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food as one hundred poor families, and to wear out as much clothing as all of them. But we know this is not the case. He pays away his income to servants, and labourers, and tradesmen, and manufacturers of different articles, who lay out the money in food and clothing for their families. So that in reality, the same sort of division of it is made as if it had been taken away from him. He may, perhaps, if he be a selfish man, care nothing for the maintaining of all these families ; but still he does maintain them. For if he should choose to spend 1000/. a year in fine pictures, the painters who are employed in those pictures are as well maintained as if he had made them a present of the money, and left them to sit idle. The only difference is, that they feel they are honestly earning their living, instead of subsisting on charity; but the total quantity of food and clothing in the country is neither the greater nor the less in the one case than in the other. But if a rich man instead of spending all his income, saves a great part of it, this saving will almost always be the means of maintaining a still greater number of industrious people. For a man who saves, hardly ever, in these days at least, hoards up gold and silver in a box, but lends it out on good security, that he may receive interest upon it. Suppose, instead of spending 1000/. a year on paintings, he saves that sum every year. Then this money is generally borrowed by farmers or manufacturers, or merchants, who can make a profit by it in the way of their business over and above the interest they pay for the use of it. And in order to do this, they lay it out in employing labourers to till the ground, or to manufacture cloth and other articles, or to import foreign goods: by which means the corn, and cloth, and other commodities of the country are increased.
The rich man, therefore, though he appears to have so much larger a share allotted to him, does not really consume it, but is only the channel through which it flows to others. And it is by this means much better distributed than it could have been otherwise.
The mistake of which I have been speaking, of supposing that the rich cause the poor to be the worse off, was. exposed long ago in the fable of the stomach and the limbs :—
"Once on a time," says the fable, " all the other members of the body began to murmur against the stomach, for employing the labours of all the rest, and consuming all that they helped to provide, without doing any thing in return. So they all agreed to strike work, and refused to wait upon this idle stomach any longer. The feet refused to carry it about; the hands resolved to put no food into the mouth for it; the nose refused to smell for it, and the eyes to look out in its service; and the ears declared they would not even listen to the dinner-bell; and so of all the rest. 'But after the stomach had been left empty for some time, all the members began to suffer. The legs and arms grew feeble; the eyes became dim, and all the body languid and exhausted.
"Oh, foolish members," said the stomach, "you now perceive that what you used to supply to me, was in reality supplied to yourselves. I did not consume for myself the food that was put into me, but digested it, and prepared it for being changed into blood, which was sent through various channels as a supply for each of you. If yon arc occupied in feeding me, it is by me in turn, that the bloodvessels which nourish you, are fed."
You see then, that a rich man, even though he may care for no one but himself, can hardly avoid benefiting his neighbours. But this is no merit of his, if
he himself has no design or wish to benefit them. On the other hand, a rich man who seeks for deserving objects to relieve and assist, and is, as the Apostle expresses it, "ready to give, and glad to distribute, is laying up in store for himself a good foundation for the time to come, that he may lay hold on eternal life." It is plain from this, and from many other such injunctions of the Apostles, that they did not intend to destroy the security of property among Christians, which leads to the distinction between the rich and the poor. For, their exhortations to the rich, to be kind and charitable to the poor, would have been absurd if they had not allowed that any of their people should be rich. And there could be no such thing as charity in giving any thing to the poor, if it were not left to each man's free choice, to give, or spend, what is his own. Indeed, nothing can be called your own, which you are not left free to dispose of as you will. The very nature of charity implies, that it must be voluntary; for no one can be properly said to give any thing that he has no power to withhold. The Apostle Paul, indeed goes yet farther, when he desires each man " to give according as he is disposed in his heart, and not grudgingly," because "God loveth a cheerful giver."
When men are thus left to their own inclinations, to make use of their money, each as he is disposed in his heart, we must expect to find that some wdl choose to spend it, merely on their own selfish enjoyments. Such men, although, as you have seen, they do contribute to maintain many industrious families without intending it, yet are themselves not the less selfish and odious. But still we are not the less forbidden to rob, or • defraud, or annoy them. Scripture forbids us to "covet our neighbour's goods," not because he makes a right use of them, but because they are his.
When you see a rich man who is proud and selfish, perhaps you are tempted to think how much better a use you would make of wealth, if you were as rich as he. I hope you would: but the best proof that you can give that you would behave well if you were in another's place, is by behaving well in your own. God has appointed to each his own trials, and his own duties; and He will judge you, not according to what you think you would have done in some different station, but according to what you have done, in that station in which He has placed you.
A CHINESE PRISON. Prisoners, who have money to spend, can be accommodated with private apartments, cards, servants, and every luxury. The prisoners' chains and fetters are removed from their bodies, and suspended against the wall of the apartment, till the hour arrives when the higher authorities go the rounds: after that ceremony is over, they are again hung up, where they hurt no one.
But those who have no money to bribe the keepers are in a woful condition. Not only are they deprived of every alleviation of their sufferings, but actual infliction of punishment is added, to extort money, to buy " burnt-offerings to the god of tne Jail," (as the phrase goes). For this purpose, the prisoners are frequently tied up, and flogged; at night, they are fettered down to a board, neck, wrists, and ancles, amid filth of the most disgusting nature, whilst the rats are permitted to gnaw their limbs. This place of torment is proverbially called, in ordinary speech, Te-yuk, a
term equivalent to the worst sense of the word Hell.
Canton Register. M. A. B.
The Emperor Constantine the Great, said, his life was something more honourable than that of shepherds, but much more troublesome. Jeremy Taylor.
If you desire the happiness of your child, teach him obedience and self-restraint.
ANNIVERSARIES IN JANUARY
1790 The French deputy, M. Guillotin, proposed to the National Assembly the adoption of that dreadful instrument of death, which has ever since borne his name.
1790 Attempt to destroy King George the Third, by throwing a large stone through the window of his carriage, as he was passing through St. James's Park, to open the session of Parliament.
1793 Louis the Stiteeitth, King of the French, beheaded by his rebellious subjects, at Paris.
1814 Bernardiu de St,' Pierre, author of the Studies of Nature and
Paul and Virginia, died, near Paris, aged 77.
WA Oliver Cromwell entered the House of Commons with his soldiers: having abused the Members, he turned them out of the House, and put an end to the Long Parliament, by locking the doors, and taking away the key in his pocket 1
1788 Lord Byron, the poet, born.
Ui2,i J. J. Angerstein, the founder of the Angerstein (now the National^ Gallery of Pictures, died.
WEDNESDAY, 23rd. 1570 The Earl of Murray, Regent of Scotland during the minority
of James VI. assassinated at Linlithgow, by Hamilton, of
Buthwellhaugh. 1792 Sir Joshua Reynolds died.
180b' The Right llou. William Pitt died, at Putney, in Surrey. lii-iJ Edward, Duke of Kent, died at Sidinouth, in Devonslure.
THURSDAY, 24th. 1712 Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, born at Berlin.
FRIDAY, 25th. Conversion Of St; Paul.—This miraculous event took place in the year 36 of the Christian era, as Paul was travelling to Damascus; from whence he was going to bring all persons to Jerusalem, to be tried and put to death, whom he should find believing in the name of Christ. After his conversion, he became a most zealous and active preacher of the very religion which he had been so violently engaged in destroying. He was the great Apostle of the Gentiles. This festival was established at a very early period.
1815 Napoleon escaped from the island of Elba.
1823 Dr. Edward Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination, died at Berkeley, in Gloucestershire.
SUNDAY, 27th. The Third Sunday After Epiphany. 1773 The Duke of Sussex born. 1823 Dr. Charles Hutton, the mathematician, died, aged 86,
TO MY SON.
My little boy! I love to see
Thy playful wiles, thy motions free,
Thy roguish looks, thy smiling face,
Thy tottering, unsteady pace,
Thy little, persevering ways,
Thy restless limbs, thy earnest gaze!
My little boy! I love to hear
Oh! what, dear boy! in future years,
A moment's space let dreams like these
Full soon But why this anxious care?
Let idle terrors melt in prayer.
May Christ, my son! whose child thou art.
Give thee a pious, humble heart;
Enable thee to conquer sin,
And, late or soon, heaven's joy to win I
I venture not to add to this
A second prayer, for earthly bliss----. T. K. A.
THE DEVILS BRIDGE.
Pont Y Monach (the Monk's Bridge), or, as it is vulgarly called, the Devil's Bridge, is situated in Cardiganshire, in South Wales. It is a single arch, of between twenty and thirty feet span, thrown over another arch, which crosses a tremendous chasm.
According to tradition, the lower arch was constructed by the monks of the neighbouring abbey, called Strata Florida Abbey, about the year 1087, but this is not correct, as the abbey itself was not founded till 1164. The country people, in superstitious days, deeming it a work of supernatural ability, gave it the strange name by which it is now generally known. Giraldus mentions having passed over it in 1188, when travelling through Wales with Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, to preach in favour of the Crusades.
The upper arch was built over the other at the expense of the county, in 1753, and the iron balustrades were added by Mr. Johnes in 1814. The lower arch may be distinctly viewed by looking over the upper bridge; but the whole scene is so enveloped in wood, that the depth is not perceived; and many an incurious traveller has passed the Devil's Bridge without distinguishing its circumstances from an ordinary road. The cleft over which these two bridges extend has evidently been enlarged, and was perhaps originally produced by the incessant attack of the impetuous river Mynach on the solid wall of rock.
In order to view the scenery of this romantic spot, the visiter should first cross the bridge, and then descend by the right of it to the bottom of the aperture, through which the Mynach drives its furious passage, having descended from the mountains about five miles to the north-east. The effect of the double arch is picturesque; and the narrowness of the cleft, darkened by its artificial roof, increases the solemn gloom of the abyss.
On regaining the road, the second descent must be made by passing through a small wood, at the distance of a few yards from the bridge, to view the four successive falls from the point of a rock in front. Each of these is received into a deep pool at the bottom, but so diminished to the eye, at the present point of view, as almost to resemble one continued cascade. The first fall takes place at a short distance from the bridge, where the river is confined to narrow limits by the rocks. It is carried about six feet over the ridge, and projected into a basin at the depth of eighteen feet. Its next leap is sixty feet, and the third is diminished to twenty, when it encounters rocks of prodigious size, through which it struggles to the edge of the largest cataract, and pours in one unbroken torrent down a precipice of 1 lO feet.
The height of the various falls is as follows :—first fall, 18 feet; second fall, 00; third fall, 20 ; and fourth fall, or grand cataract, 110; from the bridge to the water, 114; making, altogether, U22 feet.
As, however, no allowance is here made for the inclined direction of the river in many parts (and there are numerous interruptions to its passage), the total height from the bridge to the level of the stream, at its junction with the Rheidol, may be computed at nearly 500 feet. The rocks on each side of the fall rise perpendicularly to the height of 800 feet, and are finely clothed with innumerable trees, vegetating between the crevices, and forming one vast forest.
Near the Devil's Bridge, by the side of the Mynach Falls, is the Robbers' Cave, near the basin of the first fall. This is a dark cavern, inhabited in the fifteenth century by two men and their sister, called Plant Matt, or Matthew's children, who infested the neighbourhood, as plunderers, and who continued their depredations for many years with impunity. They were, at length, however, taken up for committingmurder, and executed. The descent to this cavern is very difficult.
The view from the windows of the Hafod Arms, near the Devil's Bridge, is perfectly enchanting. Immediately below, and only separated from the house by the road, is a profound chasm, stretching east and west about a mile, the almost perpendicular sides of which are covered with trees of different kinds. At the bottom of this abyss runs the river Mynach, its roaring tide hidden from the eye by the deep shade of surrounding woods, but bursting upon the ear in the awful sound of many waters—in the thunder of numerous cataracts; whilst in front of the spectator the Rheidol is seen rushing down a chasm in the mountains with tremendous fury.
The woods in the vicinity of the Devil's Bridge abound with nests of the Formica Herculanea, the largest species of ants that are natives of Britain: these nests are composed of small ends of twigs, forming a heap a yard or two across, and from one to two feet high. The insects themselves exceed in size three of the ordinary black kind, and are possessed of uncommon strength.
In the superstitious times before alluded to, it was common for great works of art, or peculiar formations of nature, to be called by the name of the Devil. Thus the famous bridge over the Reuss, i.i Switzerland
(See Saturday Magazine, vol. i., p. 254,) is also called the Devil's Bridge; and in our own country we have the Devil's Pnnch-Bowl, in Hampshire, and the Devil's Dyke near Brighton. In Germany is the Devil's Wall, erected by the Romans, the building of which commenced in the time of the Emperor Adrian, and occupied nearly two centuries. It extends for 368 miles over mountains, through valleys, and over rivers; in some places it now forms elevated roads and paths through woods ; buildings are erected upon it, and tall oaks flourish upon its remains.
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I. THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.
The Lower, or Commons House of Parliament, in which the representatives of the people hold their assemblies, was originally a chapel, built by king Stephen, and dedicated to St. Stephen. It was rebuilt in 1347, by Edward the Third, and erected by that monarch into a collegiate church, under the government of a dean and twelve secular priests. Being surrendered to Henry the Sixth, he gave it to the Commons for their sittings, to which use it still continues to be applied.
The old house was formed within the chapel, chiefly by a floor raised above the pavement, and an inner roof, considerably below the ancient one. At the period of the Union with Ireland the house was enlarged, by taking down the entire side walls, except the buttresses that supported the original roof; and erecting others beyond, so as to give one seat in each of the recesses thus formed, by throwing back part of the walls. The present house is still too small, but is fitted up in a very good style. A gallery runs along the west end, and the north and south sides are supported by slender iron pillars, crowned Vol. II.
with gilt corinthian capitals. The whole of the house is lined with wainscot, and the benches of the members have cushions, covered with leather.
At the time the inner walls were stripped of the wainscoting for the purpose of making the alterations a great part of the ancient decorations was found in tolerable preservation. The entire walls and roof were covered with gilding and paintings, and presented a superb and beautiful remnant of the fine arts, as they were patronised in the munificent reign of Edward the Third. The gilding was remarkably solid, and highly burnished, and the colours of the paintings vivid: both one and the other being as fresh as in the year they were executed. One of the paintings had some merit as a composition; the subject was, the Adoration of the Shepherds. A multitude of arms were blazoned on the south wall, and near them were two or three painted figures, in fantastic dresses.
Undearneath the house are some remains, in great perfection, of a chapel, of curious workmanship; and one side of a cloister, the roof of which is not surpassed in beauty by Henry the Seventh's chapel. A small court of the palace also remains, and forms part of the dwelling-house of the Speaker of the House of Commons, from which, during the sittings of the House, he proceeds in state, preceded by the mace, and attended by a train-bearer, &c.
The Speaker's Chair, which is slightly elevated above the floor, and stands at some distance from the wall, is highly gilt and ornamented; and on the top of it are placed the royal arms. Before the chair is a table, at which sit the clerks, who take notes of the proceedings, read the titles of bills, &c. The seat on the floor, on the right-hand of t;>e Speaker, is generally occupied by members of the administration, and is, therefore, called the Treasury Bench; and, on the opposite side, is that usually occupied by the leading Opposition members.
The House generally assembles about four o'clock; and a few minutes before that time, the Speaker takes his place at the upper part of the table, on the right, or Treasury side. The Chaplain of the House, being placed also at the upper part of the table on the left side, reads the customary prayers. This done, the. Speaker, standing before the chair, proceeds to count the House. When he has counted forty members, which is the number requisite to form a quorum, he sits down, and the House is constituted. If there be not forty members present, the House is adjourned until the next day.
The House very rarely sits on Saturday; and on Wednesday, business of importance is seldom taken.
When a member purposes the introduction of a new bill, he gives notice of his intention; which notice is printed in the Votes, for the information of the members. On the day fixed for making the motion, he briefly states the principle and purpose of his bill, and moves for leave to introduce it. If the House consent, an order for its introduction is made. The bill, in manuscript, being brought in, the introducers move that it be read a first time. The question for discussion, on the second and third steps, is precisely the same,—namely, whether the House will entertain the bill at all; for, as yet, the House knows nothing of it, save what has been stated to them by the introducer. If the first reading be agreed to, that motion is followed by an order for the printing of the bill, and a day is fixed for the second reading.
On the second reading, the question submitted to the House is. whether, taken as a whole, the cud and purpos' A the bill is such as may be properly entertained. As this is a question of principle, and not of detail, the entire bill must at this stage be accepted or rejected. If the bill pass the second reading, an order is made, and a day appointed, for its being committed to a Committee of the whole House.
On going into Committee, the Speaker leaves the Chair, and the Chairman of Committees presides, not in the Chair, but at the head of the table, on the seat usually occupied by the First Clerk. The House then proceeds to consider the bill clause by clause, either in the order in which the clauses stand, or in any other which may be deemed most convenient. If there be not time for the consideration of all the clauses at one sitting, the Speaker having again taken the Chair, the Chairman of Committees reports the progress that has been made, and asks leave to sit again. When all the clauses are gone through, he brings up the Report, that is, the bill with all the amendments made in it by the Committee, and a day is fixed for taking the Report into consideration. When the Report has been considered, and approved of, the bill is ordered to be fairly written out or engrossed, and a day is fixed for the third reading. If the third reading be agreed to, the House proceeds to consider whether it shall pass the bill to which it has agreed.
Previous to the question, of the bill's being passed,
any number of amendments may be made in the bill by way of "rider;" but these amendments must not alter the principle of the bill. The passing of the bill is simply its being sent to the Lords, if it have not been there already, or its being sent there again, in order to the Royal assent being given to it.
Private Bills are introduced on petition instead of notice; and, if any opposition be signified, the first step is to refer the petition to a Select Committee. If the Committee report favourably, the bill is read a first time, and goes through the other steps, in the same manner and order as a Public Bill.
There are three ways in which a Motion may be rejected,—1st, by a direct negative; 2nd, by a motion of adjournment; 3rd, by the previous question. When the question is put, "that this bill be now read a second time," those who are against the bill may, according to the first method, simply negative the question; but the more usual way is to move that the question be altered by leaving out the words after "that,"and inserting the words "a second time this day six [or three] months." The question put to the House in this case, is whether the words proposed to be left out shall stand part of the question or not. The previous question is chiefly used in respect of resolutions or motions for returns. Instead of simply rejecting the resolution, it is got rid of by moving that the question for iu adoption be not put to the House at that time.
In bills that have passed the Lords before coming to the Commons, no motion for leave to bring in is required, and the first reading is always conceded as matter of courtesy. The Lords observe the same rule in respect of bills that have passed the Commons.
At every step in the progress of a Bill, it may be opposed; and, if the House see fit, rejected. In Committee, every clause, every line, every word may be made the subject of a question. At every step of its progress in the House, it is competent for a member to move the adjournment of the debate or of the House, and he may renew this motion as often as he pleases. In Committee, instead of the motion for adjournment, a member may move that progress be reported; which amounts to the same thing.
In the House,—that is, when the Speaker is in the Chair,—a member can only speak once, unless by way of explanation; or, in the case of the mover of the question, by way of reply. In Committee, a member may speak any number of times. A member may, however, speak not only on the main question, but on all such questions as arise incidentally in tlv» course of the debate.
THE DAYS OF THY MOURNING SHALI
Oh! weep not for the joys that fade
For hopes that like the stars decayed,
For clouds of sorrow will depart,
And brilliant skies be given;
Oh! weep not for the friends that pass
Into the lonesome grave.
Along the restless wave;
For though thy pleasures may depart.
And darksome days be given;