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vanced, and after beating for half-an-hour, I saw the grass gently moved about one hundred yards in front of me; and soon after, a large tiger reared his head and shoulders above the jungle, as if to reconnoitre us. I tally-ho'd, and the whole line rushed forward. On arriving at the spot, two tigers broke covert, and cantered quietly across an open space of ground. Several shots were fired, one of which slightly touched the largest of them, who immediately turned round, and roaring furiously and lashing his tail, came bounding towards us; but, apparently alarmed by the formidable line of elephants, he suddenly stopped short, and turned into the jungle again, followed by us at full speed. Those who had the fastest elephants had now the best of the sport, and when he turned to fight, (which he soon did) oidy three of us were up. As soon as he faced about, he attempted to spring on Capt. M.'s elephant, but was stopped by a shot in the chest. Two or three more shots brought hiin on his knees, and the noble beast fell dead in a last attempt to charge. He was a full-grown male, and a very fine animal. Near the spot where we found him, were discovered the well-picked remains of a buffalo.
"One of the sportsmen had, in the meantime, kept the smaller tiger in view, and we soon followed to the spot to which he had been marked. It was a thick marshy covert of broad flag leaves, and we had to beat through it twice, and were beginning to think of giving it up as the light was waning, when Capt. P.'s elephant, which was lagging in the rear, suddenly uttered a shrill cry, and came rushing out of the swamp, with the tiger hanging by his teeth to the upper part of its tail! Capt. P.'s situation was perplexing enough, his elephant making the most violent efforts to shake off his back-biting foe, and himself unable to use his gun, for fear of shooting the unfortunate Coolie, who, frightened out of his wits, was standing behind the howdah, with his feet in the crupper, within six inches of the tiger's head. We soon flew to his aid, and quickly shot the tiger, who, however, did not quit his gripe until he had received eight balls; when he dropped off the poor elephant's mangled tail quite dead. The elephant only survived ten days, but it was shrewdly suspected that his more mortal wounds were inflicted by some of the sportsmen who were over-zealous to rid him of his troublesome hanger-on. "Thus in about two hours, and within sight of camp, we found and slew three tigers, a piece of good fortune rarely to J>e met with in these modern times, when the spread of cultivation, and the zeal of English sportsmen, have almost exterminated the breed of these animals. Four other sportsmen of our party returned to camp this evening, having been out for four days in a different direction, they only killed one tiger, but he was an immense beast, and was shot on the head of Colonel F.'s elephant, which he wounded severely. This is considered the acme of tiger shooting."
Capt. Mundy had not the fortune to fall in with a Lion; his account however of an adventure which befel one of his friends, illustrated by the print which accompanies this article, will be read with great interest. "By crack sportsmen the lion is reputed to afford better sport than the tiger: his attack is more open and certain; a peculiarity arising either from the noble nature of the Jungle King, or from the country he haunts being less favourable for a retreat than the thick swampy morasses frequented by the tiger. Col. Skinner relates many interesting anecdotes of lionhunts, with the exploits and narrow escapes of the horsemen of his corps, who always accompanied the line of elephants into the jungle on these occasions.
"A gentleman of our party had, perhaps, as perilous an adventure with one of these animals as any one, he
having enjoyed the singular distinction of lying for some moments in the very clutches of the royal quadruped. Though I have heard him recount the incident more than once, and have myself sketched the scene, yet I am not sure that I relate it correctly. The main feature, however, of the anecdote, affording so striking an illustration of the sagacity of the elephant, may be strictly depended upon.
"A lion charged my hero's elephant, and he, having wounded him, was in the act of leaning forward in order to fire another shot, when the front of the howdah suddenly gave way, and he was precipitated over the head of the elephant into the very jaws of the furious beast. The lion though severely hurt, immediately seized him, and would doubtless shortly have put a fatal termination to thi conflict, had not the elephant, urged by his mahout, stepped forward, though greatly alarmed, and grasping in her trunk the top of a young tree, bent it down across the loins of the lion, and thus forced the tortured animal to quit his hold! My friend's life was thus saved, but his arm was broken in two places, and he was severely clawed on the breast and shoulders."
[ View of the house m which Newton n<n born.']
"Every memorial of so great a man," says Dr. Brewster, in his Life of Newton, " has been preserved and cherished with peculiar veneration. His house at Woolsthorpe has been religiously protected by Mr. Turnor of Stoke Rocheford, the proprietor. Dr. Stukeley, who visited it in Sir Isaac's lifetime on the 13th October 1721, gives the following description of it in his letter to Dr. Mead, written in 1727: ''Tis built of stone, as is the way of the country hereabouts, and a reasonable good one. They led me up stairs and showed me Sir Isaac's study, where I suppose he studied when in the country in his younger days, or perhaps when he visited his mother from the university. I observed the shelves were of his own making, being pieces of deal boxes which probably he sent his books and clothes down in on those occasions. There were some years ago two or three hundred books in it of his father-in-law, Mr. Smith, which Sir Isaac gave to Dr. Newton of our town.
"When the house was repaired in 1798, a tablet of white marble was put up by Mr. Turnor in the room where Sir Isaac was born, with the following inscription :—
"' Sir Isaac Newton, son of John Newton, Lord of the Manor of Woolsthorpe, was born in this room on the 25th December, 1642.'
Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night,
"The following lines have been written upon the house:—
Here Newton dawn'd, here lovely wisdom woke,
"The house is now occupied by a person of the name of John Wollerton. It still contains the two dials made by Newton, but the styles of both are wanting. The celebrated apple tree, the fall of one of the apples of which is said to have turned the attention of Newton to the subject of gravity, was destroyed by wind about four years ago; but Mr. Tumor has preserved it in the form of a chair.
"The modesty of Sir Isaac Newton, in reference to his great discoveries, was not founded on any indifference to the fame which they conferred, or upon any erroneous judgment of their importance to science. The whole of his life proves, that he knew his place as a philosopher, and was determined to assert and vindicate his rights. His modesty arose from the depth and extent of his knowledge, which showed him what a small portion of nature he had been able to examine, and how much remained to be explored in the same field in which he had himself laboured. In the magnitude of the comparison he recognized his own littleness; and a short time before his death he uttered this memorable sentiment: 'I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.' What a lesson to the vanity and presumption of philosophers,—to those especially who have never even found the smoother pebble or the prettier shell! What a preparation for the latest
inquiries, and the last views of the decaying spirit,
for those inspired doctrines which alone can throw a light over the daik ocean of undiscovered truth!
"The native simplicity of Sir Isaac Newton's mind is finely pourtrayed in the affecting letter in which he acknowledges to Locke, that he had thought and spoken of him uncharitably; and the humility and candour in which he asks forgiveness, could have emanated only from a mind as noble as it was pure.
"In the religious and moral character of our author there is much to admire and imitate. While he exhibited in his life and writings an ardent regard for the general interests of religion, he was at the same time a firm believer in Revelation. He was too deeply versed in the Scriptures, and too much imbued with their spirit, to judge harshly of other men who took different views of them from himself. He cherished the great principles of religious toleration, and never scrupled to express his abhorrence of persecution, even in its mildest form. Immorality and impiety he never permitted to pass unreproved; and when Dr. Halley ventured to say any thing disrespectful to religion, he invariably checked him, and said, "I have studied these things,—you have not."
SAINT SWITHUN'S DAY.
The circumstance of St. Swithun's name occurring in the Calendar of our Church, has given much satisfaction to Pinius, who wrote the commentary upon his life in the Acta Sanctorum; and if what has been recorded of the character of St. Swithun be true, we have good reason to be proud of his having lived among us, and for retaining his name in the remembrance of our countrymen.
The chroniclers of the church of Rome tell us that St. Swithun was of noble parentage, passed his youth in innocent simplicity, in the study of grammar, philosophy, and the Holy Scriptures; and that when he was promoted to holy orders, he was an accomplished model of all virtues. His learning, piety, and prudence, induced Egbert, king of the West Saxons, to make him his priest, and to appoint him tutor to his son Ethelwolf. When Ethelwolf succeeded to the throne, he governed his kingdom in ecclesiastical matters by the prudent advice of his former tutor, whom he caused to be elected bishop of Winchester.*
William of Malmesbury says, "Though this good bishop was a rich treasure of all virtues, those in which he took most delight were humility and charity to the poor; and that in the discharge of his episcopal functions he omitted nothing belonging to the true pastor. He built divers churches and repaired others; his mouth was always open to invite sinners to repentance, and to admonish those who stood to be aware of falling. He was most severe to himself, and abstemious in his mode of living. He delighted in spiritual exercises, and in conversation would bear no discourse that did not tend to edification."
Of the man who thus adorned and blessed the church in his generation she may be truly proud, and if gratitude would suffer his name to be omitted in her calendar, the interest of religion would retain it. Tht name of St. Swithun therefore still adorns it,—a monument of virtue, piety, and wisdom.
He died on the 2nd day of July, 864, his body being buried by his own order in the church-yard, in order that his grave might be trodden by passers-by. Had the history of this virtuous and pious prelate here been closed, justice would have been done to his memory, and his name been retained in the remembrance of his countrymen with those feelings of respect to which he was so eminently entitled. But an over-strained anxiety to do honour to his memory, has, by the imputation of incredible wonders to the virtue of his relics, cast a shade of ridicule upon him; and he is now only known among us as a weathergage, which is still preserved for its antiquity and our amusement.
Upon the removal of his body from the churchyard to the church, or, in the language of the monk of Malmesbury, "upon the translation of his relics," on the 15th of July, 964, "such a number of miraculous cures of all kinds were wrought as was never in the memory of man known to have been in any other place." Doubtless he speaks the truth; for not only does the catalogue exceed the powers of memory, but even the stretch of imagination.
The narrators of the traditions relative to St. Swithun, disagree in their accounts of the miracles they impute to the virtue of his relics; though they vie with each other in a desire to magnify the importance and
• "This church was first dedicated to the Holy Trinity under the patronage nf St. Peter, afterwards by St. Ethelwold, in the presence of king Etheldred, St. Dunstan, and eight other bishops, to St. Swithun, as Kudburn relates"in <J80. King Henry VIII. in 1540 commanded this cathedral to be called no longer St. Swithun'* but of the Holy Trinity."
to increase the number of the miraculous performances fabulously imputed to him. We have, however, the following imperfect summary in the commentary on his life. "Upon the day of the translation of his relics, a boy, whose limbs had been contracted from his youth, was made whole. A woman who was imprisoned and bound in fetters was set free. A paralytic person was healed; a noble matron and three other women who were blind, were restored to sight. Twenty-five men afflicted with various diseases, were perfectly restored in one day; siji and thirty sick persons coming from different places were cured within three days; and one hundred and twenty four within fourteen."
The virtue ascribed to his relics was even claimed for his statue; and further, the following legend was put forth to shew that the miraculous power of the saint was not confined to those places wherein his relics were deposited and his form exhibited.
"A certain woman," says the veracious historian, "sleeping in a house in the city of Winchester, with her door open, a wolf took her out of bed and carried her into a wood, where with dreadful howling he called other wolves to him. The woman weak from fasting and age knew not what to do, but turned herself to her prayers, invoked divine assistance and called loudly on St. Swithun. No sooner did the wolf hear this same name than he fell asleep; the woman immediately withdrew herself from him, and the animal awaking pursued her with his companions, but was incapable of hurting her whom the mercy of God and the holy bishop had undertaken to set free."
How the vulgar notion that St. Swithun exercised an influence over the weather originated it is difficult to say, for the writers who professed to give his authentic history, make no mention of the circumstance. The legend, however, whatever be its origin, is as follows:
The clergy considering it to be disgraceful that the body of the saint whose miracles were as innumerable as the sand upon the sea shore, or as the drops in the ocean, should lie in the open church-yard, resolved to remove it into the choir. This was to have been done with a procession of great solemnity upon the 15th of July. The saint, however, by no means approved of this officious interference,—and in order to prevent such a violation of the orders given in his life-time, miraculously caused it to rain so heavily on that day, and for the following forty days, as to render the attempt impossible, and it was consequently abandoned as heretical and blasphemous.
The circumstances attending this reputed miraculous interference of St. Swithun, shews the degree of credit and authority to which monkish tradition is entitled. Legend contradicts legend; and the popular influence of the more recent one swallows up without reserve a whole host of predecessors. To believe both is impossible. to believe either unwarrantable: and if the cause of truth did not compel us to reject a guide so fallacious as tradition here appears, we must do so as the friends of virtue, and religion. The history of a wise and exemplary prelate has been defaced, its salutary influence upon society destroyed; and a record which was designed to be an example of life and instruction in manners is converted into a worse than profitless superstition.
[Abridged from McCullough's Dictionary of Commerce]
Bread, the principal article in the food of most civilised nations, consists of a paste or dough formed of the flour or meal of different sorts of grain mixed with water, and baked. Inter state dough or yeast
is added to the fresh dough, to make it swell, it is said to be leavened; when nothing of this sort is added, it is said to be unleavened.
The President de Goguet has endeavoured, with his usual sagacity and learning, to trace the successive steps by which it is probable men were led to discover the art of making bread; but nothing positive is known on the subject. It is certain, however, from the statements in the sacred writings, that the use of unleavened bread was common in the days of Abraham; and that leavened bread was used in the time of Moses, for he prohibits eating the Paschal lamb with such bread. The Greeks affirmed that Pan had instructed them in the art of making bread; but they no doubt were indebted for this art, as well as for their knowledge of agriculture, to the Egyptians and Phoenicians, who had early settled in their country. The method of grinding corn by hand-mills was practised in Egypt and Greece from a very remote epoch; but for a lengthened period the Romans had no other method of making flour, than by beating roasted corn in mortars. The Macedonian war helped to make the Romans acquainted with the arts and refinements of Greece; and Pliny mentions, that public bakers were then, for the first time, established in Rome. The conquests of the Romans diffused, amongst many other useful discoveries, a knowledge of the art of preparing bread, as practised in Rome, through the whole south of Europe.
The use of yeast in the raising of bread, seems, however, to have been practised by the Germans and Gauls before it was practised by the Romans; the latter, like the Greeks, having leavened their bread by intermixing the fresh dough with that which had become stale. The Roman practice seems to have superseded that which was previously in use in France and Spain; for the art of raising bread by an admixture of yeast was not practised in France in modern times till towards the end of the seventeenth century. It deserves to be mentioned, that though the bread made in this way was decidedly superior to that previously in use, it was declared, by the faculty of medicine in Paris, to be prejudicial to health; and the use of yeast was prohibited under the severest penalties! Luckily, however, the taste of the public concurring with the interest of the bakers, proved too powerful for these absurd regulations, which fell gradually into disuse; and yeast has long been, almost everywhere, used in preference to any thing else in the manufacture of bread, to the wholesomeness and excellence of which it has not a little contributed.
The species of bread in common use in a country depends partly on the taste of the inhabitants, but more on the sort of grain suitable for its soil. But the superiority of wheat to all other farinaceous plants in the manufacture of bread is so very great, that wherever it is easily and successfully cultivated, wheaten bread is used to the nearly total exclusion of most others. Where, however, the soil or climate is less favourable to its growth, rye, oats, &c. are used in its stead. A very great change for the better has, in this respect, taken place in Great Britain within the last century. In the reign of Henry VIII, the gentry had wheat sufficient for their own tables, but their household and poor neighbours were usually obliged to content themselves with rye, barley, and oats. In 1596, rye bread and oatmeal formed a considerable part of the diet of servants even in great families, in the southern counties. Barley bread is stated in the grant of a monopoly by Charles I. in 1626, to be the usual food of the ordinary sort of people. At the revolution, the wheat produced in England and Wales was estimated to amount to 1,750,000 quarters. Mr. Charles Smith, the very well informed author of the Tracts on the Corn Trade, originally published in 1758, states, that in his time wheat had become much more generally the food of the common people than it had been in 1689; but he adds, that notwithstanding this increase, some very intelligent inquirers were of opinion, that even then not more than half the people of England fed on wheat. Mr. Smith's own estimate, which is very carefully drawn up, is a little higher; for taking the population of England and Wales, in 1760, at 6,000,000, he supposed that
3,750,000 were consumers of wheat.
Mr. Smith further supposed that they individually consumed, the first class, 1 quarter of wheat; the second, 1 quarter and 3 bushels of barley; the third, 1 quarter and 1 bushel of rye; and the fourth, 2 quarters and 7 bushels of oats.
About the middle of last century, hardly any wheat was used in the northern counties of England. In Cumberland, the principal families used only a small quantity about Christmas. The crust of the goosepie, with which almost every table in the county is then supplied, was, at the period referred to, almost uniformly made of barley meal.
Every one knows how inapplicable these statements are to the condition of the people of England at the present time. Loaf-bread is now universally made ■use of in towns and villages, and almost universally in the country. Barley is no longer used, except in the distilleries and in brewing; oats are employed only in the feeding of horses; and the consumption of rye bread is comparatively inconsiderable. The produce of the wheat crops has been, at the very least, trebled since 1760. And if to this immense increase in the supply of wheat, we add the still more extraordinary increase in the supply of butchers' meat, the fact of a very signal improvement having taken place in the condition of the population, in respect of food, will be obvious.
But great as has been the improvement in the condition of the people of England since 1760, it is but trifling compared to the improvement that has taken place, since the same period, in the condition of the people of Scotland. At the middle of last century, Scotch agriculture was in the most depressed state; the tenants were destitute alike of capital and skill; green crops were almost wholly unknown; and the quantity of wheat that was raised was quite inconsiderable. A field of eight acres sown with this grain, in the vicinity of Edinburgh, in 1727, was reckoned so great a curiosity that it excited the attention of the whole neighbourhood! But even so late as the American war, the wheat raised in the Lothians and Berwickshire did not exceed a third part of what is now grown in them; and taking the whole country at an average, it will be a moderate estimate, to say that the cultivation of wheat has increased in a tenfold proporportion since 1780. At that period no loaf-bread was to be met with in the country places and villages of Scotland; oat cakes and barley bannocks being universally made use of. But at present the case is widely different. The upper and also the middle and lower classes in towns and villages use only wheaten bread, and even in farm-houses it is very extensively consumed. There is, at this moment, hardly a village to be met with, however limited its extent, that has not a public baker.
In many parts of England it is the custom for pri
Had Lutterworth nothing else to distinguish it, its name would be indelibly recorded in history as having had for its rector this eminent man—eminent not only as the great forerunner of the Reformation, but as a devout and sincere Christian. "The imperfect justice," says Mr. Le Bas, in his splendid life of this great man, "hitherto rendered to the memory of Wickliffe, as a man of deep religious affections, may, in part, be the effect of that peculiar interest which attaches to his character as the antagonist of a corrupt hierarchy. We have been accustomed to regard him chiefly as the scourge of imposture—the ponderous
hammer that smote the brazen idolatry of his age
The Reformer of Christian morals has been forgotten in the Reformer of papal abuse: and thus his memory has been left open to the suggestion that he is to be honored as the antagonist of popery, not as the advocate of Christ,—fitted to join with politicians, and with princes in their resistance to encroachment, rather than to band (as he ought to be joined) with saints and confessors in bearing testimony to the truth as it is in Jesus."
• "Admirable," says Fuller, "that a hare so often hunted with so many packs of dogs should die at last, quietly sitting in his form."
ERRATUM. No. I. page 6, Col. 2, line 7, of the article on the figure 9, for (viz. 45) rtad (viz. 405.) This error occurs only in a few of the early copies.
THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE
AND EDUCATION, In compliance with the recommendation contained in the Report read at the Special General Meeting of the Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge, held on the 21st of May, have made arrangements for the publication of a series of Works on Education, History, Biography, Natural History, the Elements of the Sciences, &c. particulars of which will speedily be announced.
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND.
Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.
Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms by
W. S. ORR, Patemoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holjwell-st,London,
And by the Publisher's Agents in all the principal places
throughout the Country.
C. Richards, Printer, 100, St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cross,
The sketch of the legend of Jagganatha in our first number, is curious as affording * specimen of the sort of fable which the credulous Hindoos receive as religious truth, and as shewing the origin and early progress of this monstrous and revolting idolatry, but it is worth little with regard to real history. In the temple of Jaggan&tha there is, however, a work preserved, claiming the title of a history of the Kings, stated to have been commenced more than six centuries back, and to have been regularly kept up. This work is noticed by Mr. Stirling in his valuable essay on the Geography, Statistics, and History of Orissa, in Vol. 15 of the Asiatic Researches, which is the source from which our account is chiefly taken.
In the ancient chronicles mention is made of the worship of Jagganatha at a very early period: for,on the invasion of the kingdom of Orissa by a foreign power, in the fourth century of the Christian era, the Rajah, seized with a panic, took the image of Sri Jeo out of his temple, lodged it in a covered cart, with all its jewels and utensils, and fled to the most remote town on his western frontier. The strangers not finding the prince, plundered the town and temple, and committed great excesses every where. The Rajah's alarms increased on receiving intelligence of the proceedings of the invaders, and he buried the image under the ground, planted a tree over it, and fled to the wilds. In the succeeding century the invaders were Vol. I.
driven out by the founder of a new dynasty, who discovered the place where Sri Jeo was buried, cut down the tree that overshadowed the spot, and found the image incased in a stone vault, much decayed and disfigured. His next care was to find out the officiating priests, descended from those who formerly fled from Pooree, and having discovered some of them, he consulted with them how the worship of Jagganatha might be revived in all its ancient splendour. The formation of a new image being considered an indispensable preliminary, the priests sought out in the woods a tree with all the requisite marks indicated by their books, as fitting it for the honour of being made into a god. They brought it to the Rajah, who, with pious zeal, clothed both it and the old image in rich robes, and conducted them to Pooree in great state. A new temple was erected on the site of the old one, which was found to be much dilapidated, and overwhelmed with sand. At the same time, the necessary officers were appointed, feasts and festivals established, and the whole country around Pooree assigned as endowments for the maintenance of the temple.
The history above referred to, which becomes more credible, as it advances to more modern dates, states the erection of the present edifices to have taken place in the reign of Rajah Anang Bhim Deo, who ascended the throne A.d. 1174. That monarch having incurred the guilt of killing a Brahmin, resolved, in expiation