then descend at their leisure and feast on the mangled carcasses.' These voracious animals were disposed to practise this manoeuvre one evening, upon Dr. Richardson, as betas sitting musing on the summit of a precipice, overlooking the Coppermine River. Hearing a slight noise behind him, he turned round, and saw nine white wolves approaching in tho form of a crescent; aware of their intentions, the Doctor got up and walked boldly tonri them, when they immediately, made an openvag sod let hrm pass. We have given a representation of one of the dusky variety of this animal (Lupus nubilus) in page33).

On the 14th Of July, our travellers obtained their first view of the sea; and when they reached the mouth of tie Coppermine, the Indians quitted them. Mr. Wentiel also turned back, having previously received positive and repeated injunctions from Captain Franklin, to tar up a large store of provisions at Fort Enterprise, and leave a letter there informing him where he might expect to full in with the hunters when he returned. On the Hist, the rest of the party embarked upon the open Polar Sea, in two frail canoes of birch-bark) With provisions for only fifteen days. With this slight equipment, they succeeds, however, in tracing tho northern coast of America for upwards of 550 miles to the eastward from the Coppermine River.

The extreme point of their progress in that direction, was Point Turnagain, in latitude 68° 18' 50", and longitude 109° 25' West. This they reached on the lGthof August, when the approach of winter obliged them to retrace their course back again.

Before they had returned as far as the spot where tne river, which they had named after Mr. Hood, empti** itself into the sea, their provisions were entirely consumed, They well knew, from experience, that the coast along which their track lay, would offer but very scanty meansot recruiting their exhausted supply, and that even tho» means would gradually lessen, as the winter advaMW. Accordingly, Captain Franklin resolved to alter his intended route, and proceeding up Hood's River, to strike acios the interior, and make directly for Fort Enterprise. Tb'J had, however, scarcely advanced far up that stream, M*11 they were stopped by finding it pour its whole body ova a ledge of rock, in a splendid fall 250 feet in height • On the further side, the stream decreased so much, tow they were obliged to abandon its navigation, and pursue their journey on foot. For this purpose, the canoes *<& rendered more portable, their assistance being still needM to oarry tho party across the rivers and lakes which w) expected to meet with; and every part of the baggage, not ■absolutely wanted, was left behind.

They set off on the 31st of August, and soon aftenraw. were surprised and alarmed by a heavy fall of *"* With this, their sufferings began; they had now nothin? to eat, and being destitute of the means of making > »* remained two whole days in bed. When they resume* their march, they experienced all the bitter miserie*«

• Oar readers will find a view and description of this masrustfj cascade, in the Saturday Magaiine, No. 8, ( Vol. I. page 57,) w* the name of the Wilbtrfnrce Falls.

travelling through deep snow, in cold and boisterous weather, and over a barren country, which afforded scarcely a shrub for fuel, and for food only a species of lichen called tripe de roche,—an unpalatable wood, as scanty as it was nauseous. The despair and discontent of the Canadians became groat, as the difficulties of the journey increased* and their negligence, or more probably their wilfulness, caused the destruction of tho two canoes Which they carried.

At length, on the 2dth of September, they reached tho banks of the Coppermine River, and the Canadians now began to consider their misfortunes at an end; but the river was yet to bo passed, before they could approach the place of their destination, and their fatal rashness had destroyed their only means of crossing it. An immediate search was made for pines to construct a raft, but none were to be found. Willows were more plentiful, and a number were gathered and bound into faggots, so as to form a sort of float. But this, from the wood being green, had very little buoyancy, and Was rendered Utterly useless by the want of oars, or poles, to propel it against an Unfavourable wind. Under these circumstances, there seemed nothing left for them, hut to remain where they were, and starve. Dr. Richardson, however, nobly undertook to make a last effort for the relief of the suffering party, by proposing to swim across tho river, (whose breadth was about 130 yards,) with a line attached to his body, and then haul the raft nfter. "He launched into the stream," says Captain Franklin, "With a line round his middle; but when he had got a short distance from the bank, his arms became benumbed with cold, and ho lost the power of moving them; still he persevered, and, turning on his back, had nearly gained the opposite bank, when his legs also became powerless, and, to our infinite alarm, we beheld him sink. AVe instantly hauled Upon the line, and he came again to the surface, and was gradually drawn ashore in an almost lifeless state. Being rolled up in blankets, he Was placed before a good Are of Willows, and, fortunately, Was just able to speak sufficiently to give some slight directions respecting the manner or treating him. He recovered strength gradually, and, by the blessing of God, was enabled, in the course of a few hours, to converse, and by the evening was sufficiently recovered to remove into the tent. We then regretted to learn, that the skin of his whole left side was deprived of feeling, in consequence of exposure to too great heat. He did not perfectly recover the sensation of that side until the following summer. I cannot describe what every one felt at beholding the skeleton which the Doctor's debilitated frame exhibited. When he stripped, the Canadians simultaneously exclaimed, Ah que nous sommes maiyres!"

On tho 1st of October, the wind was still unfavourable for crossing on the raft; and St. Germain, one of the interpreters, now proposed to make a canoe of the fragments of painted canvass in which they wrapped up their bedding. During their detention, in the mean while, their Bufferings from want of provisions were acute in the extreme. On the afternoon of the 1st, a small quantity of tripe de roche was gathered; and one of the hunters brought in the antlers and back-bone of a deer, which had been killed in the summer. "The wolves and birds of prey," says Captain Franklin, "had picked them clean, but' there still remained a quantity of spinal marrow which they had not been able to extract. This, although putrid, was esteemed a valuable prize, and the spine being divided into portions, was distributed equally. After eating the marrow, which was so acrid as to excoriate the lips, we rendered the bones friable by burning, and ate them also." The weather became very stormy, and the despair of the Canadians was such, that they refused to gather tripe de roche, choosing rather to go entirely without food, than make the slightest exertion to procure it. It is pleasing to observe the contrast which the behaviour of the English seaman, John Hepburn, presented to this despondency. He, " animated by a firm reliance on the beneficence of a Supreme Being, tempered with resignation to his will, was indefatigable in his exertions to serve ns, and daily collected all the tripe de roche that was used in the officers' mess." Captain Franklin, himself, was so exhausted, as to be incapable of the most ordinary labour. He attempted to walk three-quarters of a mile, to hasten the operations of St. Germain; but after a vain struggle of three hours, during which he was much shaken by the numerous falls he received, he was compelled to return. Mr. Hood had become a peffect shadow, from the severe bowel-complaint which the tripe de roche invariably gave him. Mr Back

could only walk with the support of a stick, and Dr. Richardson, to his weakness, added lameness. The sensation of hUhger Was no longer felt by any of them, yet strange to say, they were scarcely able to converse upon any other subject than the pleasures of eating.

At length, on the 4th of October, the canoe was finished, hut it was capable of holding only one person. St. Germain embarked the first, amidst the anxious prayers of the whole party assembled on the beach, for his success. He fortunately reached the opposite shore, and the caiioe being then drawn back, another person was transported. In this manner they all were conveyed over without any serious accident! and they were now only 40 miles distant from Fort Enterprise,—the spot, where, according to the arrangement With Mr. Weiitzel, it had been agreed that a dep6t of provisions should be laid up, and in the neighbourhood of which, a band of Indians should be stationed. But the severity of the weather, the wretched weakness of the whole party, and the total absence of all means of recruiting their exhausted strength, rendered a

{ourney of even this short extent, a task almost utterly leyond their powers. Mr. Back was therefore sent forward with three of the men, to search for the Indians, and send relief to his starving companions, who were to follow more leisurely. On the day succeeding his departure, they again resumed their journey; but as they advanced, those who were weaker than the rest, and on whom their sole and scanty source of sustenance, (debility, it should be,) the tripe de roche, produced the "most distressing effects, began to fail altogether. Oil the second day, "previous to setting out, the whole party ate the remains of their obi slioes, nhd Whatever set-ups of leather they had, to strengthch their stomachs for the day's journey." In tho middle of the march, however, two hieh dropped behind, utterly unable to proceed, and perished. Dr. Richardson, and Mr. Hood now proposed, that thoy themselves should halt at the fust place which offered a supply of tripe de roche and firewood, and there remain, while thd rest of the party proceeded, and sent back assistance. Tho plan was adopted; and those two gentlemen remained, with Hepburn, who Volunteered to stop behind also. The separation took place on the 7th of October, while they were yet 24 miles from Fort Enterprise* Captain Franklin Continued his journey with the remainder of the party, consisting of eight persons; but before three days had elapsed, four of them, including one named Michel, an Iroquois, failed ill their strength, and returned to join Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood.

On the evening of the 11th, the Captain, With the others, reached the Fort, in an utterly exhausted state, having tasted no food for Ave days, with the single exception of one meal of tripe de roche. Their feelings may more easily be conceived than described, when, on entering, instead of finding food and succour, and every means of calm repose and rest for their wearied bodies, they beheld "a perfectly desolate habitation!" "There was no deposit of provisions, no trace of the Indians, no letter from Mr. Wentzel, to point out where they might be found." When they had somewhat recovered from the first shock of so dreadful a disappointment, they observed a note in the hand-writing of Mr. Back, stating that ho had reached the house two days before, and that he had gone in search of the Indians in a direction where one of the guides thought it likely they would be, and that he would send relief the instant ho met them.

Four days afterwards, a message arrived from Mr. Back, with the unwelcome tidings, that he had as yet been unsuccessful. Captain Franklin now made a last effort, and collecting some old shoes, scraps of leather, and skins with the hair singed off, set out himself in quest of the Indians; but his strength was unequal to the task, and he returned again to the house of misery and desolation, on the following day. Nearly three long and gloomy Weeks Wore passed in this pitiable condition; during which, they perceived their strength gradually declining every day. When once seated, it was drily with thd greatest difficulty thev could rise; and they had frequently to lift each other. Their only food was tho bones and skins of deer, that had been killed during their residence the preceding winter. These sorry substitutes for wholesome nourishment, had been neglected and cast away in the season of plenty, but were now sought for with the utmost eagerness of which their debilitated frames were capable. The bones were pounded and boiled doWn into an acrid mess, Which they persuaded themselves to call soup, until the insides of their v 96—2

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mouths became so sore from eating it, that they were compelled to relinquish its use. The skins, they at first fried, but afterwards boiled, finding this to be the more palatable mode of dressing them.

At length, on the evening of the 29th, whilst they were seated round the fire, conversing on the subject of the anticipated relief, one of the hunters, with a sudden interruption, joyfully exclaimed "Ah! le monde'" thinking that he heard the Indians in the other room. Immediately afterwards, Dr. Richardson and Hepburn entered, each carrying his bundle; but they were alone—none of their companions were with them. Captain Franklin was instantly seized with fearful apprehensions respecting his friend Hood, which were immediately confirmed by the Doctor's melancholy communication, that both that gentleman and Michel were dead: the details were, however, spared for the present. "We were all shocked," says Captain Franklin, "at beholding the emaciated countenances of the Doctor and Hepburn, as they strongly evidenced their extremely debilitated state. The alteration in our appearance was equally distressing to them, for since the swellings had subsided, we were little more than skin and bone. The Doctor particularly remarked the sepulchral tone of our voices, which he requested us to make more cheerful, if possible, unconscious that his own partook of the same key."

At this moment, Hepburn had succeeded in shooting a partridge, which was brought to the house. "The Doctor tore out the feathers, and having held it to the fire a few minutes, divided it into seven portions. Each piece was ravenously devoured by my companions, as it was the first morsel of flesh any of us had tasted for thirty-one days, unless, indeed, the small grisly particles which we found occasionally adhering to the pounded bones may be termed flesh."

Dr. Richardson now proceeded to give an account of what had befallen him and his party, since the separation; and melancholy indeed was the tale which he had to relate. On the first two days, they had nothing whatever to eat; on the evening of the third, Michel arrived, and brought with him a hare and a partridge, which enabled them to break their long fast. This individual, it will be recollected, was one of the four who had turned back, and loft Captain Franklin, for the purpose of rejoining Dr. Richardson and Mv. Hood. But he alone reached them; the other three were never beard of more. On the 11th, Michel was ubscnt when he returned he stated that he had beon

engaged in an unsuccessful hunt after deer, yet that he had found a wolf which had been killed by the stroke of a deer's horn; and had brought a part of it. "We implicitly believed this story then," says Dr. Richardson, "but afterwards became convinced, from circumstances, the detail of which may be spared, that it must have been a portion of the body of Belanger or Perrault," two of the unfortunate men who had turned back, and one or both of whom, it was strongly suspected, had been murdered by this Iroquois. The conduct of this man now became daily more gloom; and alarming; he absented himself from the party, refused either to hunt or to fetch wood, and frequently threatened to leave them. Poor Hood was rapidly fading; his strength was nearly gone; and the acuto pain which the tripe di roche invariably caused,' whenever he ate it, deprived him of even this their last resource against starvation. They avoided speaking upon the sorrowful subject of their hopeless condition; their minds had decayed with the strength of their bodies, and they could no longer bear to contemplate the horrors that surrounded them. "Still," says Dr. Richardson, " we were calm, and resigned to our fate; not a murmur escaped us, and we were punctual and fer vent in our addresses to the Supreme Being."

But an event soon occurred, which effectually roused them, and caused a sudden exertion of their remaining powers. Michel was daily becoming more sulky, and his unwillingness to assist the others at last amounted to positive refusal. Mr. Hood attempted to remonstrate with him, but only excited his anger. "It is no use hunting: there are no animals, you had better kill and cat nie, was one of the answers which he returned. Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood had already promised that if he would hunt for four days diligently, they would then allow him to proceed to Fort Enterprise with Hepburn, who should be furnished with a letter for Captain Franklin, a compass and instructions for performing the journey. The 21st was the day appointed for the departure. On the 20th, they again urged him to go a hunting, that he might, it possible, leave them some provisions, before quitting them. but he showed groat unwillingness to go out, and lingered about the fire, under the pretence of cleaning his cun. After the morning-service had been read, Dr. Richardson went out to gather tripe de roche, Hepburn was cmployed in endeavouring to provide them a store of fuel, previous to his departure; and Mr. Hood was left sitting a' the fire-side before the tent, arguing with Michel.

"A short time after I went out,^ savs Dr. Richardson

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