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LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. TnK first authentic mention of Lichfield occurs in Bede's Ecclesiastical History, where it is alluded to as the See of an Anglo-Saxon Bishop. The name is of Saxon origin, but its etymology has been much disputed. In the Saxon Chronicle the word is written Licet/eld; in Bede, Lyccetftllh and Lici/feld. Some etymologists derive its signification from leccian, to water (and it is well known to have abounded in numerous lakes and pools); others, from the verb licean or lician, to like, or to be agreeable, and therefore make it to signify Pleasant Field. It has however been more frequently allowed to be derived from lie, a dead body, and consequently as signifying cadaverum campus, the Field of Dead Bodies. This derivation is supported by a prevailing tradition, of the martyrdom of a thousand British Christians on this spot, at the time of the persecution (a, D. 303) under Dioclesian, when Maximian was governor of Britain.
It is certain that the present diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, anciently formed a part of the kingdom of Mercia, which, being conquered by (the Christian King) Oswy, introduced the Christian faith into this powerful kingdom of the Saxon Heptarchy. He made Lichfield an episcopal See, by appointing Diuma, a Scotsman, the first Bishop, A. D. 6.5 G. After a succession of three others, the famous Ceadda, or Chad, was raised to the Bishopric A. D. 66". Bede informs us, that "he had built himself an habitation not far removed from the church ; wherein he was wont to pray, and read with a few, that is, seven or eight, of the brethren, as often as he had any spare time from the labour and ministry of the word."
From this period, little is known of the history of the See till after the Norman Conquest, when at the National Council held in London, A. D. 1075, it was determined to remove the See of Lichfield to Chester, which was done by Peter (the first bishop appointed by William the Conqueror), who went by the appellation of Bishop of Chester and Lichfield. Robert de Lymesey was his successor, and removed the See to Coventry, having obtained from the King, the custody of that Abbey (originally founded by Canute); this edifice having been restored and greatly enriched by Leofrie, Earl of Hereford, and his celebrated wife Lady Godiva. Robert Peeke, chaplain to Henry the First, was consecrated to this See, A. D. 1117, and was succeeded, 1128, by Roger de Clinton, who was a liberal benefactor both to the city and Cathedral church of Lichfield. He is said to have rebuilt great part of the latter, to have increased the number of Prebendaries, and to have appointed the first Canons. De Clinton restored the See to Lichfield, and styled himself Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. Until the establishment of Chester as a separate See, A. D. 15-12, the succeeding bishops were indifferently called Bishops of Lichfield, Coventry, and Chester, having an episcopal residence at each place. Coventry and Lichfield was the usual designation till Bishop Hacket, on the restoration of the monarchy, placed Lichfield before Coventry, as a compliment to the loyalty of the former place. Walter de Langton succeeded to the See in 1295, and did much benefit to the city, forming streets, causeways, &c.; he augmented the income of the Vicars, expended 2000/. on a shrine for St. Chad, and rebuilt the Bishop's Palace, giving the old episcopal house to the Vicars Choral.
In the time of Henry the Eighth, the Cathedral became a prey to depredation; its ornaments, statues, shrines, and all other valuable articles were converted to the use of the crown, with the exception of the shrine of St. Ceadda; this was saved by the intercession of the Bishop, Rowland Lea, who ob
tained it from the King. This prelate earnestly endeavoured to save the monastery of Coventry, said its fine church, from spoliation, but in this his labour was fruitless, and they were entirely demolished.
Little of interest occurs afterwards in the historical details of Lichfield, till the commencement of the civil wars. In 16-12, a troop was raised for King Charles by Sir Richard Dyott, Kt. : during this time the Close sustained three sieges, by which the Cathedral was greatly injured. Preparations to considerable extent were made, 1643, to defend the Close against Lord Brooke, and three thousand troops. This nobleman was a zealous opposer of episcopacy, and had determined on the complete destruction of the Cathedral; on his approach to Lichfield he prayed that he might be annihilated if his cause were unjust; on his return from placing his artillery, he was shot by a brace of bullets, discharged by a deaf and dumb gentleman, of the name of Dyott, who had watched Lord Brooke's motions from the top of the cathedral. Lord Brooke's body was removed to Warwick to be buried with his ancestors; the armour worn by him on this fatal day, and his doublet stained with blood, are in the armoury at Warwick Castle. The gun with which he was killed remains in possession of the Dyott family, resident near Lichfield.
Notwithstanding the check given to the rebels by the death of their leader, the garrison could not long stand the siege, and were constrained to yield to the Parliamentary forces. This was the first cathedral which surrendered to them, and every species of havoc and profanation was committed by these miscreants. The soldiers belonging to the King's party were imprisoned in the Cathedral three days and four nights without food, except what could privately be obtained, and the inclemency of the season obliged them to convert the seats and desks into fuel. At this period the venerable pile became one scene of desolation, the centre spire was battered down, the costly monuments destroyed, and amongst others, that of "Lord Paget, sculptured in Italy at the enormous expense of 700/. Dugdale says, " courts of guard were kept in the aisles; they broke up the pavement, every day hunted a cat with hounds throughout the Church, delighting themselves in the echo from the goodly vaulted roof, and to add to their wickedness, brought a calf into it wrapt in linen, carried it to the font, sprinkled it with water, and gave it a name in scorn and derision of that holy sacrament, Baptism; and when Prince Rupert wecovered that Church by force, Colonel Russel, the governor carried away the communion-plate and linen, with whatsoever else was of value."
The Close was retaken by Prince Rupert in 1643, and Colonel Hawey Bagot was appointed Governor of the garrison; he had the honour of entertaining Charles the First, after the battle of Naseby, when his majesty left Ashby-de-la-Zouch, and slept at Governor Bagot's, in Lichfield, on the 15th of June 1645; this unfortunate monarch twice afterwards revisited this city; but short was its period of tranquillity, for in 1646, the Close was again taken by the Parliamentary forces, under Sir William Brereton, and its walls dismantled. In 1651, by authority of the Rump Parliament, men were employed to strip off the lead from the roof of the Cathedral, and break in pieces the Bells *. It may not be uninteresting to remark on the heavy afflictions, or violent deaths, suffered by many of the spoliators of the Church of those days; among others, Colonel Dangers who stripped the roof, and Pickings who demolished the bells, met with untimely ends.
• For the History of Bells, see this Magazine, vol. i., p. 20.
We find that although the building was in this dilapidated state, its ministers did not neglect their duties, and Ashmole has the following memorandum. "This morning Mr. Rawlings of Lichfield told me, that the vicars of the Cathedral had entered the Chapter-house, and there said service; that this, with the Vestry, was the only place in the church that had a roof to shelter them." On the Restoration, Dr. John Hacket was happily appointed prelate: he found the church little better than a heap of ruins, but, zealous in the cause of religion, he immediately set to work with an activity rarely equalled. The morning after his arrival, he employed his own coach horses to remove the rubbish, and took the most vigorous measures to obtain assistance; petitioning from house to house for pecuniary aid, and being himself a liberal benefactor. By his unwearied diligence and munificence, the Cathedral in the space of eight years had nearly regained its original splendour, and was re-consecrated in 1669. The intrepid character of this admirable man may be shown by the following anecdote.—Hacket was preaching in London, during the persecution of the established Church, and although the Liturgy was proscribed, under a severe penalty, he continued the use of it; at length, an armed sergeant and trooper were sent to the church to compel his obedience, but he, with a firm voice and unintimidated manner, read the service as he was wont to do; and when the soldiers, placing a pistol at his head, threatened him with instant death, he calmly replied "Soldiers, I am doing my duty, do you do yours!" then with a voice equally composed, he resumed the prayers. The soldiers, awe-struck by his pious courage, left the church in astonishment!
From Bishop Hacket's time, the Cathedral underwent little alteration till the year 1788, when the building being acknowledged to be in a very dilapidated state, subscriptions were raised to repair and renovate it. Under the direction of Mr. Wyatt, the external structure was put in good order, and the internal decorations restored and embellished. The beauty and magnificence of the edifice has since been greatly enhanced, by the addition of some painted windows, from the dissolved Abbey of Herckenrode in Germany: this valuable purchase was obtained by the Dean and Chapter, through the liberality of the late Sir Brooke Boothby, who made the acquisition when travelling on the Continent, for the small sum of 200/., and generously transferred to them his bargain, estimated at 10,000/. These windows were painted at the period when the art had attained its highest degree of perfection, and are considered by connoisseurs as very valuable and choice specimens. Several modern windows of superior merit, have also been inserted, by the present Dean, Dr. Woodhouse, and others interested in the embellishment of the venerable pile. The large window at the west, ■which had been totally destroyed during the civil ■wars, and restored by James the Second when Duke of York, has been filled with painted glass, from a legacy of Dr. Addenbroke, who died Dean of this Cathedral, in 1776.
Although this Cathedral cannot compete in size and magnificence with York and some others, in point of elegance it is inferior to none, and its light and beautiful architecture is the theme of universal admiration. The building is in form of a cross, having a large spire at the intersection of the cross, and two smaller ones at the west end; the pyramidal form of the western facade, enriched with highly •wrought decorations and tracery, is eminently beautiful; neither must the centre porch be forgotten,
being no less worthy of notice. The external length of the church is 400 feet, and the breadth in the transept 187 feet. The Nave and Aisles are good specimens of the simple yet exquisite taste of the architecture of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; the clustered columns, delicately moulded arches, and vaulted roof, impress the beholder with a solemn and pleasing effect. Amongst the numerous monuments, we must give the first place to that of the Cathedral's greatest benefactor, the good and pious Bishop Hacket: it consists of a recumbent figure, and at the head is "engraved the following appropriate inscription; "I will not suffer mine eyes to sleep, till I have found out a place for the temple of the Lord." But the monument which attracts the eager attention of all admirers of the sculptorial art, is that erected to the memory of the two Miss Robinsons; it is considered a chef-d'eeuvre of Chantrey's, and certainly has rarely been equalled for beauty of design and workmanship. The remains of many celebrated characters are recorded within these walls—that colossus of literature, Dr. Johnson, justly the pride and boast of Lichfield: Lady Mary Wortley Montague, who so greatly benefited mankind by the introduction of the art of Inoculation. Gilbert Walmesley, Dr. Smalbroke, Dean Addison, David Garrick, and Andrew Newton, who founded and endowed the noble institution in the Close, for the widows and orphans of Clergy; for this purpose, he gave, by will and donation, the sum of forty thousand pounds.
The Diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, was in early times of very great extent; it is now much more limited, but contains the whole county of Stafford (except Brome and Clent, which belong to Worcester), all Derbyshire, the greater part of Warwickshire, and nearly half of Shropshire. It has the Archdeaconries of Salop, Coventry, Stafford and Derby. In the reign of King John, permission was granted to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry to build a castle at Eccleshall, and this has generally been, as it now is, the residence of the Bishop. There is also a palace in Lichfield belonging to the See; the present one was erected in 1687, by Bishop Wood, on the ground occupied by the garden of Langton's Palace (of which there are no remains), and was built in compliance with an order from Archbishop Sancroft, as compensation for damage committed upon property belonging to the See.
Lichfield being situated on the road between London and Liverpool (now so much the line of communication with our sister country), is much frequented by travellers; and few places are more interesting to the lover of literature, having been either the natal spot, or home, of so many distin guished for learned attainments. Every one capable of appreciating the profound wisdom and moral energy of Johnson, must feel a reverence and respect for the place where he first drew breath. Thomas Newton, Bishop of Bristol, brother to Andrew Newton, whom we have already mentioned, and the learned author of Dissertations on the Prophecies, was a native of this city; as was also that famous virtuoso, Elias Ashmole, the contributor of a valuable collection of curiosities and MSS. to the University of Oxford, now assembled in the Ashmolean Museum. Here was the paternal residence of that elegant scholar, Addison; and in addition to the names already brought forward, Lichfield could boast amongst its inhabitants the eccentric James Day, author of Sandford and Merton, Mr. and Miss Edgeworth, Dr. Darwin, of botanical celebrity, and several others of highly esteemed intellectual powers.
WOODCROFT HOUSE, Of which we furnish a view from the pencil of Mr. Blore, is situated in the parish of Etton, in Northamptonshire, about four miles from the city of Peterborough. This building well deserves notice as an early and perfect specimen of English domestic architecture. The form of the windows is peculiar to the time of the first two Edwards, and the character of the mouldings evidently points out that period, as the date of its erection. The masonry is remarkably well executed, and the mouldings beautifully worked; those forming the finish of the Tower, over the entrance, are distinguished by a boldness rarely to be met with. Originally, this must have been a place of some strength; it was surrounded by water, excepting at the western approach, and the walls are four feet in thickness. Though nothing remains of an embattled parapet, there can be little doubt but that it possessed such provision for defence, and that in this, as in other respects, it partook of the character of the mansionhouses of the age.
The round bastion at the north end, represented in the drawing, is that portion of the building to which an interesting historical incident is attached; one of those events, which are the melancholy, and certain fruits of anarchy and civil war.
Dr. Michael Hudson, who is styled by Wood, "an understanding and sober person, and of great fidelity," was, from his sincerity, called by King Charles the First, his "plain-dealing Chaplain." When the troubles of that period commenced, Hudson, like some others of his profession, left his benefice, under an impression that his monarch demanded his personal aid; and King Charles having, as we are told, " an especial respect for his signal loyalty and courage," intrusted him with some important secrets, as regarded his own proceedings. Hudson proved himself a courageous soldier, but, being apprehended by the Parliamentary forces, he suffered a tedious confinement. Escaping from his prison in London, he joined a body of royalists, who had fled to Woodcroft House. When attacked there by the Parliamentary forces, Hudson, with some of his bravest soldiers, went up to the battlements, where they defended themselves for some time. At length they yielded, upon the promise of quarter; but when the rebels were admitted, they broke their engagement. Hudson was forced over the battlements, and clung to one of the stone spouts repre
sented in the drawing. His hands being either actually cut off", or severely hacked and bruised by the sabres of the soldiers, he quitted his hold and fell into the moat underneath, desiring only to reach the land and die there; but this miserable boon was denied him, as, in attempting to reach the bank, he was knocked on the head with the but-end of a musket, and drowned'.
May we never, by God's blessing, witness a recurrence of the scenes which were presented at this eventful period of our history! Our great dramatic poet, who showed his patriotism, by always giving to his countrymen the wisest counsel, and encouraging correct sentiments respecting justice and good government, thus beautifully describes a kingaom, restored to the blessings of internal tranquillity.
No more shall trenching war channel her fields,
No more shall cut his master. Henry IV., Part I.
q Sir Walter Scott, in his novel of Woodstock, has skilfully worked this incident into the narrative, but has departed from historical accuracy, both in fixing the scene in Shropshire, and restoring to life the sufferer, whom he calls Albany Rochecliffe.
SYMBOLICAL WRITING It would seem that the earliest of all written language consisted of actual drawings of the forms of animals or things; rudely sketched, indeed, by the hands of our rude forefathers, but sufficiently plain to mark the object designed. This mode appears the more natural, because the representation of sounds, which express the names of things, by certain characters or alphabets, which is the mode now most extensively in use, must necessarily require some previous concert between two parties, the one of whom suggests, and the other agrees, that a particular mark or form on paper shall be the symbol for a particular sound. But if we suppose a savage separated from his friend, and wishing to communicate with him, without having had this previous consultation, and supposing that he has lent his distant acquaintance some articles of
furniture, such as his bow and arrows, or his knife, which he is anxious to have returned, without the knowledge of his messenger, it seems highly probable, that his first impulse would be to make a rude sketch of these articles, and transmit the impression to his friend. Were the latter an acute man he would probably understand the allusion; and, were he not intelligent enough for this purpose, it is clear he would not be nearly sufficiently so to comprehend the symbols to denote sounds. So that the simplicity of this mode of writing might suggest the probability of its being the first resorted to, without alluding to the hieroglyphics yet remaining on the Egyptian tombs, ■which, from our want of acquaintance with the manners, customs, and general objects with which the Egyptians were conversant, are very difficult to decipher, if we may judge from the learning expended in explaining them. As a modern specimen of this kind of writing, it may not be uninteresting to describe a letter which M. Martinez received from an inhabitant of the Caroline Islands, in the Eastern Ocean. The following is the drawing of the letter alluded to, and the description is taken from FreyciNet and Arago's Voyage.
"This was written to M. Martinez, at Rotta, who had commissioned a Tamor of Sathoual to send him some shells, promising in exchange a few pieces of iron. The captain gave him the sheet of paper, the original of which is in my possession, and is in red characters. The figure at the top of the letter was placed there as the bearer of compliments: the branch under him is the type of peace and amity: the marks in the column on the left hand indicate the sort of shells the Carolinian had sent to M. Martinez. In the column on the right, are placed the objects he desired in exchange; namely, three large fishing hooks, four small ones, two pieces of iron of the shape of axes, and two pieces a little longer." This curiously-expressed request was gratified, and many handsome shells obtained in return.
This is, perhaps, as clear an instance as can be found, of the mode in which an unlettered people ■would endeavour to convey the expression of their wishes to their friends at a distance, and forms a striking contrast to the elegant though complicated process of our own method of writing.
In the written language of the Chinese, a great proof of its having originated in this picture-writing, may yet be seen by a little attention to the forms of their characters, and is, perhaps, the only language now generally in practice, in which these early symbols are discernible, though some have attempted to explain the Hebrew language in the same way, by maintaining that the letters composing the Alphabet -were at first characters or drawings of things. In the modern Chinese, however, much of the early rude formation of the characters has been altered, arising, probably, in some degree, from a greater improvement
in taste inducing the nation to alter these rough to more elegant forms, and partly from the facility of writing requiring the scribe, in some cases, to strike off, and in others to connect, various parts of the original figure. Thus, the present Chinese character
for 'a man,' is y V__ which was originally drawn
>p or £** or J\ ; here it is plain that, by lopping
off some of the limbs of this rude representative of the human species, we leave something like the form of the present character, though it would appear, that a long succession of ages must have polished the rough material to the improved shape which it now possesses. Again, the character to denote * the ear,' was
formerly drawn (£) which is now softened into the present form, thus J^. * A range of hills,' or 'mound,' at first drawn rTr\ has now become ^Jj
'The sun,' Qj is now W. The reader's ingenuity
may be exercised and amused, and he will be enabled to see how far the preceding remarks are wellgrounded, if we present him with a few of the original drawings, placed side by side with the characters into which they have been gradually altered, and which arc now in general use.
The numbers one, two, three, and four, remain the same, being the simplest form which can be devised, to maintain the connexion of the drawing with the idea conceived.
— One, Two, _J^_ Three, -~* Four.
\££/ the teeth, r^j
In order to save a multiplicity of characters, a single one is often placed in various positions, to convey ideas which it would be very difficult, and often impossible, to express by a simple drawing of the object: for instance, how could the idea of ' a corpse' be represented on paper; the figure of a man, it is easily seen, is not sufficient, since we cannot tell, from looking at a picture so unfinished as the rapidity of writing would demand, whether the breath be in or out of the body; they, therefore, take the figure for man we have before seen, and lay it prostrate, thus
3. The figure to represent a rock [ is sup
posed to imply a rock jutting over, and affording shelter, and from this was formed the following to
denote 'a stone,' /£$, that is, as it were, a portiou
cut out of the rock; hence, to imply a heap of
On the same principle it would be very difficult to describe hail in a sketch; but, by considering it (if we may be allowed the term) as hardened water, they add to the character denoting rain the appearance of solid drops falling; thus, ' rain' is expressed
byf777\and 'hail' thus(<T<Y In representing the
forms of animals, or things, no further accomplishment was necessary than accuracy of eye, and skill in delineating the various shapes; but much greater ingenuity is required in order to represent intangible or invisible substances, such as light, air, &c, or the qualities of things which we call by the term adjectives, such as those implying strength, weakness, or various actions, as to walk, to stop, to eat, to desire, &c, in fact, all kinds of verbs. This difficult matter is generally accomplished by the union of two or more simple forms, placed together in such a way, that their combination may suggest the idea required. To express brightness, the figures of the ' sun' aud
stances, and some very remarkable ones, might be adduced of this mode of representing complex ideas, by the union of two or more characters for simple objects. In fact, most of the words, perhaps, in common use in Chinese writing, might be divided, and subdivided, till the original simple ideas had been traced out, and the reason of their formation distinctly shown; but the progress of time and refinement, has so moulded and altered even the most simple characters in the language, that considerable research would be required to perform such a task so many ages after their original formation. The inventor of this species of writing amongst this singular nation is said to be Tsang-hge, of whom tradition or invention has preserved the portrait; and, in order to convey to the mind of the spectator some idea of his depth of intellect, and extent of mental vision, they have expressly chosen to represent him as enjoying the privilege of four eyes, instead of the number possessed by ordinary mortals.
The histories of all nations show that, in the infancy of society, man has few wants. Food for the sustenance of life, clothing for the covering of his person, and a habitation to shelter him from the wind and the storm, form the chief objects of his desire; and these he is easily enabled to supply from the rich storehouse of nature, which the bountiful Creator has furnished for his use. The earth has never ceased to reward the industry of man; and his daily necessities being thus provided for, his future worldly wants occupy but a small share of his thoughts.
As mankind multiply and associate together in cities and towns, their attention is directed to other means of procuring the necessaries of life. Trade, manufactures, and commerce offer ample opportunities for the exercise of talent and industry; and the simplicity and contentment of rural life are exchanged for a more artificial state of society. The accumulation of property henceforth becomes an object of general pursuit, and the busy mind of man is occupied in forming and digesting plans to ensure such a result. Should prosperity attend his undertakings, and crown his labours with increase, he will not be slow in acquiring a taste for additional comfort and enjoyment, which his improved circumstances have placed within his reach. Thus the wants of man increase with his means of satisfying them. They are no longer confined to the simple necessaries of life, but embrace those elegancies and luxuries which owe their origin to the increase of wealth, the refinement of education, and the intercourse of society. Surplus capital thus finds ample and ready means of occupation in ministering to the growing wants of the community. Various trades, arts and professions are introduced, which open up new sources of employment; a stimulus is given to industry, and the powers of the mind are brought into operation to diffuse information and instruction through the land. Thus national wealth, education, and refinement advance together; and the riches which found entrance in one direction, find their way, through various channels, to every ramification of society, as the blood which flows from the heart circulates through every part of the human system.
So long as surplus wealth thus extends, and promotes a nation's prosperity, it is legitimately employed. But there are certain limits within which it ought to be confined. The morality, intelligence, and industry of the people are the bulwarks of national greatness j and if, by the introduction of any article of luxury or common diet, these barriers are weakened or thrown down, and the flood-gates of immorality, ignorance, and idleness opened, their dark tide will begin to flow, and threaten the best interests of the country. This result is shown by the histories of all those nations which reached the summit of wealth and power by the exercise of temperance, and whose downfall was hastened by their intemperance, producing idle and licentious habits, discord, effeminacy, and a spirit of dependence. Such were the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans.
Though there are distinctions of rank and station in society, there is a mutual dependence throughout the community at large, similar to the connexion existing among the members of the human body. "The eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee; nor the head to the feet, I have no need of you." The man whom wealth has exempted from the common lot of humanity, "in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread," is as dependent on the cultivator of the soil, the manufacturer, and the mechanic, as they are upon him. Hence all in their