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THE MANNER IN WHICH THE EARLY CHRISTIANS TREATED THEIR DEAD. After watching and praying by the chair person, the first care of the early Christians, upon his dissolution, was to shut his mouth, and close his eyes. This was agreeable to that decency and decorum which nature seems to dictate. It likewise corresponded to the usage of the Greeks and Romans, before their conversion to Christianity.

When the eyes and mouth were closed, the body was then laid out, and carefully washed with water. This ceremony, which was common to the Jews, Greeks and Romans, the first Christians also adopted. Thus we read, "Tabitha fell sick, and died; whom when they had washed, they laid her in an upper chamber." Washing the corpse is mentioned by Tertullian, Eusebius, and many others. It appears to have been retained in the Western Church for many centuries, not as a mystical ceremony, or religious rite, but as a civil usage, and a decent preparation of the body for its burial.

The next operation was embalming the body, to preserve it from putrefaction. This art the Jews probably borrowed from the Egyptians, by whom it is supposed to have been invented. In Genesis we find that about 1700 years before the birth of Christ, "Joseph commanded his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father." Joseph himself was embalmed, and put into a coffin in Egypt. In like manner we read of Asa, that " the bed on which he was laid in his sepulchre, was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices, prepared by the apothecary's art." And to mention a still more memorable instance; after Joseph of Arimathea had taken down the body of Jesus from the cross, " Nicodemus came, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pounds' weight. Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes, with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to embalm, or prepare the body for interment."

The eyes and mouth being closed, and the body washed with water, and anointed with oil or perfumes, and in some cases embalmed, it was then decently clothed with the funeral garments. These were commonly made of fine white linen. Prudentius mentions the white garment, which was the most usual funeral dress. Yet we find that the bodies of the rich were sometimes dressed in magnificent robes, embroidered with gold; and Durant has observed, that at the obsequies of pontiffs, kings and princes, splendid vestments were thought allowable. The funeral vestments of the Christians were always new; upon which Chrysostom remarks, "We clothe the dead in new garments, to signify their putting on the new clothing of incorruption."

| The corpse, thus robed in its funeral attire, and prepared for burial, was deposited in a chest or coffin, which was commonly made of wood: for in this instance, the primitive Christians adopted the practice of the Greeks and Romans, in preference to that of the Jews, who only wound up the body in linen clothes. The coffins were at first generally plain, and without any ornamental covering. Constantine, however, was put into a coffin of gold, or at least overlaid with gold; which was covered with a rich purple pall. At Rome, likewise, the coffins of the nobility, and other opulent citizens, had a covering inwrought with gold thrown over them. There is, however, reason to suppose that pompous and expensive decorations at funerals were not very comrxion in his day.

From the time that the body was put into" the coffin, till it Wm carried out for interment, it was

watched by the relations and friends of the deceased, by charitable neighbours, and other persons religiously disposed. The body in the coffin was sometimes taken into the church. This office was more especially performed in the night-time, during which the company assembled sung hymns, psalms, and praises to God, as they were accustomed to do on the vigils preceding the festivals of martyrs.

The Jews, who did not bury in coffins, but simply wound up the body in linen, carried out their dead on a bier; but the Christians carried theirs on their shoulders. This office was commonly performed by friends or near relations; and oftentimes, in cases of plague or persecution, by charitable persons of distinction, who chose rather to run the risk of sacrificing both their fortunes and lives, than to leave this last office of Christian charity unperformed. In the first four centuries, we have numerous instances, where men and women of eminent sanctity were borne upon the shoulders of bishops, and of the clergy of superior order.

Both in the eastern and western Churches, the priests at the funeral procession went before the corpse; and next to it came the more immediate friends of the deceased. After them the rest of the company followed. This order of the funeral procession, divines and moralists have remarked, is "an admonition to the survivors, that their deceased brother is gone before them to the place whither they must soon follow."

In peaceable times the corpse was always carried forth with psalmody to the grave. The Apostolic Constitutions direct the bodies of the faithful to be carried forth with singing, and cite some of the passages that were more generally used. Chrysostom likewise acquaints us with various particular portions of the psalms, and of hymns selected from the Old and New Testament, which were sung on these occasions, and observes,—" The object of the psalmody, the prayers, and the solemn meeting of fathers, and the multitude of brethren, is, not to lament and mourn, but to give God thanks for having taken unto himself our deceased brother." Jerome, also, frequently speaks of psalmody as a custom universally received from ancient tradition.

From the more early writers, we learn that the primitive Christians did sometimes offer up both private and public prayers for the dead; that is, for "all the servants of Christ departed this life in his faith and fear." For Saints and Martyrs, and not for ordinary Christians only, they offered up prayer as well as praise. They gave thanks to God, "for delivering the deceased out' of the miseries of this sinful world;" and they prayed that he would receive to himself, to rest and happiness, the souls that he had taken out of this world; and that, at the general resurrection, he would consummate the glory and bliss of his elect, both in body and soul. Orations were likewise very frequently made in honour of those who had been eminent for piety and virtue. A deacon read such portions of Scripture as contained promises of the resurrection; and appropriate psalms and anthems were sung at the interment, as well as during the procession. The Eucharist was likewise commonly celebrated, when the funeral happened to be in the morning; for at that time the communion was generally received by all, fasting.

The prayers and praises offered up to God for the dead, were commonly accompanied with acts of charity to the living. The heirs and relations of the deceased made donations to the clergy, provided entertainments for their friends, and gave alms liberally to the poor. Some likewise gave alms and entertainments on the anniversary of the funeral j but as great excesses were often committed at these feasts, the practice, in process of time, was laid aside; and for the same reason the festivals, held at the graves of martyrs, were suppressed.

After the body was placed in the coffin, attired in its funeral robes, it was customary for the Greeks and Romans to bedeck it with garlands and chaplets of flowers j and it was not unusual among the early Christians, to strew evergreens and -flowers upon the grave. Abridged from Shepherd.

A man set to watch a field of peas, which had been much preyed upon by pigeons, shot an old cock pigeon, who had long been an inhabitant of the farm. His mate, around whom he had for many a year cooed, and nourished from his own crop, and assisted in rearing numerous young ones, immediately settled on the ground near him, and showed her grief in the most expressive manner. The labourer took up the dead bird, and tied it to a short stake, thinking that it would frighten away the other depredators. In this situation, however, his partner did not forsake him, but continued day after day walking slowly round the stick. The kind-hearted wife of the bailiff of the farm at last heard of the circumstance, and immediately went to afford what relief she could to the poor bird. She told me that on arriving at the spot she found the hen bird much exhausted, and that she had made a circular beaten track round the dead pigeon, making now and then a little spring towards him. On the removal of the dead bird, the hen returned to the dove-cot. Jesse.

The study of Nature is ever attended with pleasing reflections, and the study of botany, in particular, independent of its immediate use, is as healthful as it is innocent. It beguiles the tediousness of the road, it furnishes amusement at every footstep of the solitary walk ; and, above all, it leads to pleasing reflections on the bounty, the wisdom, and the power of the great Creator.


The Mite makes 500 steps in a second, or 30,000 in a minute. Allowing the horse to move at an equal ratio, he would perform 1022 miles an hour. The journey from London to Birmingham would then occupy but six minutes

and a fraction. St. James's Chronicle.

There is another insect which may in some measure rival the above in the celerity of its motion, and is itself unrivalled in strength, in proportion to its size. Although it is generally disliked, and has not a very fair reputation, yet to the eye of the naturalist it is rather a pleasing and interesting object. Its form, as examined by the microscope, is extremely elegant, and has an appearance as if clad in coat of mail. It has a small head, with large eyes, a clean and bright body, beset at each segment with numerous sharp and shining bristles. All its motions indicate agility and sprightliness, and its muscular power is so extraordinary, as justly to excite our astonishment: indeed, we know no other animal whose strength can be put in competition with (its name must come out at last) that of a Common Flea, for on a moderate computation, it can leap to a distance, at least 200 times the length of its own body. A flea will drag after it a chain 100 times heavier than itself, and will eat ten times its own weight of provisions in a day. Mr. Boverich, an ingenious watchmaker, who some years ago lived in the Strand, London, exhibited to the public a little ivory chaise with four wheels, and all its proper apparatus, and a man sitting on the box, all of. which were drawn by a single flea. He made a small landau, which opened and shut by springs, with six horses harnessed to it, a coachman sitting on the box, and a dog between his legs, four persons in the carriage, two footmen behind it, and a postilion riding on one of the fore-horses, which was also easily drawn along by a flea. He likewise had a chain of brass about two inches long, containing 200 links, with a hook at one end, and a padlock and key at the other, which the flea drew very nimbly along. Something of the same kind is now exhibiting in London. ■ Encyclo. Edin. .

POPULAR LITERATURE. Immoral publications have the same tendency with bad examples, both in propagating vice and promoting infidelity; but they are still more pernicious, because the sphere of their influence is more extensive.

A bad example, though it operates fatally, operates comparatively within a small circumference. It extends only to those who are near enough to observe it, and fall within the reach of the poisonous infection that spreads around it j but the contagion of a licentious publication, especially if it be (as it too frequently is) in a popular and captivating shape, knows no bounds; it flies to the remotest corners of the earth j it penetrates the obscure and retired habitations of simplicity and innocence; it makes its way into the cottage of the peasant, into the hut of the shepherd, and the shop of the mechanic; it falls into the hands of all ages, ranks, and conditions; but it is peculiarly fatal to the unsuspecting and unguarded of the youth of both sexes; and to them its " breath is poison, and its touch is death."

What then have they to answer for, who are every day obtruding these publications on the world, in a thousand different shapes and forms, in history, in biography, in poems, in novels, in dramatic pieces; in all of which the prevailing feature is universal philanthropy and indiscriminate benevolence; under the protection of which the hero of the piece has the privilege of committing whatever irregularities he thinks fit; and, while he is violating the most sacred obligations, insinuating the most licentious sentiments, and ridiculing every thing that looks like religion, he is nevertheless held up as a model of virtue; and though he may perhaps be charged with a few little venial foibles, and pardonable infirmities (as they are called), yet we are assured that he has, notwithstanding, the very best heart in the world. Thus it is that the principles of our youth are insensibly and almost unavoidably corrupted; and instead of being inspired, as they ought to be, with a just detestation of vice, they are furnished with apologies for it, which they never forget, and are even taught to consider it as a

necessary part of an accomplished character.

Bishop Portevs.

The following interesting anecdote is given by N. Gould, Esq., in his Notes on America and Canada, made during a visit in 1828. Speaking of some Indians who had been converted to Christianity, he says, " These Indians belong to the Missasaugis, one of the dirtiest and most abject of the tribes. They have now left off their dirt, and put on European garments; and, with their new garments, have put on new habits: many of them are known to have gone considerable distances to pay old contracted debts, for conscience sake. One story of a converted youth is too affecting to be left unnoticed. He had embraced Christianity, and after a short time returned home, where he found his parents debased by filthy drunkenness. He endeavoured, in vain, to persuade them to give up the use of ardent spirits, and become Christians. After residing with them a short time, he sickened, and died. His parents then thought of his dying exhortations, and among their first acts, applied to the Rev. Archdeacon Strahan, of York (Upper Canada), to give their son Christian burial, which was granted, the archdeacon himself reading the service. They afterwards embraced Christianity."

Christianity did not come from heaven to be the amusement of an idle hour, to be the food of mere imagination; to be " as a very lovely song of one that hath a pleasant voice, and playeth well upon an instrument." No; it is intended to be the guide, the guardian, the companion of all our hours: it is intended to be the food of our immortal spirits; it is intended to be the serious occupation of our whole existence. Bishop Jebb.


The following interesting story is related by Tavernior, in his Travels:—

Shah Abbas the First, king of Persia, being one day hunting, and having wandered from his attendants, found a young shepherd playing on a pipe. The king spoke to him, and, after some conversation, was so struck with his solid understanding, that he committed him to the care of teachers, to be properly educated. The shepherd made such wonderful progress, that he excited the admiration of the court and of his patron, who gave him the name of Mohamed Ali Beg, together with the office of Nazar, or intendant of the household. The king sent him twice as ambassador to the Great Mogul, and was much pleased with his negotiations, for he had the firmness to resist bribes, a thing very uncommon among the Persians. The favour he enjoyed raised him up a host of enemies, but none would venture to speak to the sovereign, who had so high an opinion of his fidelity.

After the death of the king, however, the enemies of Mohamed endeavoured to effect his ruin with Sehah Sefi, the successor, who, being a young man, was more easily persuaded. They represented to the king, that as Mohamed had built, at his own expense, several caravanseras, and a magnificent palace, he could not have done so without employing some of the public money. The king, anxious to ascertain the truth of the accusation, ordered Mohamed to settle his accounts within fifteen days; but this faithful intendant begged his majesty to come the next day to the treasury, where the king found every thing in perfect order. Thence he proceeded to Mohamed's house, where he was surprised to find every room furnished in the plainest style, and could not help expressing his admiration at the humility he had shown in so elevated a station. One of the slaves, observing a door fastened with three padlocks, informed the king he had overlooked it. His majesty asked Mohamed what treasure was concealed in that room, which was so carefully shut. Mohamed replied, that the whole of his property was contained there, and every thing else belonged to his majesty. He then threw open the door of the room, in which nothing appeared but his crook, wallet, the goat's skin which he used to fill with water, his pipe, and his shepherd's dress, all suspended from the wall. The Nazar, seeing the king's astonishment, related to him the history of his good fortune, and in what manner he had been brought to court, by order of Shah Abbas, begging his majesty, if his services were no longer required, to allow him to return to his original occupation. The king was so struck with his virtue, that he took off his own dress, and gave it to the Nazar, which is the greatest honour a king of Persia confers on a subject. Mohamed continued in his office, notwithstanding the efforts of his enemies, and died in that employment.


The children of Dram-drinkers are generally of diminutive size, of unhealthy appearance, and sickly constitutions, and in adults this vice is peculiarly destructive in its operation. It deranges the animal economy, weakens the nerves, destroys the digestive powers, obstructs the secretions, and destroys the life; the stomach is kept by it in a state of constant excitement, and, by the frequent application of an artificial stimulus, at length loses its tone, and refuses to perform its office; the appetite becomes vitiated and fails. The more important organs of the body, particularly the liver and lungs, are disturbed in their functions, and frequently become the subjects of incurable disease. Depression of spirits almost invariably accompanies drinking, while the effect produced by every fresh stimulus is only to excite to temporary action, which, when it has ceased, leaves the same languor and depression to be again removed by the same destructive means. Almost all attacks of fever or inflammatory disease are found fatal in the case of dramdrinkers, because the blood of such persons is remarkably destitute of oxygen, and therefore can afford little or no antiseptic resistance to such diseases; in some cases dropsy and consumption, in others paralysis and apoplexy, are evident consequences; while premature old age is observed

in most instances, and a miserable existence in all.

Evidence of John Poynder Esq., before the Committee of the House of Commons.

MONDAY, 29th.

1567 Coronation of James VI. of Scotland.

1693 Battle of Landen, near Namur, in the Netherlands, in which the united armies of England and Holland were commanded by William III.

1794 Seventy-one citizens of Paris suffered death in the square of the Revolution, as confederates or abettors of Robespierre. TUESDAY, 30th.

1768 Captain Cook sailed from Plymouth on his first voyage of discovery.

1771 Died Thomas Gray, one of our best poets. He was buried in the church-yard which suggested the idea of his Elegy, namely, at Stoke Pogius, in Buckinghamshire. WEDNESDAY, 31st.

1556 Death of Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Order of Jesus, or, as they are usually called, the Jesuits. He was forty years of age when he first conceived the plan of his new society, and it was ten years more before he could obtain the sanction of the Pope; yet so rapid was its progress, that before the death of Loyola, the Jesuits possessed upwards of one hundred colleges, besides professed houses; and, at the commencement of the seventeenth century, it was computed that there were upwards of twenty thousand Jesuits, all subject to one general, who is absolute and perpetual.

THE MONTH OF AUGUST. August, the sixth in the Alban Calendar, became, by the arrangement of Numa, the eighth month of the year, but was still called by its original name of sejttilis, or sixth, until the time of Octavius Caesar, better known as Augustus, when the senate, to pay the same tribute to him as had already been rendered to Julius Caesar, decreed that this month, in which he had taken possession of his first consulship, in which he had celebrated three triumph*, had reduced Egypt to a Roman province, and given the empire rest from her civil discords, should from him take the name of August us, which we call August ; and, to render the homage in every respect equal, a day was taken from February and given to August, though by so doing the regular interchange of thirty and thirty-one days, established by Julius Caesar, was disturbed.

This month was dedicated to Ceres, the Goddess of Corn and Harvest. The Saxons called it Weed Monat uead, signifying a covering or garment, and thus they expressed the beauteous clothing of the ground in harvest. From the earliest ages it has been a time of joy and merrymaking with the husbandman, and harvest-home is still a sound that gladdens the heart of every Englishman. In drawings of a very remote period, August is represented by a carter driving a loaded wain; later pictures of August represent a man reaping, or having a sickle stuck in his girdle: the more classical taste of the present day, following the description of Spenser, represents August under the likeness of a beautiful female, of majestic stature, crowned with ears of corn, and having her hands filled with them, which representation also carries an allusion to the heavenly bodies, as on the 23rd the sun enters the sign Virgo. ANNIVERSARIES. THURSDAY, 1st. Lamuas-day is the second of what are now called Cross Quarters, but which were heretofore as regularly used for the division of the year, as Lady-Day, &c. The term is said to be derived from Lamb and mass, it having been customary to offer on this day, at the altars of cathedrals, two young lambs, at which time high mats was celebrated. From the fleece of these animals was afterwards manufactured the pallium, which the Pope transmitted to ecclesiastics when he conferred the episcopal dignity. 1492 Columbus discovered the continent of America. 1589 Henry III, of France murdered at St. Cloud, by a Dominican

friar. 1714 Queen Anne, daughter of James II., died at Kensington. 1798 Battle of the Nile, gained by Sir Horatio (afterwards Lord Viscount) Nelson.

FRIDAY, 2nd. 1100 William Rufus shot by Sir Walter Tyrrel, while hunting in the

New Forest. 1704 Battle of Blenheim, in which the Duke of Marlborough defeated the united forces of France and Bavaria. The noble mansion of Blenheim was granted as a reward for this and other splendid achievements of that great general. 1802 Buonaparte created perpetual Consul by the Senate.

SATURDAY, 3rd. 1460 James II. of Scotland killed by the accidental bursting of a

cannon at the siege of Roxburgh. 1732 The first stone laid of the present building in Threadneedlestreet, which we, emphatically, call The Bank. till the erection of the present structure, the business was transacted at Grocers' Hall. 1786 An attempt was made to stab his Majesty George Ill., by a

female, named Margaret Nicholson. 1811 A new island appeared in the sea, near St. Michael's, supposed to be produced by a volcanic eruption beneath.

SUNDAY, 4th. Ninth Sunday After Trinity. 1347 Calais taken by Edward III.. after a siege of eleven months; it was the last place retained by the English of all their possessions in France, and was lost in 1557. 1598 Died, at a very advanced age, Cecil, Lord Burleigh, the old and tried friend and councillor of Queen Elizabeth.



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General Observations.

A Snip has been justly considered as one of the proudest triumphs of human ingenuity and skill; and, if imposing merely from its size, and the complication of its structure and equipments, how much more so is it when the variety and extent of knowledge ,which man must have attained, before he could accomplish such a work, are considered. Other arts have arrived at a great degree of perfection in the earlier stages of society, and have even subsequently declined, but Ship-building and Navigation have slowly and steadily advanced. In earlier times, a few trunks of trees, lashed together, afforded a rude means of passage over a river or an estuary; the present civilized nations of the world possess fleets capable of traversing the boundless ocean, and of bearing to their shores the produce of remote countries, or of carrying the means of aggression or defence, when they are unhappily engaged in those wars to which the passions of mankind will ever give rise.

This gradual improvement is a proof of the great intellectual cultivation required in those arts. The physical powers of man have been nearly the same in all ages, and when emancipated from the necessity of building solely for shelter, he very early raised architectural structures, which for grandeur and magnitude have never been equalled; excepting, however, the taste manifested in the design, little more than an abundance of labour and time were required for the completion of many of the most magnificent structures. But of naval architecture, it may be truly said, that there is more science, more knowledge of the laws of nature and their effects, shown in the building of the smallest vessel of our times, than ever went to the erection of an Egyptian pyramid or temple; and this knowledge is only gained by degrees : every step in addition being based on all that have preceded it.

It might at first appear, that this assertion was not quite borne out by facts, and that the accounts of enormous ships constructed in ancient days, were proofs that man attained considerable skill in this, as well as other arts, at a comparatively early period. These exceptions, however, are more apparent than real. To that mighty vessel which had the Almighty for its architect, and the second progenitors of mankind for its crew, we do not here of course allude; but such ships as one stated to have been built by Archimedes, and described as having gardens, mills, baths, stables, and temples in it; as having'the floors inlaid with agates and other precious stones, and its sides adorned with paintings, &c, may be fairly suspected, from the absurd exaggeration of the accounts, either to have had no existence except in the mind of the narrators, or to have been merely unwieldy floating houses, not coming within the definition of a ship in the true meaning of the word. Passing by, therefore, such exceptions as fabulous or exaggerated, it cannot be denied that the arts of Navigation and Ship-building have kept an equal and proportional pace with the improvement of mankind, till they have arrived at their present state of comparative perfection.

A recent visit to one of the largest and finest ships in the British Navy, suggested these reflections, and the consequent subject of this paper, which it is hoped may prove interesting to our readers, though pretending neither to (scientific detail of its construction, nor technical description of its parts.

Varieties Of Sailing Vessels.

The term Ship is only properly given to such vessels as have three masts, and are square rigged; that is, having their sails suspended from what are called yards, hung from the masts, and lying, usually, at right angles to the keel or length of the vessel.

A Boat is a vessel without a deck, or open, and is propelled by oars or by sails; it is of endless variety of size and form, from the small, light, sharp-headed wherries of our rivers, to the Long-boat, Pinnace, and Barge of a Man of War, capable of carrying thirty or forty seamen, with arms and stores, for a short expedition.

Vessels with an entire or partial deck, and having one mast, and a bowsprit, or mast projecting forward from the head, are termed Sloops and Cutters; these carry one large, or main-sail, a top-sail, fore-sail, and jib-sail, all lying nearly in the line of the keel. These sails are larger in

proportion to the body, or hull, in the cutter than in the sloop. The pleasure sailing-boats kept by gentlemen are usually Cutters, and when carrying all their sails in a gentle gale, no vessel can exceed them for beauty to the eye. Sailing Vessels of all kinds, from their general form, that of their sails as swollen by the wind, and the graceful lines of their rigging, are perhaps the only objects of human production which are truly picturesque in the artist's sense of the word.

Brigs are vessels with two masts, square-rigged, and are familiar to Londoners, from the Colliers, which bring us coals from the North, and lie in numbers in the Pool of London, below the bridge, in almost uninterrupted succession for two miles. When vessels with two masts are not squarerigged, but have their main-sails and fore-sails * like that of a cutter, they are called Schooners, but this species of vessel is very various in its rigging.

Ships are principally distinguished as those called Merchantmen, which belong to individuals or companies, and are engaged in commerce; and Men-of-war, or the national ships, built for the purposes of war. The latter receive their designations from the number of their decks or of the guns which they carry; the largest class are termed Ships of the Line, from their forming the Line of Battle, when acting together in fleets: and are divided into First Rates, Second Rates, Third Rates, &c. First Rates include all those carrying 100 guns and upwards, with a company of 850 men and upwards; Second Rates mount 90 to 100 guns, and their complement or crew, is from 650 to 700 men; Third Rates have from 60 to SO guns, and from 600 to 650 men, and so on, down to Sixth Rates*; but some ships of less than 44 guns, are termed Frigates, a name which is also given to others carrying a greater number of guns, the distinction depending on the form and arrangement of the vessel.

Visit To A First Rate Line-of-battle Ship.

The effect on the mind, when approaching, in a small boat, two ship of 120 guns, is an excellent preparation for the rapid succession of new and striking ideas, which crowd upon the imagination in viewing it.

On our first approach, we looked up with wonder to the vast hull which towered above the water, and whose sides seemed swelling out ready to overwhelm us. The graceful lines of the joints of the planks, as seen in perspective diminishing in width from distance; the formidable mug zles of the triple battery of guns, standing out of the port-holes, with the stout ports which shut the openings overshadowing them; the enormous cables of iron by which she was moored, the gigantic sheet and spare anchors, slung outside the fore-channels; the boats hanging from the

• These terms will be subsequently explained; the reader must take them at present as mere names.

t The following is a list of the titles and numbers of the crew of a first-rate ship, classed in the order of their amount of pay:—

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