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Travellers in England, or even those who may have passed over the Pyrenees or Alps, can have but a faint idea of the labour and danger of crossing the Andes, that immense mountain-chain by which the continent of South America is intersected, from its southern to its most northern extremity, dividing Peru and Chili, on the western Coasts, from Columbia and Brazil, on the eastern. Many of the Passes are upwards of 18,000 feet, or nearly four miles, in perpendicular height, above the level of the sea. In some parts men, who have made it their sole occupation, carry the passenger up the most steep and dangerous paths, in a kind of chair fastened to their backs ; but in general, the journey is made by travellers mounted on that patient and 6ure-footcd animal, the mule.
The above engraving is from a print in the Travels of Colonel Hamilton, who, in 1823, visited South America, as chief commissioner from the king of Great Britain to the republic of Columbia. It represents a perilous situation common to the traveller in these terrific regions, when his safety depends wholly on the sure-footedness of his mule. In the Pass along which the traveller is proceeding, the road is separated by a chasm, several feet in width, which forms the mouth of a yawning gulf, some hundreds of feet in depth. The sagacity shown by the mules in leaping these dangerous openings, which are of common occurrence, is a subject of admiration among Vol. I.
all travellers who have visited these regions. In some places, also, it is necessary to make the descent of immense heights j an undertaking of great danger, from their excessive steepness, and the slippery state of the mule-track. "On these occasions, the mules," says Colonel Hamilton, *' take every precaution, and seem to know the danger they incur; for they inspect the road narrowly before them, and then place their fore-legs close together, and slide down on their hams in a manner which scarcely any one but an eye-witness would credit."
Major Head, in his Rough Notes of a Journey across the Pampas, gives the following animated picture of the preparation of a train of baggage-mules for a journey over these dangerous Passes; and of some of the casualties common to these perilous journeys. "Anxious to be off" says he," I ordered the mules to be saddled j as soon as this was done, the baggagemules were ordered to be got ready. Every article of baggage was brought into the yard, and divided into six parcels (the number of the baggage-mules), quite different from each other in weight and bulk, but adapted to the strength of the different mules.
"The operation of loading then began. The peon (the driver) first caught a great brown mule with his lasso*, and then put it poncho (a large shawl in
q The Lasso is a long leathern thong, used by the hunters and drivers of South America in catching wild animals. An account of this singular practice will be given via a future number,
which the natives dress) over his eyes, and tied it ■under his throat, leaving the animal's nose and mouth uncovered. The mule stood still, while the captain and peon first put on the large straw pack-saddle, which they girthed to him, in such a manner that nothing could move it. The articles were then placed, one by one, on each side, and bound together, with a force and ingenuity against which it was hopeless for the mule to contend.
"I could not help pitying the poor animal, on seeing him thus prepared for carrying a heavy load, such a wearisome distance, and over such lofty mountains as the Andes; yet, it is truly amusing to watch the nose and mouth of a mule when his eyes are blinded, and his ears pressed down upon his neck in the poncho. Every movement which is made about him, either to arrange his saddle or his load, is resented by a curl of his nose and upper-lip, which, in ten thousand wrinkles, is expressive beyond description, of every thing that is vicious and spiteful: he appears to be planning all sorts of petty schemes of revenge, and as soon as the poncho is taken off, generally begins to put some of them into execution, either by running, with his load, against some other mule, or by kicking him. However, as soon as he finds that his burden is not to be got rid of, he dismisses, or perhaps conceals his resentment, and instantly assumes a look of patience and resignation. **********
"As I was looking up at the region of snow, and as my mule was scrambling along the steep side of the rock, the captain overtook me, and asked me if I chose to come on, as he was going to look at a very dangerous part of the road, which we were approaching, to see if it was passable, before the mules came to it. In half an hour we arrived at the spot. It is the worst Pass in the whole road over the Cordillera Mountains. The mountain above appears almost perpendicular, and in one continued slope down to a rapid torrent that is raging underneath. The surface is covered with loose earth and stones, which have been brought down by the waters. The path goes across this slope, and is very bad for about seventy yards, being only a few inches broad; but the point of danger is a spot, where the water, which comes down from the top of the mountain, either washes the path away, or covers it over with loose stones. In some places, the rock almost touches one's shoulder, while the precipice is immediately under the opposite foot, and high above head, are a number of loose stones, which appear as if the slightest touch would send them rolling into the torrent beneath, which is foaming and running with great violence. As soon as we had crossed the Pass, which is only seventy yards long, the captain told me it was a very bad place for baggage-mules; that four hundred had been lost there; and that we should probably also lose one. He said, that he could get down to the water at a place about a hundred yards off, and wait there with his lasso, to catch any mule that might fall into the torrent; and he requested me to lead on his mule. However, I resolved to see the tumble, if there was to be one, so the captain took away my mule and his own, and while I stood on a projecting rock, at the end of the Pass, he scrambled down on foot, till he got to the level of the water.
"The drove of mules now came in sight, one following another: a few were carrying no burdens, but the rest were either mounted or heavily laden. As soon as the leading mule came to the commencement of the Pass, he stopped, evidently unwilling to proceed, and of course all the rest stopped also.
"He was the finest mule we had. and, on that
account, had twice as tuueh to carry as any of the others. With his nose to the ground, literally smelling his way, he'walked gently on, often changing the position of his feet, if he found the.ground would not bear, until he came to the bad part of the Pass, when he stopped; but the peons threw stones at him, and he continued his path in safety, and several others followed.
"At length, a young mule, carrying a portmanteau, with two large sacks of provisions, and many other things, in passing the bad point, struck his load against the rock, which knocked his two hind-legs over the precipice, and the loose stones immediately began to roll away from under them: however, his fore-legs were still upon the narrow path: he had no room to put his head there, but he placed his nose on the path to his left, and appeared to hold on by his mouth: his perilous fate was soon decided by a loose mule, who, in walking along after him, knocked his comrade's nose off the path, destroyed his balance, and head over heels the poor creature instantly commenced a fall, which was really quite terrific. With all his baggage firmly lashed to him, he rolled down the steep slope, until he came to the part which was perpendicular, and then he seemed to bound off, and turning round in the air, fell into the deep torrent, on his back, and upon his baggage, and instantly disappeared." To any other animal but a mule, this fall must have been fatal; he was carried down by the stream in spite of all his efforts, and, turning the corner of a rock, was given up for lost. "At length," the author continues, "I saw at a distance a solitary mule walking towards us! We instantly perceived that he was the Phaeton whose fall we had just witnessed, and in a few moments he came up to us to join his comrades. He was, of course, dripping wet, his eye looked dull, and his whole countenance was dejected, but none of his bones were broken: he was very little cut, and the bulletin of his health was altogether incredible."
Consequences Of Fraud.—Some idea of the disadvau tage which is sooner or later attendant on the practice of fraud may be formed from a consideration of the fol lowing facts, which have been proved before Committees of the House of Commons. The owners of the Irish flax believe that they can best advance their own interests by imposing on the buyers. Flax being sold by weight, va rious expedients are used to increase it; and every expedient is injurious, particularly the dumping of it; a very common practice, which makes the tiax afterwards heat. The inside of every bundle (and the bundles all vary in bulk,) is often full of pebbles, or dirt of various kinds, to increase the weight. In this state it is purchased, and exported to Great Britain The natural quality of Irish llax is admitted to be not inferior to that produced by any foreign country, and yet the Mat of every foreign country, imported into Great Britain, obtains a preference among the purchasers, because the foreign flax is brought to the British market in a cleaner and more regular state. Babbagk.
You may rest upon this as an unfailing truth, that there neither is, nor never was, any person remarkably ungrateful, who was not also insufferably proud; for as snakes breed on dunghills, not singly, but in knots, so in such base hearts you always find pride and ingratitude twisted together. Ingratitude overlooks all kindness, but it is because pride makes it carry its bead so high. In a word, ingratitude is too base to return a kindness, too proud to regard it, much like the tops of mountains, barren indeed, but yet lofty; they produce nothing; they feed nobody: they clothe nobody; yet are high and stately, and look down upon all the world. South.
Those men who destroy a healthful constitution of body by intemperance, and an irregular life, do as manifestly kill themselves, as those who hang, or poison, or drown themselves. Sherlock.
Make God the first and last' of all thy actions; so begin that thou mayest have Him in the end; otherwise I doubt whether it had not been better that thou hadst never begun.
Wealth is not the way to Heaven, but the contrary; let all your care be how to " live well," and you may be sure, that you will never die poor.
I know not which is the worse, the bearer of tales, or the receiver: for the one makes the other. We should no less hate to tell, than to hear slanders. If we cannot, stop others' mouths, let us stop our own ears. The receiver is as bad as the thief.
So live with men as considering always that God sees thee: so pray to God, as if every man heard thee. Do nothing, which thou wouldest not have God see done. Desire nothing, which may either wrong thy profession to ask, or God's honour to grant.
Afflictions are the medicine of the mind ; if they are not toothsome, let it suffice that they are wholesome. It is not required in physic, that it should please, but heal.
Sin and punishment are like the shadow and the body, never apart. Never sin went unpunished; and the end of all sin, if it be not repentance, is hell. Next to the not committing of a fault, is the being sorry for it. Bishop Henshaw.
It is not possible, but a conceited man "must be a fool. For, that overweening opinion he hath of himself, excludes all opportunity of purchasing knowledge. Let a vessel be once full of never so base liquor, it will not give room to the costliest; but spills besido whatsoever is infused. The proud man, though he be empty of good substance, yet is full of conceit. Many men had proved wise, if they had not thought themselves so. Bishop Hall.
Command dis temper. —The Duke of Marlborough possessed great command of temper, and never permitted it to be ruffled by little things, in which even the greatest men have been occasionally found unguarded. As he was riding one day with Commissary Marriott, it began to rain, and he called to his servant for his cloak. The servant not bringing it immediately, he called for it again. The servant, being embarrassed with the straps and buckles, did not come up to him. At last, it raining very hard, the duke called to him again, and asked him what he was about, that he did not bring his cloak. "You must stay, sir," grumbled the fellow, "if it rains cats and dogs, till I can get at it" The duke turned round to Marriott, and said, very coolly, " Now I would not be of that fellow's temper for all the world."
The church of Bemerton, between Salisbury and Wilton, Wiltshire, is the place where the elegant and pious Herbert lies buried, whose Poems and Country Parson have, for nearly two centuries, ranked so deservedly high, both on account of their beauty and devotion. And Bemerton, with the adjoining parish of Fulsten, was the field in which his charity, and devout labours for the good of his flock, were displayed in a manner almost unequalled.
George Herbert was the fifth son of Richard Herbert, Esq., a relation of the earls of Pembroke, and was born in Montgomery Castle, April 3, 1593. In his twelfth year he entered at Westminster School, "where," says Walton, "the beauties of his pretty behaviour and wit shined out, and became so eminent and lovely, in this his innocent age, that he seemed to be marked out for piety, and to become the care of heaven, and of a particular good angel to guard and guide him.' When fifteen years of age, being a King's scholar, he was elected to Trinity
College, Cambridge, whither he removed in the year 1608, pursuing his studies, particularly in the Greek language, with great assiduity. He was made Bachelor of Arts in 1611, and proceeded Master of Arts in 1615; during all which time, his greatest diversion from study was the practice of music, in which he became a great proficient.
Four years after he had taken his master's degree, he was elected Orator for the University, in which office he continued eight years. This office introduced him to the notice of King James the First, who, going often to hunt at Newmarket and Royston, was frequently invited to Cambridge, and so much delighted with the Orator's gratulatory addresses, that he grew more and more into favour.
Herbert being a man of courtly habits, and not without ambition, attended his Majesty, wherever the Court happened to be held; and, on receiving from him a sinecure, formerly held by Sir Philip Sidney, "with this and his annuity, and the advantage of his College, and of his Oratorship, he enjoyed his genteel humour for clothes and court-like company, and seldom looked towards Cambridge, unless the King were there, and then he never failed."
Thus high in favour, and full of bright expectation, he continued till the death of King James; and several influential friends appear to have impressed his mind with a sense of the vanity of the pursuits of ambition, and their inefficiency to procure happiness j and, after mature deliberation, he determined to forsake the court, and devote himself to the service of the Church. Coming to London with this resolution, he was dissuaded by a friend, on the ground that the avocation was beneath one of his rank and talents; to whom he made this noble reply:—" It hath been formerly judged, that the domestic servants of the King of Heaven should be of the noblest families on earth; and though the iniquity of the late times have made clergymen meanly valued, and the sacred name of priest contemptible, yet I will labour to make it honourable, by consecrating all my learning, and all my poor abilities, to advance the glory of that God that gave them; knowing that I can never do too much for Him, who hath done so much for me as to make me a Christian."
He was ordained Deacon, about 1626, and made Prebend of Layton Ecclesia, the church of which he entirely rebuilt, by subscriptions collected from his friends, and by his own contributions.
In 1630, the Rector of Bemerton being vacated by the elevation of Dr. Carle to the see of Bath and Wells, he was presented to it by Charles the First, and entered into priest's orders. On the night after his induction, he is said to have exclaimed to a friend, "I look back upon my aspiring thoughts, and can now behold the court with an impartial eye, and see plainly that it is made up of titles and flattery; but in God, and his service, there is a fulness of all joy and pleasure, and no satiety; I will now use all my endeavours to bring my relations and dependants to a love and reliance on Him, who never faileth those that trust Him."
This resolution, made in the strength of his Master, was nobly kept. His whole heart appears to have centred in his work. His efforts for the instruction of his parishioners were incessant, his charities only bounded by his means.
Many anecdotes are related of his amiable and Christian disposition, of which we extract the following :—" His love to music was such, that he usually went twice a week, at certain appointed days
It would be viewing the
upon earth.' But, before his return thence to Bemerton, he would usually sing, and play his part, at an appointed private music-meeting; and to justify this practice, he would say,—' Religion does not banish mirth, but only moderates and sets rules to it.'"
In one of his walks to Salisbury, he saw a poor man, with a poorer horse, that was fallen under his load; they were both in distress, and needed present help, which Mr. Herbert perceiving, put off his canonical coat, and helped the poor man to unload, and after, to load his horse.
The poor man blessed him for it, and he blessed the poor man: and was so like the good Samaritan, that he gave him money to refresh both himself and his horse, and told him that, " if he loved himself, he should be merciful to his beast." Thus he left the poor man, and at his coming to his musical friends at Salisbury, they began to wonder that Mr. George Herbert, which used to be so trim, and clean, came into that company so soiled and discomposed; but he told them the occasion: and when one of the company told him, " he had disparaged himself by so dirty an employment," his answer was, " that the thought of what he had done would prove music to him at midnight, and that the omission of it would have upbraided, and made discord in his conscience, whensoever he should pass by that place; for if I be bound to pray for all that are in distress, I am sure that I am bound, as far as is in my, power, to practise that I pray for. And, though I do not wish for the like occasion every day, yet, let me tell you, I would not willingly pass one day of my life without comforting a sad soul, and showing mercy; and I praise God for this occasion. So now let us tune our instruments."
He died of consumption, at Bemerton Rectory, in the 41 st year of his age, God having mercifully removed him from the evil to come, and spared him the sight of those miseries which followed upon the overthrow of the church, and the death of King Charles.
I made my visit to Bemerton in 1831, by the road on which Mr. Herbert displayed his benevolence, as related above; and having mv mind fully occupied
in the contemplation of his virtues, difficult to describe my feelings, on Rectory, which he rebuilt, and the lines which he inscribed over the hall chimney-piece.
TO MY SUCCESSOR.
If thou chancest to find,
And built without thy cost;
And then my labour's not lust.
There were many cottages around, which, from their style of building, had most probably witnessed his tender care for those committed to his charge, in which he had often soothed the suffering, reproved the profligate, and pointed the penitent to the way of peace.
Actuated by all the feelings which such a locality was calculated to inspire, I entered the church. I was aware that he was buried near the altar, under a broad flat stone, without any inscription; yet hoped to have the pleasure of seeing the stone that covered the remains of such an example of goodness, and perhaps finding the initials, a date, or some memorial, however slight. But great was my disappointment to find the altar raised by a platform of wood, and the pavement entirely concealed. My chagrin was heightened by the circumstance of my having no one to whom I could communicate my feelings, or who could participate in them. I turned to the clerk, in the hope of finding some lingering tradition, but in vain; he had not even heard the name of Herbert. *
So striking appeared the illustrations of the declaration of Holy Writ; " The righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart," that the reflection involuntarily arose, " To what purpose is it to any one to spend his life in endeavours to benefit his fellow men, and to promote their present comfort and eternal happiness? In a few generations he is forgotten, and all trace of his benevolence lost, even on the very spot where it was expended; while (such is the perversity of man) the memory of many a miscreant, who has been the enemy of his race, is preserved in legends, propagated in ballads, and survives, far from the scene of his crimes, and ages after the author has suffered the penalty due to them. But this train of unprofitable reflection was speedily checked, by the thought of a day of future judgment, when the evils of this imperfect state shall be corrected, when virtue shall have its full reward, and vice its eternal punishment; and my mind was calmed by the conviction that, however forgotten, nay, altogether unknown, and contemned on earth, "verily there is a reward for the righteous, yea, doubtless, there is a God that judgeth the earth."
The White Stork.
size. The stork inhabits various parts of the temperate regions of the Continent, but is very rarely seen in England, though in many parts of France and Holland, it breeds on the house-tops; the inhabitants providing boxes, that the young birds may receive no injury. The stork walks fearlessly along the streets of those parts, and is greatly valued, is it clears the country of frogs, snakes, and other reptiles. Its disposition is very mild and placid, and it is frequently tamed, and placed in gardens, which it clears of insects.
Storks are birds of passage, and observe great exactness in the time of their autumnal departure from Europe; they pass their second summer in Egypt and the marshes of Barbary. Before their migration, they congregate in great numbers, and appear to hold consultations among themselves.
After making several short excursions, as if to try their wings, they suddenly take flight, with great silence, and with such speed, as to be out of sight in a moment. During these migrations, they are seen in vast flocks. Dr. Shaw saw three flights of them leaving Egypt, and passing over Mount Carmel, each half a mile in breadth; they occupied three hours in passing over.
The stork bestows much time on the education of her young, and does not leave them till they can defend and support themselves. It is also said to be affectionately attentive to the aged and infirm of its species, and that the young and vigorous frequently carry food to those which, either from accidental injuries or age, arc weak and exhausted. It walks with slow and measured steps, and the only noise it ever makes is a peculiar rattling with the bill, not unlike the sound of the castanets. When irritated, and in a state of agitation, the head is thrown hack, so that the lower jaw appears uppermost; the bill lies flat on the back, and the two jaws striking violently together, produce the clattering noise described. This noise occurs frequently during the consultations they hold, previous to their migrations. The Mohammedans hold the stork in great esteem and veneration. Among the Egyptians, it is also held Mcred, and they would look on a person as profane, Who should kill or hurt one.
THORP-LE-SOKEN CHURCH, ESSEX.
In the church of Thorp-le-Soken, in the county of Essex, is an ancient wooden screen, formerly situated towards the east end of the north aisle, but now removed to the west end of the south aisle, in the centre of the upper part of which, on a scroll borne by angels, is the following inscription, in what is usually called the Black Letter character :—
Chid rodt ii the hnchtUrd matte fan alts
which I thus explain:—" Tins cost (the expense of this screen) is defrayed by the single men of the parish, by collections made for that purpose. Jesus be their mede (reward.)"
Social meetings, held by the inhabitants of the same parish, on certain festivals, were called Ales, probably because much ale was consumed on such occasions. This, says Archdeacon Nares, in his Glossary, is the most natural and most probable etymology. Collections were made to defray the expense of these parochial festivities. "For the churchale, two young men of the parish are yerely chosen by their last foregoers, to be wardens; who, dividing the task, make collection among the parishioners of whatsoever provision it pleaseth them voluntarily to bestow. This they employ in brewing, baking, and other acates, against Whitson-tide."—Carey's Surv. of Cornwall, p. C8.
Wedding feasts, furnished in the same manner, were called Bride-ales, corrupted into Bridals. There were also Midsummer-ales, scot-ales, and churchales, which last were probably held on the festival of the dedication of the church, and sometimes in the church itself; for the canons forbid the profanation of churches by "feasts, banquets, suppers, churchales, or drinkings." Meetings for the purpose of drinking; to which each person contributed his share, were called Scot-ales, (scot, signifying money, or payment.) These also were forbidden by several canons. —See Ducange, v. Scotallum.
It appears, then, that the money which was required for the erection of the screen in question, was contributed by the single men of the parish, at their festive meetings.
It appears to have been more customary formerly than it now is, for the unmarried men of a parish to consider themselves as a distinct body, and to have their own amusements and privileges. In more than one parish there is a field called Bachelors' Acre, where the single men held their games.
It is probable that this screen was placed in front of that portion of the church which was appropriated to them. Shakspeare, in Much Ado About Nothing, makes Beatrice say of St. Peter, "He shows me where the bachelors sit:" (in heaven.)
The district which consists of the parishes of Ttcrp Kirby, and Walton, is called the Soken, " from the Saxon soc, or soca, signifying a peculiar power, authority, or liberty, to administer justice, and execute laws within itself, and likewise the circuit or territory wherein such power is exercised."—Morant's Essex
Upon Hearing Of Music By Nioht.—How sweetly doth this music sound in this dead season! In the day time, it would not, it could not, so much affoct the ear. All harmonious sounds are advanced by a silent darkness. Thus is it with the glad tidings of salvation; the Gospel never sounds so sweet as in the night of preservation, or of our own private affliction ; it is ever the same; the difference is in our disposition to receive it. O God, whoso praise it is to give songs in the night, make my prosperity cor.sciou able, and my crosses cheerful. Bishop Hall,