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The Cuttle Fish.
The Cuttle Fish, figured in the above print, is furnished in front with eight arms or feelers, with which it grapples with its enemy, or conveys its prey to its mouth. These arms are most curiously constructed, and afford the animal ample means of defence; they possess in themselves a strong muscular power, and this is materially assisted by numerous cups or suckers, placed along the whole of their inner surface, with which they fasten themselves to any object they come in contact with. These feelers appear to be also endued with some peculiar power, of a galvanic nature; since the pain which they inflict does not cease for a long time after the removal of the animal, leaving it kind of stinging sensation, like that produced by nettles, which remains for many hours, and is followed by a troublesome irritation and itching.
The size to which this creature grows has been variously stated; and, although evidently exaggerated by some authors, there can be no doubt that it attains to a very considerable magnitude. When attacked in its own element, it has been known capable of overcoming a powerful mastiff. Its jaws are, likewise, extremely strong, formed like the beak of a parrot, and very hard. In addition to these means of defence, it possesses within its body a bladder, containing an inky-coloured fluid, which it has the power of throwing out at will, and by thus discolouring the water, escapes the pursuit of its enemies. This inky
liquid, when dried, forms a very valuable colour, used by artists, and called, after the animal, Sepia. The eggs of the female are of an oval form, and joined to each other in clusters. They are of the size of filberts, of a black colour, and commonly known by the name of Sea Grapes.- they are found attached to sea-weed, rocks, and other marine substances.
The Cuttle Fish generally remains with its body in some hole in a rock, while its arms are extended in every direction, to seize the wanderer that may chance to pass its place of ambush. Its appetite is voracious, and it seizes as its prey every living thing that it has the power to conquer.
One species—the Sepia Officinalis—is very common on the English coasts, and the bone which is enclosed in its body is frequently found on the sands: it is a well-known substance, and is much employed in the manufacture of tooth-powder. This bone, which, with the exception of the jaws, is the only solid part in the Sepia, differs in shape in the different species; but is always somewhat oval in its shape, though differing considerably in texture.
The week is past, the Sabbath-dawn comes on.
Spirit of good! on this week's verge I stand,
He that never changed any of his opinions, never corrected any of his mistakes; and he, who was never wise enough to find out any mistakes in himself, will not be charitable
enough to excuse what he reckons mistakes in others.
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ST. PAUL'S CROSS AND OLD w. PAULS. The above engraving represents a scene in Old St. Paul's church-yard, as it appeared in the year 1620. In the foreground is the famous St. Paul's Cross, which was a pulpit of wood, mounted upon stone steps, and covered with lead, situated on the north side of the cathedral, and towards the east end. In it, is seen the then Bishop of London, preaching before King James the First, who, with his Queen, and Prince Charles, are placed in a covered gallery adjoining the cathedral. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen are also present, but the greater part of the congregation are sitting in the open air.
A short account of the cross and of the old church, as they stand in the print, will best explain the particular occasion of this sermon being preached.
The age of the first Paul's-cross, is unknown: but we read of its existence in the year 1259, in the reign of King Henry the Third, and of its having been rebuilt in the 15th century, after being defaced by a storm of thunder and lightning. The chief purpose for which it was used, was as a place for the delivery of sermons every Sunday, in the forenoon, by clergymen appointed by the Bishop of London. For keeping up these, many liberal benefactions were bestowed; and, as some of the clergy had to travel from the Universities, or elsewhere, the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen ordered, in the year 1007, that every one that should preach there, should " at his pleasure, be freely entertained for five days' space, with sweet and convenient lodging."
Various sermons, preached upon this spot, by eminent men, during the stirring times of English history, are on record. Here, in 1547, Bishop Latimer preached three Sundays following. Here, on the 16th July, 1553, Ridley, Bishop of London, preached; and here, in 1588, Queen Elizabeth caused a sermon of thanksgiving to be delivered for the preservation of her subjects from the invincible Armada. We are informed, too, that, on the 17th of November, 1595, (her Majesty's birthday,) "The Pulpit Cross, in St. Paul's Church-yard, was new repaired, painted, and partly enclosed with a wall of brick. Doctor Fletcher, Bishop of London, preached there in praise of the Queen, and prayed for her Majesty, before the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens, in their best liveries. Which sermon being ended, upon the church-leades the trumpets sounded, the cornets winded, and the quiristers sung an antheme. On the steeple many lights were burned, the Tower shot off her ordinance, the bels were rung, bone-fires made, &C." '
Nor was St. Paul's Cross set apart for the uses of instruction alone. It was made to answer the ambitious ends of Richard the Third, in seeking his bad eminence. In it Jane Shore did penance; there the cause of Henry the Eighth's first Queen was assailed, and the titles of Mary and Elizabeth were disputed.
The last sermon said to have been preached at this Cross, was before James the First, who came on horseback, in great state, from Whitehall, on Mid-Lent Sunday, 1620. He was met, at his entrance into the city, by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, who presented him with a purse of gold. At St. Paul's, he was received by the clergy, in their robes. Divine service was performed, accompanied with an organ, cornets, and sackbuts 5 after which, his Majesty went to a place prepared for his reception, where Dr. John King, Bishop of London, preached a most excellent and learned sermon, upon a text given him by the King,—Psalm cii. 13, 14: Thou shalt arise, and have mercy upon Sion: for it is time that Thou have mercy upon her; yea, the time is come. And why? Thy servants think upon her stones: and it pitielh them to see her in the dust.
The object of the sermon was the repairing of the Cathedral; and, at the conclusion of the discourse, the king and the principal persons retired to the bishop's palace to consult on the matter.
It seems that, at that time, St. Paul's Cathedral had fallen into great decay. It was an extremely ancient structure, having been commenced by Maurice, a Bishop of London, whom William the Conqueror nominated to that see. It met with many difficulties before its completion, and suffered much from fire and other injuries; but in 1312, when a measure was taken of that stately and magnificent church, the length was about 700 feet, and the height, including the tower and spire, upwards of 520 feet. The church was in the form of a long cross. The greatest calamity which befel it, previous to its entire destruction at the Fire of London, was on the 4th of June, 1561, when the great spire was struck by lightning, which broke out a little below the cross at the top, and burnt downwards to the battlements, stone-work, and rafters with such fury, that, in four hours, the whole roof was consumed.
Although something was done towards covering in the building, the restoration of the steeple continued to be neglected until the reign of James the First, when, in order to promote the repair of the decayed fabric, that monarch paid the visit to the church, which is referred to in the plate. The result was, that the king issued a commission for a general benevolence throughout the kingdom; but the collection advanced slowly until about the year 1631, soon after which (in 1633), Inigo Jones began the work.
However beautiful may have been the portion of building, considered in itself, which was added by this great architect, he has been blamed for having grafted a Grecian portico on a Gothic structure. But it was not doomed to survive long. The great Fire of London, in 1666, reduced the whole to ashes. It had previously undergone considerable injury in the times of the civil discord; and St. Paul's Cross had, during the mayoralty of Sir Isaac Pennington, been pulled down.
Notwithstanding many discouragements, the commencement of a new and splendid cathedral was soon undertaken. King Charles the Second issued a commission, and contributed £1000. per annum towards this good object. Aid was granted by parliament, by means of a duty laid, from time to time, on all coals imported at the port of London; part of the amount going towards the building of St. Paul's, the remainder towards that of the other churches which had been similarly destroyed.
The first stone of the present noble pile was laid in 1675, and it was finished in 1710. It is worthy of remark that, although it was thirty-five years in building, it was begun and completed by one architect, Sir Christopher Wren, and under one prelate, Henry Compton, Bishop of London. It is also said that the same stone-mason (whose name was Strong) saw the laying of the first and last stone.
More than five hundred workmen were frequently employed in it at the same time.
St. Paul's was built according to a third design of the architect, the two former having been declined. A singular circumstance is mentioned relative to the beginning of the work: while Sir Christopher was setting out the dimensions of the dome, he ordered a common labourer to bring him a flat stone; he happened to bring a broken piece of a grave-stone, on which was the word Resurgam. This was not lost on the great architect: he caught the idea of the Phoenix, rising from its ashes, which he placed on the , south portico, with that word cut beneath.
A SUNDAY AT THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.
At an early hour of the morning, even before we had taken our breakfasts on board ship, a single islander, here or there, or a group of three or four, wrapped in their large mantles of various hues, might be seen winding their way among the groves fringing the bay on the east, or descending from the hills and ravines on the north, towards the chapel; and, by degrees, their numbers increased, till, in a short time, every path along the beach, and over the uplands, presented an almost uninterrupted procession of both sexes, and of every age, all passing to the house of God. So few canoes were round the ship yesterday, and the landing place had been so little thronged, as our boats passed to and fro, that one might have thought the district but thinly inhabited; but now, such multitudes were seen gathering, from various directions, that the exclamation, "What crowds of people !" was heard from the quarter-deck to the forecastle. Even to myself it was a sight of surprise:—surprise, not at the magnitude of the population, but that the object for which they were evidently assembled, should bring together so great a multitude. And as my thoughts re-echoed the words, "What crowds of people !" remembrances and affections of deep power came over me, and the silent musings of my heart were, " What a change, what a happy change!" when at this very place only four years ago, the known wishes and example of chiefs of high authority, the daily persuasion of teachers, added to motives of curiosity and novelty, could scarce induce a hundred of the inhabitants to give an irregular, careless, and impatient attendance on the services of the sanctuary.
The scene, as looked on from our ship, in the stillness of a brightly-beaming Sabbath-morning, was well calculated, with its associations, to prepare the mind for strong impressions on a nearer view, when the conclusion of our own public worship should allow us to go on shore. Though the services had commenced when we landed, large numbers were seen standing round the doors without, but, as we afterwards found, only from the difficulty of obtaining places within.
The house is an immense building, capable of containing many thousands, every part of which was filled, except a small area in front of the pulpit, where seats were reserved for us, and to which we made way, in slow and tedious procession, from the difficulty of finding a spot to place even our footsteps, without treading on the limbs of people, seated on their feet, as closely, almost, as they could be stowed.
I can scarce describe the emotions experienced in glancing an eye over the immense number seated so thickly on the matted floor, as to seem literally one mass of heads, covering an area of more than nine thousand square feet.
I have gazed on many worshipping assemblies, and of every variety of character, from those formed of the high and princely, with a splendour and pageantry of train befitting the magnificence of the cathedrals in which they bowed, to the humblest "two or three" who ever came together at a place where prayers were wont to be made. I have listened with delighted attention to some of the highest eloquence the pulpits of England and America of the present day can boast; and have watched, with sympathetic excitement, the effect produced by it. I have seen tears of conviction and of penitence flow freely, even to the seeming breaking of the heart, under the sterner truths of the word of God: but it was left for a worshipping assembly at Hido, the
most obscure corner of these distant islands, to excite the liveliest emotions I ever experienced, and to leave the deepest impressions of the extent atid unsearchable riches of the Gospel which I have ever known.
With the exception of the inferior chiefs, and a few others, scarce one of the whole multitude was in other than the native dress—the maco and the kihei— the simple garments of their primitive state.
In this respect, and in the attitude of sitting, the assembly was purely pagan; but the breathless silence; the eager attention j the half-suppressed sigh; the tear; the various feelings, sad, peaceful, joyous, discoverable in the faces of many, all spoke the presence of an invisible, but omnipotent power. It was, in a word, a heathen congregation, laying hold on the hopes of eternity. The simple appearance, and every deportment of that obscure congregation, whom I had once known, and at no remote period, only as a set of rude, licentious, and wild pagans, did more to rivet the conviction of the divine origin of the Bible, and of the holy influences by which it is accompanied to the hearts of men, than all the arguments, and apologies, and defences of
Christianity I have ever read. Stewart's Visit to
the South Seas.
GREAT SUCCESS FROM SMALL BEGINNINGS.
On the fith of September, 1GR0, I dined (says the cele brated John Evelyn) with Sir Stephen Fox, now one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. This gentleman came as a poor boy from the choir of Salisbury, then was taken notice of by Bishop Duppa, and afterwards waited on my Lord Percy, (brother to Algernon, Earl of Northumberland,) who procured for him an inferior place amongst the clerks of the king's kitchen. In this situa tion he was found so humble, diligent, industrious, and prudent in his behaviour, that (his Majesty being in exile) the king and lords frequently employed him about their affairs, and trusted him both with receiving and paying the little money they had.
Returning with his Majesty to England, after great wants and great sufferings, his Majesty found him so honest and industrious, and withal so capable and ready, that being advanced from Clerk of the Kitchen to that of the Green-cloth, he caused him to be made paymaster to the whole army, and by his dexterity and punctual dealing he obtained such credit among the bankers, that he was in a short time able to borrow vast sums of them upon any exigence.
The continual turning thus of money, and the soldiers moderate allowance to him for his keeping touch with them, did so enrich him that he is believed to be worth at least two hundred thousand pounds, honestly gotten, and unenvied, which is next to a miracle. With all this, he continues as humble and ready to do a courtesy as ever he was. He is generous, and lives very honourably, of a sweet nature, well spoken, well bred, and is so highly in his Majesty's esteem, and so useful, that being long since made a knight, he is also advanced to be one of the Lords Com missioners of the Treasury, and has the reversion of the cofferer's place after Harry Brouncker. He has married his eldest daughter to my Lord Cornwallis, and gave her twelve thousand pounds. In a word, never was man more fortunate than Sir Stephen; he is virtuous, and very re ligious.
THE PAPER NAUTILUS.
The curious inhabitant of this elegant shell has, from the earliest ages, excited the admiration of the student in natural history; and, at the same time, its true nature has eluded the research of the most acute observers. The animal agrees in so many points with the Sepia or Cuttle-fish, which never possesses a shelly covering, that, had it been found without that beautiful addition, naturalists would have referred it, without hesitation, to that particular
The Paper Nautilus.
The name Argonaut has been applied to this seaborn navigator from its resemblance, when floating on the surface of the waves, to a vessel in full sail, Argo being the name of the ship which was supposed to have been the first fitted out for commercial adventure.
In calm summer days, these beautiful little creatures may be seen, in considerable numbers, steering their little barks on the surface of the waters of the Mediterranean. The words of the ancient Roman naturalist, Pliny, give a pleasing description of its habits. "Among the principal miracles of nature (says he) is the animal called Nautilos or Pompilos: it ascends to the surface of the sea, in a supine posture, and gradually raising itself up, forces out, by means of its tube, all the water from its shell, in order that it may swim more readily; then throwing back the two foremost arms, it displays between them a membrane of wonderful tenuity, which acts as a sail, while, with the remaining arms, it rows itself along, the tail in the middle acting as a helm to direct its course, and thus it pursues its voyage ; and, if alarmed by any appearance of danger, takes in the water and descends."
Although the Argonauta has never yet been discovered attached to its shell, some observations which have been recently made on the Pearly Nautilus, which very nearly resembles it, have almost proved that such a connexion does really exist. But whether the shell is formed by itself, or only used to assist the creature in its movements, the instinct displayed is not the less wonderful, or worthy of observation. The Mediterranean, and warmer parts of the Atlantic, abound in these interesting animals, and one species is also found in the Indian ocean.
CHRISTMAS. We hail with great delight the approach of the Festival of Christmas. It is a happy period of the year, and one which brings with it some of the most pleasing recollections of our life. Every thing that relates to the season is calculated to make a deep and lasting impression on the young mind. The inspiring declaration of the 'glad tidings of great toy which shall be to all people;' the affecting
account of the lowly birth and glorious welcome of the new-born King; and then, the proofs of heartfelt joy among friends, and in families—the glad exchange of kind wishes—the cheerful liberality to humbler people—the comforts of a peaceful fireside :—these are the things which each succeeding Christmas happily renews to many, with a relish confined to no particular time of life. The child rejoices in Christmas j and, in addition to the pleasure of the passing hour, he has some holiday before him. The father rejoices in Christmas; although the mirth of former days may have given place to the more quiet feelings of rational and steadfast joy, upon the occasion of such an anniversary. And who shall doubt that the old rejoice in Christmas r Surely to see those around them, and those a step or two below them in age, smiling and happy, is a happiness to the old—not to mention that especial source of happiness opened to them in the event commemorated at this season, to the contemplation of which, those whose years are leaving them, may turn with increased comfort and joy.
As nothing which relates to the observance of this festival can be out of place at the present time, we shall lay before our readers an account of some of the ancient Christmas customs.
On Christmas-eve, as soon as it was dark, candles of an uncommon size, called Christmas Candles, were lighted up, and a log of wood, called the Yule Log, or Christmas block, was laid upon the fire, to illuminate the house, and as it were, to turn night into day. Yule is supposed to mean Christmas. Furmety was common on this eve for supper. It consisted of boiled wheat, mixed with milk, plenty of sugar, &c. The candle, the yule, and the furmety, are kept up in some parts of the country, particularly Yorkshire, at this day. The burning out a ponderous ashen-faggot is still observed in some of the farm houses in Devonshire. A foolish notion formerly prevailed, that, on this eve, oxen knelt in their stalls and moaned.
There appear to have been many whimsical customs belonging to different countries, and to various parts of this country, on Christmas-eve, a full account or which would be tedious :—we therefore proceed to describe some of those of Christmas-day.
The Yule, or CHRisTMAS-feast, is of great anti ■ quity. The lords kept the feast of Christmas chiefly with their king. Barons feasted the whole country, and a whole boar was sometimes put on the table, richly gilt, by way of brawn. But it was a soused Boar's Head which was carried to the principal table in the hall, with great solemnity, as the first dish on Christmas-day. Dugdale, speaking of this day, as observed at the Inner-temple, says, "Service in the church ended, the gentlemen presently repair into the hall to breakfast, with brawn, mustard, and malmsey." And at dinner, "At the first course is served a fair and large boar's head, upon a silver platter, with minstrelsy." At one of the feasts, mention is made of " a shippe of silver for an almes-dish." The Christmas-pie of minced-meat, and various sweet ingredients, was formerly made in the form of a cratch*, or cradle. The bakers, at this season, used to present their customers with the yule-dough, and paste images, as the chandlers gave Christmas candles. Plum-porridge was also usual. In the north of England yule-cakes are still made.
We now come to Christmas-carols. The word
carol may be derived from a Greek word, signifying
joy. It was, probably, an imitation 'of the hymn
sung by the angels, which, as Bishop Taylor observes,
* A rack for hay or straw,