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The word Hat seems to be derived from the Saxon bad, German, Halt, i. e. a cover for the head. The modern term is used in distinction from a bonnet or cap; but, anciently, even a helmet was so denominated, as in the romance of Kyng Alesaunder,

Of sum weore the brayn outspat
Al under theo iren hat.

The hats of the Saxons (the most ancient of which we can find any mention made), were supposed to have been by no means universally worn, felt or woollen hats, however, they are known to have possessed. In the Canterbury Tales of Chaucer, the merchant wears "on his head a Flaundrish beaver hat;" and, in the Chronicle of Froissart, we hear frequently of the hats of the time of Edward III. and Richard II., some of which were in this shape;


White Hats were, even in those days, worn at Ghent, in Flanders, and seem to have been used as the political badge of a party, though this is not quite certain. "Hats of biever and eustryde's (ostrich) fethers," are also mentioned. In the Journal of Beckington, secretary to Henry VI., 1442, is mentioned a " scarlet hat given as a new year's gift." Among the inventory of effects of Sir John Fastolfe, 1459, "j hatte of bever, lynyd withe damaske gilt, and also ij strawen hattes." In the Ship of Fools, printed in 1517, is an account of " the great hats that is set all upon one side." We have thus shown the antiquity of white hats, beaver hats, and hats worn on one side.

In the reign of Henry VIII. we find hats frequently mentioned, and in the privy-purse expenses of that monarch is this entry :—" Item, paid for a hatte and plume for the King in Boleyn, (Boulogne,) xvs-" As the value of money was much greater then than it is at present, we may conclude that hats were still articles of luxury, and only worn by the rich. The following are taken from a painting at Cowdray House, done in 1544; and it is somewhat singular to observe, how closely one shape resembles that so familiar to us in prints and pictures about fifty years old.


In the expenses of a nobleman at college, 1577, we find "a broad riding-hat;" "a hat lined with velvet." About this time high-crowned hats came into fashion; one of these is here represented,—it is that of Douglas, Earl of Morton; the second is that of Sir Philip Sidney, the most accomplished gentleman of his day. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, hats appear to have become common, and beaver hats seem to have been first introduced into common wear. The following curious passage is from a rare hook, published about 1585, called Stubb's Anatomic of Abuses.—" Sometimes they use them sharpe on the crown*, pearking up like the spire or shaft of a



steeple, standing a quarter of a yard above the crowns of their heads; some more, some lesse, as please the fantasies of their inconstant mindes. Othersome be flat, and broade on the crowne, like the battlements of a house. Another sort have rounde crownes, sometimes with one kind of band, sometimes with another,—now black, now white, now russed, now redde, now grene, now yellow; now this, now that; never content with one colour or fashion two daies to an end. And as the fashions be rare and strange, so is the stuffe whereof their hattes be made divers also; for some are of silk, some of velvet, some of taffatie, some of sarcenet, some of wool, and, which is more curious, some of a certaine kinde of fine haire; these they call bever hattes of xx., xxx., or xl. shillings price, fetched from beyonde the seas, from whence a greate sorte of other vanities doe come besides; and so common a thing it is, that every serving man, countreiman, and other, even all indifferently doe weare of these hattes; for he is of no account or estimation amongst men, if he have not a velvet or taffatie hat, and that must be pinched and cunningly carved of the best fashion." Shortly afterwards the rim became remarkably broad, and when much worn was liable to hang down, from thence the name of slouched hats. In 1607, a horseman's hat is recommended to be "a hat which will sit close and firme upon your head, with an indifferent narrow verge or brim, so that in the saults or bounds of your horse it may neither through widenesse or unwieldinesse fall from your head, nor with the breadth of the brim fall into your eies, and impeach your sight, both which are verie grosse errors." In a play, called A Challenge for Beauty, written by Hey wood in 1636, there is a song describing the fashions of different nations, in words which will equally apply to the present period :—

The Turk in linen wraps his head,

The Persian his in fawn too;
The Ilussc with sables furs his cap,

And change will not be drawn to;
The Spaniard s constant to his block

The French inconstant ever;
But of all fehs that may be felt,

Give me your English beaver.

During the reign of Charles I., the Commonwealth, and the reigns of Charles II., James IL, and William Ill., very broad brims were in fashion, as may be seen from these shapes.

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various sorts, were for the ensuing fifty or sixty years, much in vogue. In the Tatler and Spectator they are frequently alluded to, and the "Monmouth Cock," the " Ramillies Cock," the " Hunting Cock," and the "Military Cock," are alluded to. In No. 532 is a letter from John Sly, Haberdasher of Hats, in which he says, " his hats for men of law and physic do but just turn up, to give a little life to their sagacity; his military hats glare full in the face; and he has prepared a familiar easy cock for all good companions, between the above extremes." About 1750, round hats became very prevalent among the lower orders, and cocked hats were considered as a mark of distinction from them. In the Rambler, dated 1751, a young gentleman says, that his mother exclaimed, " she would rather follow me to the grave than see me tear my clothes and hang down my head, sneak about with dirty shoes, blotted fingers, hair unpowdered, and hat uncocked." About 1780 round hats first became fashionable, and about 1790 cocked hats disappeared from common wear.

[Abridged and arranged from a paper in the Archaologia.]

Among the ancients, especially in the East, every one that came to a marriage-feast was expected to appear in a handsome and elegant dress, which was called the weddinggarment. This was frequently a white robe; and when the guest was a stranger, or was not able to provide such a robe, it was usual for the master of the feast to furnish him with one: and if he who gave the entertainment was of high rank and great opulence, he sometimes provided marriage-robes for the whole assembly. To this custom we have allusions in Homer, and other classic writers; and there are some traces of it in the entertainments of the Turkish court at this very day". It must be remarked, also, that it was in a very high degree indecorous and offensive to good manners, to intrude into the festivity without this garment.—Bishop Porteus.

q At the entertainment, given by the Grand Vizier to Lord Elgin and his suite, in the palace of the Seraglio, pelisses were given to all the guests,


No. I. The Tides. Every body knows how useful the Tides are. Upon the sea-coast we constantly see a number of ships, all waiting at anchor for some hours, while the crews are able to take their rest. We keep looking at them, and, at a certain time, without any change of wind having taken place, we see them all busy setting their sails and weighing anchor, and, in a few hours more, they are all out of sight: they were, in fact, waiting for the change of the tide. If the wind was unfavourable, they could never make head against it, as long as the tide was against them too; but with the tide in their favour they can pursue their voyage, even against an unfavourable wind.

In rivers, the use of the tides is seen still more plainly. The tide brings not only a current, but a whole supply of water every twelve hours; and the continual change, which can be quite calculated upon, is just as useful as having a wind constantly fair up and down a river, alternately, for a certain number of hours every day.

Besides the immense importance of the tides to navigation, no one can calculate how conducive they are to health and cleanliness. Such a river as the Thames is thoroughly washed out, twice a day, by a current, carrying with it, towards the sea, all the drainage of a population of a million and a half of people, and as often bringing up clear water and fresh air. It is a system of lungs, breathing regularly twice in about twenty-four hours.

Hundreds of people are deriving benefits from this beautiful arrangement of Providence, without thinking at all about it; and many others are contented to see such changes happen, without trying to comprehend how they are brought about. Now it is certain, that the more we study the works of Nature, the clearer proof we find of the wisdom of God who contrived them all; and the tides are a very remarkable instance of a vast variety of beneficial effects arising from one simple cause.

We shall endeavour to show how the tides are produced; and we hope none of our readers will be prevented from trying to understand the explanation, under the notion that it is too difficult to be comprehended without previous study: we promise them that the subject requires only ordinary attention, and plain common sense, and that it will well repay the trouble of attending to it.

It is soon seen that the tides are in some way occasioned by the moon; for the time of high and low water comes back to the same hour whenever the moon is at the same age.

The height of the tide on different days plainly depends also upon the age of the moon. The highest tides are always found about the time of new and full moon, and the lowest when the moon is in her quarters.

What is to be explained then is, why the waters should rise and fall twice in rather more than twentyfour hours, and how this fluctuation is connected with the position of the moon. For this purpose, we will first see what the effect of the moon would be, if the whole earth were covered with water, and we shall afterwards easily discover what changes will be made, when we consider the actual condition of the I globe made up of land and water. i

Tides Of An Open Ocean. It is well known that the moon is a solid body, which goes round the earth every month, in a direction from West to East, and, from the real motion of the earth on its axis, appears to move round from

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every solid body, such as the moon, is found to draw towards it any other body, by a force which is called gravitation, and is really the same force by which a stone falls to the ground; and this force is the greater, the nearer the attracted body is to that which attracts; thus A would be attracted by M more than c is, and c would be more attracted by M than B is. If these three particles, A, C, and B, were quite at liberty to move towards M at the end of any time, as a minute, A would have moved towards M through a greater space than c had, and c through a greater space than u had; hence A would be further from c, and c further from B, than each was at first. And if the motion of B be regarded only with reference to the point c, considered as at rest, the effect would be the same as if it were really drawn away from c, by the attraction of some other body (m) exactly opposite to M *.

If, then, A c B were a sphere of water, a particle at A or at B would be lifted a little above its ordinary level, reckoned from c, and all the water near A and B would also be lifted, but in a less degree; hence the form of the globe would be altered; it would no longer be a perfect sphere, but would take an egglike shape, the two little ends pointing towards M, and in the opposite direction; that is, there would be a high water at A and B; but at such a point as E, in the circumference Aeb, half way between A and B,

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the height of the water would certainly not be raised by the attraction of M, and it can be readily shown, that it would be rather lowered, and there would be there a low water.

Now suppose this watery globe to turn round upon an axis, F/, at right angles to the plane B E A, it is plain that, for any place in the circumference B E A, there would be two high waters in each revolution; one when it comes to A, the other at B; and two low waters, one at E, the other at a point exactly opposite to E.

For every point as a on the globe, between A and F, there would also be a high and low water twice in every revolution, but not so high nor so low, as for

* It may appear somewhat strange to those who have not thought before about the matter, that an attraction towards M should cause a rise of the waters in the part opposite to M; and it may be worth while to explain the principle upon which it depends a little more clearly. Suppose then act to be three equal small balls of iron, floating on pieces of cork, and one foot asunder; then suppose a powerful magnet to be applied at M, which draws A through three inches, c through two inches, and a through one inch; if the bodies


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be then stopped, a9 at aeb, it is plain that the distance of a from c is now one foot two inches, and the distance of 6 from c is one foot one inch, instead of one foot. The effect, therefore, of the attraction of M has been to separate the two bodies, u and c, as well as A ana c. • •

a point in the circumference A E B, in the plane of which M lies.

If the earth, then, were a globe of water, there would be a high water nearly at the time of the moon's southing, or coming to the meridian of any place, and a low water at about six hours after that time. Since the moon, in consequence of its own motion round the earth, comes to the meridian of a place about forty minutes later every day, the Ian of high water would also be so much later.

Such is the sort of tides which would take place upon a globe totally covered with water. We shall see, on another occasion, what changes are introduced in the tides, upon a globe which has a surface partly of land and partly of water.

ENGLISH PROSE WRITERS. No. II. Hooker. As a short life of Hooker has already appeared in this Magazine, I shall proceed at once to give some extracts from his works. In setting about this task, I feel that a few unconnected passages can no more give a just notion of this great writer's power, than a few stones, however beautiful, could convey an adequate idea of the magnificence of a temple.

The first sentence of his preface may be a specimen of .the fulness and gravity of his style, which is as opposite as can be imagined to the "asthmatic publications of our own day."

"Though for no other cause, yet for this; that posterity may know we have not loosely through silence permitted things to pass away as in a dream, there shall be for men's information extant thus much concerning the present state of the Church of God established among us, and their careful endeavour that would have upheld the same."

"Dangerous it were for the feeble brain of man to wade far into the doings of the most High; whom although to know be life, and joy to make mention of his name, yet our soundest knowledge is to know that we know him not as indeed he is, neither can know him; and our safest eloquence concerning him is our silence, when we confess, without confesssion, that his glory is inexplicable, his greatness above our capacity and reach. He is above, and we upon earth: therefore it behoveth our words to be wary and few."

"What is virtue but a medicine, and vice but a wound? yet we have so often deeply wounded ourselves with medicine, that God hath been fain to make wounds medicinable; to cure by vice when virtue hath strucken; to suffer the just man to fall, that, being raised, he may be taught what power it was that upheld him standing. I am not afraid to affirm it boldly with St. Augustine, that men puffed up with a proud opinion of their own sanctity and holiness, receive a benefit at the hands of God, and are assisted with his grace, when with his grace they are not assisted, but permitted, and that grievously, to transgress. Whereby as they were in overgreat liking of themselves supplanted, so the dislike of that which did supplant them may establish them afterwards the surer. Ask the very soul of Peter, and it shall undoubtedly make you itself this answer: 'My eager protestations, made in the glory of my ghostly strength, I am ashamed of: but those chrystal tears wherewith my sin and weakness was bewailed, have procured my endless joy: my strength hath been my ruin, and my fall my stay.'"

"These things, wheresoever they fall, cannot but trouble and molest the mind. Whether we be therefore moved vainly with that which seemeth hurtful and is not; or have just cause of grief, being pressed

indeed with those things which are grievous, our Saviour's lesson is, touching the one, be not troubled: nor over-troubled for the other. For though to have no feeling of that Which meerly concerneth us, were stupidity; nevertheless, seeing that the Author of our Salvation was himself consecrated by suffering, so the way which we are to follow him by is not strewed with rushes, but set with thorns. Be it never so hard to learn, we must learn to suffer with patience even that which seemeth almost impossible to be suffered: that in the hour when God shall call us unto our trial, and turn his honey of peace and pleasure wherewith we swell, into that gall and bitterness which flesh doth shrink to taste of, nothing may cause us in the trouble of our souls to storm, and grudge, and repine at God; but every heart be enabled with divine inspired courage to inculcate unto itself, Be not troubled; and in those last and greatest conflicts to remember, that nothing may be so sharp and bitter to be suffered, but that still we ourselves may give ourselves this encouragement, even learn also patience, O my Soul."

"Concerning Faith, the principal object whereof is that eternal verity which hath discovered the treasures of hidden wisdom in Christ; concerning Hope, the highest object whereof is that everlasting goodness, which in Christ doth quicken the dead; concerning Charity, the first object whereof is that incomprehensible beauty which shineth in the countenance of Christ, the son of the living God; concerning these virtues, the first of which beginning here with a weak apprehension of things not seen, endeth with the intuitive vision of God in the world to come; the second, beginning here with a trembling expectation of things far removed, and as yet only heard of, endeth with actual fruition of that which no tongue can express; the third, beginning here with a weak inclination of heart towards him, unto whom we are not able to approach, endeth with endless union—was there ever any mention made, saving only in that law which God himself hath from heaven revealed?"

"Whatsoever is spoken of God, or things appertaining to God, otherwise than as the truth is, though it seems an honour it is an injury."

"There will come a time, when three words, uttered with charity and meekness, shall receive a far more blessed reward than three thousand volumes written with disdainful sharpness of wit." T. R. A.


The following beautiful passage from Townson, with the fine specimen of Milton's genius from which the allusion is made, are worth comparing together.

We read, that, in certain climates of the world, the gales that spring from the land, carry a refreshing smell out to sea; and assure the watchful pilot, that he is approaching to a desirable and fruitful coast, when as yet he cannot discern it with his eyes. And, to take up once more the comparison of life to a voyage, in like manner it fares with those, who have steadily and religiously pursued the course which Heaven pointed out to them. We shall sometimes find by their conversation towards the end of their days, that they are filled with peace, and hope, and joy: which, like those refreshing gales and reviving odours to the seaman, are breathed forth from Paradise upon their souls; and give them to understand with certainty, that God is bringing them unto their desired haven. Townson.

And of pure, now purer air

Meets his approach : and to the heart inspires

Vernal delight and joy:

Now gentle gales,

Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense
Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole
Those balmy spoils. As when to them who sail

Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past Mozambic, off at sea north-east winds blow Sabean odours, from the spicy shore Of Araby the bless'd; with such delay Well pleased, they slack their course; and many a league Cheer'd with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles: So entertain'd those odorous sweets —Mi Lton, Par. Lost. Another passage, scarcely less poetical, and, in moral beauty far superior, affords a still more striking coincidence , The merchant, who towards spicy regions sails, Smells their perfume far off,, in adverse gales; With blasts which Aug against the faithful blow, Fresh odorous breathings of God's goodness flow. Bishop' s Works.



Having, in a former paper, given an account of the purest and most precious of metals, Gold, we now proceed to the description of that which most nearly resembles it in perfection and purity.

Masses of native silver have no determinate form, being found sometimes in small branches, occasionally in hair-like threads, and very frequently in leaves; in which form it is usually met with in the mines of Siberia, where it is said never to have been discovered in a state of crystallization. In the Peruvian mines, it is found in a form somewhat resembling fern-leaves; this figure is caused by a number of eight-sided crystals, so placed over each other as to give it a vegetable appearance. It sometimes assumes the form of round, rather crooked threads, varying from the thickness of a finger to that of a hair. It is rarely found in a state of purity, being frequently mixed with gold, mercury, copper, tin, iron, and lead.

Silver is sometimes found in combination with sulphur, arsenic, and other substances: when mineralized by sulphur alone, it forms the vitreous silver ore, which assumes a great variety of colours; when united to sulphur and arsenic, the mass becomes the ruby-like ore, varying in colour from deep red to dark gray, in proportion to the prevalence of either of these substances.

Silver is found both in the primitive and secondary earths, and is frequently imbedded in quartz, Jasper, hornstone and chalk. It is chiefly met with in Sweden, Norway, and the polar latitudes: when it occurs in hot climates, it is generally amidst mountains covered with perpetual snows.

The richest and most important silver-mines in Europe are those of KSnigsberg in Norway; they are situated in a mountainous district, and divided into superior and inferior, according to their relative position; the beds in which the silver is found run from north to south. These mines are of considerable depth, and enormous masses of native silver are said to have been found in them.

The French mines are not so remarkable for the richness of their silver-ore as for the other minerals they contain. That of Allemont, ten leagues from Grenoble, is one of the principal j it is situated at the height of nearly three thousand yards above the level of the sea: the veins near the surface were the richest in silver. This mine is now abandoned.

The most celebrated of the Spanish silver-mines is that of Guadalcanal in Andalusia, situated in the Sierra Morena, a few miles to the north-east of the quicksilver-mine of Almaden: it was well known to the Romans, and formerly very productive. This mine furnishes the ruby-ore.

Silver, however, is most abundant in the centre of the Andes ; for here we find the celebrated mountain of Potosi: it is of immense height, and said to be penetrated with veins in every direction: when first discovered in 1545, the veins were nearly all of pure silver ; latterly, however, little more than five drachms were obtained from one hundred-weight of ore. In the space of ninety-three years from its discovery, the number of ounces of silver extracted from this mountain is calculated to have been no less than four hundred millions.


A Fable : by one of the Fathers.—A nightingale being taken in a snare, would redeem herself by three good words, she spoke in the ear of him who had captivated her precious liberty. The first was, not to be light of belief, nor to be transported inconsiderately by the first appearance of objects. 2nd.—Not to pursue that one cannot attain. 3.—To put out of the memory those evils, the remedy whereof is not in your power. Upon these instructions, the bird is delivered; but, desirous of making an experiment of the fowler's docility, she told him he was very simple to dismiss her so easily, for if he had opened her he would have found precious stones, which had made him rich for ever. The fowler, vexed at his loss, began to pursue the bird through woods and forests, till, seeing she was out of his reach, he bemoaned his folly. "Art thou not a miserable man, says the nightingale, to have observed with so little constancy the precepts which concerned thy happiness? Thou didst hope to find diamonds in the bowels of a nightingale—what but thine own credulity misled thee? Thou hast followed me—thou, an inhabitant of the earth, I, of the air—and hast pursued an impossibility. And lastly, thou art out of all hope to be able to catch me— why trouble thyself for that which thou canst not remedy i

Vl happiness has not her seat,

And centre in the breast,
We may be wise, or rich, or great,

But never can be blest.


Among the American mines those of Mexico must not be forgotten; that of Valenciana, in the district of Guanaxuato, is one of the richest: the vein traverses a slaty mountain, and abounds with silver, both native and mineralized. The mine is of great depth, and is supposed to contain a greater quantity of silver than all the other mines of that country.

Silver possesses all the properties of other perfect metals : it is fixed and unalterable in the fire of an ordinary furnace, but may be volatilized, being sometimes found in the soot of chimneys where large quantities are melted. When exposed to the focus of a large burning-glass, it evaporates in a fume, which rises to the height of five or six inches, and will completely silver a plate of metal.

With the exception of gold, silver is the most ductile of all metals ; a single grain may be extended into a plate of one hundred and twenty-six inches long, and half an inch broad: if reduced into leaves under the gold-beater's hammer, it is capable of still further extension: its tenacity, however, bears no proportion to its ductility, being less than even that of iron or copper. A silver-wire, one tenth of an inch thick, will scarcely bear a weight of two hundred and seventy pounds, while a gold-wire of the same thickness will support nearly double that weight.


MONDAY, 22nd.

1298 Battle of Falkirk, in which the Scots under \\ allace were

defeated. Edward I. commanded the English in person. 1812 Battle of Salamanca, in which the French, under Marmont, were defeated by the Duke of Wellington. TUESDAY, 23rc 1451 Martin V. convoked a general council, to consider of the reformation of the Church.

1583 The earliest specimen of a Newspaper published in London, bears the date of the 23rd of July, and is still preserved m the British Museum; it was called the English Merctirte. WEDNESDAY, 24th. 1568 Don Carlos, son of Philip II., King of Spain, died by poison. 1797 Lard Nelson attempted to take Santa Cruz, in the Island of Teneriffe; in this action he lost his right arm. THURSDAY, 25th. St. James's Day.—In the Catalogue of the Apostles given by the Evangelists, we find two persons of this name J one of whom a styled the " brollier of the Lord," the other, whose martyrdom our church this day commemorates, was the brother of John, and was with him and St. Peter chosen by our blessed Saviour to witness those more than ordinary manifestations of his power and glory that the other Apostles were not allowed to participate m. He »*s beheaded at Jerusalem about the year 44.

1554 Mary, Queen of England, married to Philip II, of Spain. 1666 naval engagement between the Dutch and English fleets, ra which De Rnyter and Van Tromp were defeated, and Ensland became undisputed mistress of the seas. FRIDAY, 26th. 1581 The seven provinces of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Fneslind. Groningen, Overyssel, and Guelderland, declared themselves independent of Spain. .

1680 Died, at the early age of thirty, the witty and profligate John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester. In his last illness he declared himself deeply penitent for his past impiety and his vicious life, and a sincere convert to that religion which he had spent his life in vilifying.

SATURDAY, 27th. 1565 Marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, with Henry Stuart, Lord

1778 A naval fight between the French and English fleets off Ushant:

the issue was undecisive, and both the commanders were accused of mismanagement. The English Admiral, KeppeL was tried by a court martial, but acquitted.

1779 A fire in Portsmouth Dock-yard, which destroyed materials ti

the amount of £150,000. 1809 The Battle of Talavera.

SUNDAY, 28th. Eighth Sunday After Trinity. 1540 Thomas Cromwell, the faithful adherent of Cardinal Wolsey,

was beheaded. 1794 Robespierre, the colleague of Danton and Marat in the music

atrocious scenes of the French Revolution, put to death. 1793 Valenciennes surrendered. 1806 Buenos AyTes taken by General Beresford.



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