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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION, APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
KINGS COLLEGE, LONDON.
The annexed engraving presents a view of the King's College, taken from the interior of the court. It comprises all the principal parts of the building which are at present occupied, and we are happy to profit by the occasion it presents, of communicating to our readers the particulars of an institution, which, united with us in principles, and aiming at the same ends, is earnestly endeavouring widely to diffuse around it, the light of sound learning, and the evidences and influences of the Christian faith. We owe, indeed, some excuse to the public, for not having noticed this institution long ago; but we are not sorry for the delay, as it enables us to speak with more fulness of the operations and progress of the College, and with more confidence of its prospects. It may be proper to observe, that the river-front of the College, now constitutes the left wing of the grand facade of Somerset House, and supplies a striking defect, which has been long a reproach to the metropolis in the eyes of all persons of good taste. Indeed, the completion of this noble edifice was one of the conditions upon which the grant of the ground was made, and all who will now look at this part of the building, from Waterloo Bridge or the river, will be ready to testify how wisely the pledge was required, and how honourably it has been fulfilled.
The King's College was founded about five years ago, under the Royal sanction, by a body of eminent men engaged in various departments of life, but united by a common bond of attachment to that form of Christian doctrine and discipline established in the English Church. Upon this principle the plan was formed, and under this view it was presented to the public; and although the promoters of it were desirous, in conformity to the spirit of the times, as well as to their own taste, to render the instruction they had in view as various, comprehensive, and enlightened as possible, yet from first to last, they have omitted no occasion of putting forth Christian instruction as the striking feature of their scheme, and their best claim to the public approbation. Accordingly, it is described in the charter, as "a College for general education, in conformity to the established Church," in which, while the various branches of literature and science are made the subjects of instruction, the minds of youth will be imbued with a knowledge of religious truths and of moral duties; and the preamble further declares, that His Majesty highly approves of the design of instituting a College, in which the doctrines and duties of Christianity, as taught by the united Churches of England and Ireland, shall be for ever combined with the other branches of useful education.
The College was established by Royal Charter, the patron being the King, and the Archbishop of Canterbury the visitor. The first meeting of the Founders took place on the 21st of June, 1828; the building was commenced, September, 1829, and the College opened, the 8th of October, 1831. The government is vested by the charter in a Council consisting of forty-one members, namely, nine perpetual governors, eight life governors, and twenty-four others, of whom six go out every year by rotation, whose places are filled up at the annual meeting. To this Council, of which the Bishop of London is the official President, all important matters connected with the welfare and constitution of the College are committed; the care and distribution of the revenue, the fees for lectures and instruction, the election of professors and
masters, the selection and regulation of the and the formation of all rules and orders.
The discipline, instruction, and active management are intrusted to a Principal, who superintends the whole, and above thirty Professors and Masters actm» with due authority in their several classes.'
Besides occasional students, of varicfus descriptions, to be hereafter noticed, the College comprises three distinct establishments; an upper department of general literature, for young men of sixteen years of age and upwards; a school of medicine arc' surgery, calculated to complete the education of pupils for every branch of these professions; and a lower department, or school of general instruction, for boys from seven to sixteen.
The Students of the Upper Department are called King's College Students; they are chiefly employed is a regular prescribed course of general study, but are permitted to attend upon any other lectures which may be suited to their several tastes and talents, or to their views in life. The prescribed course embraces, in addition to religious and moral instruction, which is the province of the Principal, the Greek and Latin Classics, Mathematics, English literature and composition, and history, ancient and modern. To this department, also, more especially, are attached the lectures in English laws and jurisprudence, geology, political economy, experimental philosophy, and zoology; also, the professorships of Hebrew and Oriental literature, and of the French, German, Italian, and Spanish language;. The hours for these lectures are so arranged as not to interfere with each other, or with the prescribed studies already mentioned.
Hitherto, no precise time has been laid down or recommended for continuing the course of studies in this department; the Council having thought it best to wait the results of some experience, as to the description of students who should be admitted for education, and their probable destination in life, before any thing upon this head should be determined. It is presumed, however, that they now have it in contemplation to recommend to such of the pupils as may be able to avail themselves of it, some fixed period, which will be considered as an adequate preparation for any of the liberal professions, or higher walks of life, and entitle those who may have passed through it with credit, to a certificate of honour from the College Council. The expense of this department, to a pupil nominated by a proprietor, is twenty guineas a year, and the age for admission is sixteen years; under which none are allowed to enter, excepting in special cases, with the approbation of the Principal. The business of each day begins with prayers at ten o'clock, and closes at two or three. The library, which has been formed expressly for these students, is open till five o'clock. They attend a lecture every Wednesday on Theology, and are examined every subsequent Friday upon the subject of it.
We have great pleasure in communicating this part of the scheme to the public, because we think that few persons, comparatively, are aware at how small an expense students, resident in and about London, may now obtain, at King's College, under tutors of high repute, an education precisely similar to that which they would receive at the Universities; with this addition, that they have the opportunity of acquiring the knowledge of many foreign languages, and different branches of art and science, which may qualify them for particular professions or walks of life. The pupils of medicine and surgery are called King's College Medical Students. Their time is principally occupied in attendance upon lectures, and examinations, in subjects immediately connected with their profession, and in which a certain proficiency is required by the College of Surgeons and Apothecaries' Hall, as necessary to their several diplomas; these are Anatomy and Anatomical Demonstrations, Botany, Chemistry, Materia Medica, the Practice of Medicine, Forensic Medicine, Midwifery, and Surgery. The course of instruction comprehends a period of two years at least, for which some time passed in the senior department of general literature has been strongly recommended by the professors, as a useful preparation. The expense of a pupil in this department, if nominated by a proprietor, is fifty guineas for the two years; that is, twenty-five guineas for each year. The lectures are delivered by well-known and eminent professors, by whom, also, much time and pains are bestowed in the examination of the pupils.
The Council of the College have ever attached, and still continue to attach, a high degree of importance to this branch of their establishment, and have endeavoured to obtain for it all the advantages in their power. They cannot but feel that, to bring the members of the medical profession in contact with an institution, whose main object is to educate the rising youth in Christian principles and morals, is a benefit conferred upon society, as well as upon the persons themselves, and in proportion to the degree of influence they may derive from it. For, besides the fact, which ought never to be lost sight of, that piety and virtue are the best security for the correct and conscientious performance of every social duty; medical men have a place and a responsibility in society peculiar to themselves. On them devolves the delicate, confidential, and we had almost said the sacred, task of attending the sick and dying, and of witnessing the human mind under the greatest of all trials, in moments of abandonment and unguardedness, and when peculiarly open to impressions. Here, then, is an ample field for the exercise of a calm and Christian spirit j and it is difficult to express how much peculiar consolation may be administered, how much distress soothed or prevented, by men, high in moral principle and integrity, and firm in the Christian faith, standing in this relation, and at hand to profit by the confidence it inspires.
But there is another consideration connected with this.subject, which affects the education and character of these persons still more strongly. The pupils of the London medical schools are not, for the most part, persons collected from the metropolis, living in the bosoms of their families, and likely to settle for life where their education has been finished, but chiefly very inexperienced young men, brought together from various, and often distant, parts of the country—exposed, without parental control, to the dangers and temptations of the metropolis,—and, after a certain time, likely to carry back with them to the country, with the skill and science they may have acquired, the moral habits and feelings which may have been contracted or fostered in this city. Under these circumstances, no one can calculate what infinite good the leaven of Christian influence, which is infused in this College, may effect.
These considerations have never ceased to operate with all the authorities in the College; and it is but justice to the medical professors, in particular, to say that they have both recommended religious services and instruction to their pupils, and given every facility to the attendances upon them which the case admits. Nor has this influence been without its due effect. Though no restraint is laid upon the medical pupils in this respect, they have regularly j
attended the daily service of the chapel, with which the business of the College commences, as well as on the sabbath; and it may be said, generally, that they are remarkable for the regularity and propriety of their conduct. Many of them attend the lectures of the Principal, on natural and revealed religion, and a class has been lately formed of medical students, who voluntarily undergo examination, several times in the term, on the subjects connected with these lectures. As an encouragement to these exertions, prizes will be in future adjudged to those, who shall have been most distinguished in the year' for their regularity of conduct, and proficiency in religious knowledge; and when, at the annual meeting, gold medals, and other rewards for medical distinction to the most deserving pupils are announced, it is certain that these marks of the council's approbation will not be forgotten. The medical school opens on the first of October, and continues, with a very short vacation at Christmas, until May.
Of both these departments it may be said, that any of the lectures are open to occasional students, who are admitted upon payment of the professor's fee, without any other charge.
The Grammar-School is conducted by a HeadMaster, a Second Master, and four classical assistants, three French, and two Writing Masters. The course of instruction is substantially the same as that pursued in other great classical schools, with this difference, that being intended to meet the views of various classes of persons in this metropolis, and to prepare young persons for commercial as well as professional pursuits, it adopts a wider field of instruction, and attaches more importance to subjects of general use. Above all, French and English literature, with arithmetic and the elements of mathematics, constitute very prominent features of the scheme, to which German, and architectural drawing, are about to be annexed. The expense of this establishment is Fifteen Guineas to a pupil nominated by a proprietor. In this department, the same care is observed in the inculcation of Christian truth, upon the principles of the English Church. The day begins and closes with prayer, and the Scriptures are regularly read by the pupils, and expounded to them; to the lower classes, the Catechism and formularies of the English Church are the subjects of frequent examination. The success of the King's College School, and the public approbation attached to it, may be in some measure judged of from its numbers. It began two years ago with seventy scholars, and. has now three hundred and six.
The school opens every day at nine, and closes at three, from Michaelmas to Lady-day, and at four during the remainder of the year. Dinner is furnished in the middle of the day at a moderate charge, to all who wish to avail themselves of it, and two of the masters, clergymen, receive boarders in their houses, on terms sanctioned by the council.
The King's College opened for the first time, on the eighth of October, 1831, and the first general report of its proceedings, was presented by the Council to the general court, on the eleventh of April, 1832, at which time, the number of pupils actually in attendance, in all the departments, was seven hundred and fifty. This was within the short period of six months from the foundation of the College. From the report of the succeeding year, which brings us to April, 1833, it appears that the number of students had increased to nine hundred and thirty-three; with this gratifying information annexed, that the greatest increase had taken place in the classes of regular students, a fact, which clearly shows that it is the system itself, and not the popularity of any particular lecturer, which has gained in the public estimation, and contributed most largely to swell its numbers.
Since the foundation of this College, several schools in this metropolis, and in the populous villages in its neighbourhood, have been founded by subscription, for affording a liberal education at a moderate expense, upon the same principle as the King's College, that is, making religious instruction, in conformity with the established Church, an important part of the education. Already, five or six schools in conformity with this principle, have united themselves with the institution, and there is reason to hope, from the communications already received, that the King's College will soon become the centre of an extended system of education, combining all the advantages of a liberal cultivation of the intellect, with a careful instruction in Christian doctrines and duties, according to the principles of the established Church.
FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL PHENOMENA.
No. VI. The Atmosphere. 2.
All the properties of the atmosphere, which we have hitherto noticed, might, for any thing we know, have belonged to dry air. But this would have fallen far short of supplying the wants of other parts of the creation. Water always runs to the lowest level; but, as all animals and vegetables require a constant supply of moisture, some means were necessary, by which the water, which is always running down to the ocean, should be pumped up again, and, what is more, should be pumped up fresh. The invisible atmosphere about us, supplies the machinery by which this great natural process is effected. Besides the dry air which it contains,—consisting, as we have seen, of different parts,—there is also in the atmosphere a quantity of vapour of water, which is invisible, except under peculiar circumstances. In the very driest weather, the presence of this vapour can be detected, by cooling a body till either a dew or ice settles upon it. This vapour is constantly rising from the sea, and from the surface of the land: and, what is very remarkable, the salt of the sea-water is left behind in evaporation. It is this vapour which forms clouds, tempering the extreme heat and dazzling light of the sun's direct rays. The same source supplies the materials for rain, hail, snow, mist, dew. Thus moisture is present every where, ready to supply the constant wants of plants and animals. We cannot but observe the wisdom which is found in this part also of the Creator's works. Had we been told that water was to be carried about every where, and at all times, through the air, we should probably have expected an atmosphere of thick fog, through which the light of the sun could scarcely have penetrated. And it is an additional reason for wonder and thankfulness, when we see all the useful purposes of an abundant supply of water effected, without any injury to the other properties of the atmosphere, without usually affecting its transparency, without ever interfering with its power of supporting respiration, of conveying sound, or of reflecting light.
Mechanical Effects Of The Am.
Air is also a great mechanical agent. While it remains at rest, it supports within it an innumerable quantity of birds and insects, which sport with the utmost freedom and ease. And when the air itself
is put in motion, it becomes the instrument of most important and beneficial effects. The wind is constantly bringing a fresh supply of air to those places in which it is wanted. Currents of air are passing continually over the ocean, and thence are carried over tracts of land, and replace the heated atmosphere of the plains, and the unwholesome vapours arising from crowded cities. Meanwhile, the breezes, which thus convey health and freshness with them, afford the means of navigating the ocean in various directions; the changes of the variable winds being such as to enable the sailor to pursue his voyage in almost any direction. In other parts of the earth, the winds blow regularly in nearly the same direction for a length of time; and thus become a certain means of conveyance.
On the surface of the earth, the wind is also constantly doing work. We can scarcely conceive the quantity of labour which is saved by that common but very beautiful machine, the wind-mill. How well it does its work! How regular is its performance by means which appear so irregular! In different parts of the country we may see corn ground, timber sawed, marshes drained, water raised from great depths, and various other work done, and all by that invisible and apparently weak and inconstant agent, the wind. The' currents of air are thus strong enough to do us incalculable good; and very seldom, comparatively, are so violent as to occasion much injury.
When we reflect upon all these properties of the air which we breathe, and observe how necessary some of them are to our very existence, and how much our comfort depends upon them all, yet that all the several ends are answered as well as if each were the only purpose intended, we cannot but feel an admiration raised towards the great Creator, whose wisdom and goodness are thus plainly seen in all his works. C.
In the reign of Philip the Fourth, of Spain, Cardinal Alberoni, his minister, a man of great ambition, and little principle, formed a desperate project for seizing and carrying off the Regent of France, and the young King (Louis the Fifteenth); for which purpose, he entered into a cabal with the malcontents of Paris, by means of the Spanish ambassador. The Regent received a vague warning of this singular plot from George the First, of England; but the whole was brought to light by the following curious accident. The Prince of Cellamare, the Spanish ambassador, had occasion to send some despatches, referring to the particulars of the affair, to the court of Spain, and intrusted them to the Abbe Portocarrero, who accordingly set out from Paris in a chaise de poste. Before they reached the end of the first stage, the carriage was overturned, and, it being dark, there was some confusion in finding and collecting the luggage. . In the anxiety of the moment. Portocarrero cried out, "that he would not lose his partmanteau for an hundred thousand pistoles." This exclamation about an ordinary portmanteau struck the postilion as so extraordinary, that on his return to Paris, he went straight to the police, and stated what had occurred. There being at the time a sort of suspicion of the Spaniards, the French Government immediately took the matter up; and, sending off an officer in pursuit, Portocarrero was overtaken at Poitiers, his portmanteau quickly seized and searched, and two letters discovered in it, which contained complete information as to the projected conspiracy, and furnished the means of entirely defeating its object.
There is no evil from which Providence may not reduce some good; and yet the evil is not, for that reason, the lei» to be deprecated Southey.
Vanity.—In a small degree, and conversant in little things* vanity is of small moment: when full grown, it is the worst* of vices, and the occasional mimic of them all. It maijthe whole man false: it leaves nothing sincere or trust- worthy about him. His best qualities are poisoned and perverted by it, and operate exactly as the worst.
Once upon a time, an ambassador from the north, while conversing with a King of Siam, who was all curiosity and attention, told him, among other things, that for some months of the year all the rivers of his country were frozen, and were then able to bear the weight of a carriage. The Indian monarch, thinking himself imposed upon, was much enraged; ordered the ambassador to hold his tongue, and declared he would never again believe a single word he might say.
How much more would this king have wondered if he had been told that the Russians even build houses of ice and on ice. The empress Elizabeth once gave a grand feast and show on the ice. It was & kind of historical, or rather geographical, masquerade. Several months previous, she sent orders to all the governors of the provinces, to send from each, to the noble city of St. Petersburg, two couple of inhabitants, dressed in the costume of, and accompanied by animals belonging to, their own place. Thus, during the rejoicings of the year 1754, persons coming from above forty different nations were seen riding in procession through the streets of St. Petersburg; the Kamschatdales on sledges drawn by fine rough dogs; Laplanders on sledges drawn by reindeer; Buchanans upon camels; the Calmucks upon oxen; the elegant Circassians mounted upon the finest and most spirited horses; Indians seated on huge and heavy elephants.
These formed a motley group, and must have had a splendid effect, in the marriage-procession of the Empress's Jester, who, though last not least, personated Winter, and was drawn along by bears! A very large gallery was built purposely for the occasion, where each nation was allowed to amuse itself with its own music and dancing, producing a curious confusion of sounds, not unlike, we should think, what is called " a Dutch concert." Each nation had a dinner prepared and served up according to its own style. The new-married couple were conducted by this laughable escort to a palace of ice built on the frozen river Neva, where all the ornaments were made
of ice in perfect order: not only were the furniture and chandeliers made of ice, but even the pieces of cannon, which fired a grand salute on the arrival of the procession, and did not burst.
The empress spent an enormous sum on this festival; but it enabled her to see the different manners and customs of the various people whom she governed, and gave them an innocent treat, which was long remembered with pleasure.
Among the sports enjoyed on the ice in Russia, are the Ice-movntains. These are inclined planes of ice formed on beams, often seventy feet high, down which the sledge is conveyed with a quickness almost like lightning: they are found not only in cities, but in villages, and even in private gardens; and the ballroom is frequently deserted, for the sake of a slide down the ice-mountain. A flight of steps leads to the top, from whence the passenger, as may be seen on the right of the above engraving, rapidly descends. To make this diversion more easy and agreeable, there are large chairs fixed on skates, these being guided by a man standing behind, who is also provided with skates. The amusement is much liked by the Russian ladies, as well as others. Clad in their pelisses of costly fur, they brave the cold with a heroism which surprises persons from more southern regions. At night, the ice-mountains are illuminated with coloured lamps; and the reflection of this mass of variegated light from the snow, greatly heightens the beauty of the scene. The nobility and gentry drive about in superb sledges; and Catherine the Second was often seen on such occasions among her people. A very large rich sledge was made for the purpose, capable of containing the whole Imperial family: to this were attached by chains, fourteen or sixteen smaller sledges, following in pairs for her Majesty's suite, the whole line of sledges being drawn by twelve or fourteen horses.
Rash Oaths, whether kept or broken, frequently produce