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was seized by Cromwell, and by him given to some of his officers. These rapacious plunderers, who had no sort of feeling for the beauteous and majestic, soon reduced it to what it now is, a pile of ruins. They drained the lake which once flowed over so many hundred acres, ravaged the woods, heat down the walls, dismounted the towers, choked up its fair walks, and rooted out its pleasant gardens j destroyed the park, and divided and appropriated the lands
On the restoration of Charles II, the estate and ruins of the castle were granted to Lawrence, Viscount Hyde, of Kenilworth, second son of the celebrated Lord High Chancellor, created Baron of Kenilworth, and Earl of Rochester; and by the marriage of a female heiress descended from him, passed in 1752, into the possession of Thomas Villiers, Baron Hyde, son of the Earl of Jersey, who was advanced in 1776, to the dignity of the Earl of Clarendon; in the possession of whose son it still remains.
REPLY TO THE LINES " ON AN HOUR-GLASS."*
Say not, so long a toil were vain,
MIDDLESEX LUNATIC ASYLUM.
Be you to others kind and true,
This was one of the earliest maxims impressed upon our mind in the nursery, and taught us by the monarch of our village school. First impressions are always the strongest and most lasting, and whether conveyed in prose or in rhyme, they will often recur to the mind, when more recent acquirements have become lost and forgotten. But what, our kind reader may ask, have these moral maxims to do with the magnificent asylum of which we have here given a view? A good deal, my friend; for here we have a splendid instance of the kindness of man to his unfortunate and destitute fellow creatures. A place of rest and comfort for the hitherto too much neglected sufferers of our species. An asylum that does honour to human nature, and cannot fail to prove a blessing to the country.
It is a curious circumstance, that in all countries, the feelings of mankind seem to have been alike in all that regarded the care and treatment of their insane brethren. We every where find that the lunatic and the criminal have been classed together; and, too often, the murderer and the furious maniac have been chained to the walls of the same dungeon.
Previously to the suppression of Catholic monasteries and religious houses in this country, the poor, as well as others who were deranged in mind, were taken care of, and supported in these establishments, sometimes with great humanity, and at others with great neglect; but at the Reformation, a multitude of these wretched beings were cast upon society, as helpless as they were often dangerous to the community. Their numbers in and about the Metropolis, very soon made it necessary to take some measures for their protection and seclusion; and the government of the day, or as it is generally stated, the king, (Henry VIII) gave the Priory of Bethlem,* one of the suppressed religious communities, to the magistrates of London, to be converted into an asylum for the lunatics then wandering about the city. This priory stood to the east of London, nearly surrounded by what was called the Moor-fields, a large tract of uncultivated swampy land. Here, for nearly two centuries, the lunatics were shut up like wild beasts, and very little better attended to, until at last the ruinous state of the old buildings obliged the city to think of providing a more secure and comfortable abode for their increasing number of lunatics. In April 1675, the first stone, of the first building, ever raised in England, expressly for the accommodation of lunatics,was laid by the president and governors of the Bridewell and Bethlem hospitals; and in about fifteen months from that date, a very foolish and extravagantly gaudy building, was completed, which continued to be used for the confinement (we can scarcely say for the care) of lunatics, till 1815, when the present more suitable and convenient hospital was erected, on the Surrey side of the Thames, near Westminster bridge.
Very early in the present century there seems to have been a kind of general movement all over Europe in favour of the poor forsaken lunatic. In France, Pinel j in Germany, Drs. Horn, Frank, and others, not only succeeded in calling public attention to the subject, but in effecting the most beneficial changes in their condition and treatment; and in this country the first warning voice proceeded from a poor, and then powerless medical studentf at the University of Edinburgh, in the form of an anonymous pamphlet addressed to Lord Henry Petty, (the present Marquis of Lansdown) then Chancellor of the Exchequer. This pamphlet described in very simple language, some of the scenes which the author had witnessed in what were called public and private mad-houses, and made a very strong impression upon the minds of several very eminent individuals in England. The subject was mooted in the House of Commons, and a select committee appointed to inquire into the truth of the various statements which were now of daily occurrence. The inquiry led to an Act for providing county asylums for the insane population in England, which first passed in 1808, and since the passing of that Act, various county hospitals have been provided for the treatment of insanity, upon sound and rational principles, and with a success that has scarcely been equalled in the treatment of any other disease.
Amidst the congregated multitudes of this great and overflowing metropolis, it was found that insanity
* This was the cause of Bethlem or Bedlam being a general term for a mad-house, f The present Sir Andrew Halliday, M.D. of Hampton Court.
prevailed to a very great extent; and that the parishes had long been in the custom of providing for their security by contracting with what was called a private mad-house keeper for their confinement. Further inquiry detecting the most disgusting cruelties and abuses in these dens of human suffering, the magistrates of the county of Middlesex commenced the erection of a county asylum, and in about three years the present [magnificent establishment was completed, and opened about two years ago, for the reception of patients.
To the indefatigable zeal and humane feelings of the late Lord Robert Seymour, and the unwearied attention and exertions of Colonel James Clithero, among many other worthy and zealous members of the magistracy, this great metropolitan county is in an especial manner indebted for this splendid establishment, which is perhaps the largest and best arranged of any in Europe, or in the world. It was built under the direction and superintendence of Robert Sibley, Esq., then county surveyor, and does the greatest credit to his professional skill. The site chosen was perhaps the best in point of economy, healthiness, and convenience, that could have been found: and the architect has made the utmost of its advantages, in securing for the inmates of every room and cell the benefits of warmth and light and air. The arrangement of the whole building, with its offices, wards, and places for exercises, is perfect in its kind.
The whole expense has been about £120,000, and it will- contain 500 patients; who are placed under the care of Dr. Ellis, so well known for his skill in the treatment of insanity. The females are under the management of Mrs. Ellis.
The Middlesex Lunatic Asylum at Hanwell, is highly deserving of a visit from every friend of humanity. Here are no secrets to be hid from the eyes of man. No dungeons where only the rattle of chains and manacles, or the moans of the oppressed, are to be heard. But a regular and well ordered community, many of them cheerfully enjoying the labours of the field, or busy at their usual trade, and all occupied and industrious, and evidently happy.
We cannot conclude these remarks without earnestly, most earnestly, exhorting all those counties in England, and there are still many, who have not availed themselves of the provisions of the law to follow the example of the magistrates of Middlesex, and to lose no time in providing County Asylums for their Insane Poor.
THE LEAF, By Bishop Horne.
We all fade, like a leaf—Isa. lxiv. 0.
See the leaves around us falling,
Dry and wither'd to the ground; Thus to thoughtless mortals calling,
In a sad and solemn sound: Sons of Adam, once in Eden,
Blighted when like us he fell, Hear the lecture we are reading,
Tis, alas! the truth we tell. Virgins, much, too much presuming
On your boasted white and'red, View us, late in beauty blooming,
Number'd now among the dead. Griping misers, nightly waking,
See the end of all your care; Fled on wings of our own making,
We have left our owners bare. Sons of honour, fed on praises,
Flutt'ring high in fancied worth, Lo! the fickle air, that raises,
Brings us down to parent earth. Learned sophs, in systems jaded,
Who for new ones daily call, Cease, at length, by us persuaded,
Ev'ry leaf must have its fall. Youths, though yet no losses grieve you
Gay in health and manly grace, Let not cloudless skies deceive you,
Summer gives to Autumn place. Venerable sires, grown hoary,
Hither turn th' unwilling eye, Think, amidst your falling glory,
Autumn tells a winter nigh.
Messengers of shortest stay,
"Heaven and earth shall pass away." On the Tree of Life eternal,
Man, let all thy hope be staid, Which alone, for ever vernal,
Bears a leaf that shall not fade.
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND.
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The above woodcut is copied, by Mr. Martin's kind permission, from his well-known picture of Bel shazzar's Feast. All the works of this artist are distinguished by a very peculiar quality and disposition of the lights, which, though very pleasing and impressive in oil painting and in steel engraving, cannot be represented with adequate softness on wood. In Mr. MarTin's magnificent mezzotint print, there is a beaming lustre, which diminishes in its intensity till it is at last shadowed off into the deepest obscurity, which, in wood engraving is unavoidably, though very imperfectly, represented by white. We have said these few words in justice to Mr. Martin; the uncommon beauty of the rest of this cut needs not to be pointed out in detail. Yet we cannot help calling the particular attention of our readers to the figures of the wise men or soothsayers in the immediate foreground, and to the enormous towers of the temple of Belus in the distance, rising sublimely into a troubled sky, and rendered visible only by lightning and a waning moon.
The subject of this picture is to be found in the fifth chapter of the book of Daniel. There has been much dispute, and there is unquestionably no small difficulty, in endeavouring to reconcile the names and dates of the account given in this book with the Greek histories. This is not a fit place for entering into any such discussion. It is enough to say that Belshazzar, the last prince of the Babylonish or Chaldean Empire, Vol. I.
seems to be the same who is called Labynetus by Herodotus, and that Darius the Mede, mentioned in v. 31, is very probably Cyaxares, the son of Astyages, the Median, and consequently the uncle of Cyrus. He was, it may be conjectured, left in the government of Babylon by Cyrus, and his age, sixty-two, favours the supposition of his relationship as uncle to the undoubted destroyer of the Chaldean monarchy. The best date of the capture of this mighty city is about 538 years before Christ.
The measure of the appointed time was now nearly full, when it pleased God to put an end to the government of the Chaldean princes, to substitute for it the Medcs and Persians, and thereby to effect the restoration of a certain part of the captive Israelites, to the land of their fathers, and to a free use of all their religious rites.
Belshazzar had been defeated in the field, and shut up in the city, the strength and resources of which were so great, that they treated the seemingly fruitless efforts of the besiegers under Cyrus with contempt. The siege or blockade, probably a very imperfect one, continued in this way for a long time, and the insolence and regardlessness of Belshazzar increased in proportion. But his hour was come, and it came upon him at the moment of his last act of profaneness and defiance of God. The presence of a hostile army before his walls, made no good impression on his mind; he still went on in his usual course of wanton luxury,
and thought more of inflicting an insult on the people whom his grandfather Nebuchadnezzar had brought into bondage in Babylonia, than of humbling himself before the Lord, or of performing the ordinary duties of a king and leader under such serious circumstances.
"Belshazzar, the king," aa it is written in the book of Daniel, "made a great feast, to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine before the thousand." The reader must observe that this was a sacrificial feast, and in fact a great solemnity, in honour of the Babylonish god, Bel or Belus, whose symbol was a huge serpent. "Belshazzar, whilst he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which his father, (grandfather) Nebuchadnezzar had taken oat of the temple which was in Jerusalem; that the king, and his princes, his wives, and his concubines, might drink in them. Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the temple of the house of God which was in Jerusalem; and the king, and his princes, his wives, and his concubines, drank in them. They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone."
God is no more a respecter of things than of persons. Incense in an earthen vessel, offered with a devout .spirit, would have been as acceptable as from the golden censers of Solomon's Temple. The quality of the gift is as the heart of the giver. It was not for the sacred vessels' sake, but to note that the wanton profaning of any known instrument or ordinance of divine worship, is really impious, that God now thought fit to mark the near approach of his vengeance by a stupendous miracle. For "in the same hour came forth fingers of a man's hand, and wrote over against the candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of the king's palace; and the king saw the part of the hand that wrote."
Belshazzar, subdued with terror, and consciencestricken, summons his wise men and astrologers; they are confounded at the apparition, and cannot interpret its meaning; and at length, upon the queen's suggestion, Daniel, called by the Chaldeans Belteshazzar, is brought into the banquet-hall, and commanded, with promise of great honors and rewards, to declare the words of the mystic writing.
The answer of the prophet of Israel is uncommonly grand and impressive :—" Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to another; yet I will read the writing to the king, and make known to him the interpretation.
"O thou king, the most high God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom and majesty and glory and honour: and for the majesty that he gave him, all people, nations, and languages, trembled and feared before him; whom he would he slew; and whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he set up; and whom he would he put down. But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and they took his glory from him: And he was driven from the sons of men; and his heart was made like the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses; they fed him with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven; till he knew that the most high God ruled in the kingdom of men, and that he appointeth over it whomsoever he will.
"And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled thine heart, though thou knewest all this; But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of Heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods
of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know; and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified. Then was the part of the hand sent from him; and this writing was written. And this is the writing that was written,—Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin. This is the interpretation of the thing: Mene—God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it. Teki:i.—thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting. Peres—thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.
These ominous words are (as indeed is the whole text from the fourth verse of the second chapter, to the end of the seventh chapter) Chaldee, and it does not very clearly appear whether the circumstances of their appearance were such, that the Chaldeans could not even read them; or whether, which is sufficient, and seems more probable, it is only meant that they could give no connected interpretation of them. Mene signifies to reckon, or take an account; and the word is repeated, according to an Eastern idiom, for the purpose of marking the certainty and solemnity of the fact. Tekel, means to weigh; and Upharsin, literally, they divide it. It is observable that in the twentyeighth verse Daniel interprets Upharsin as Peres; the fact is, they are the same word, and Peres is perhaps used to embrace another subject of the prophetic threatening,—Peres being the Chaldee name for the Persians, who are more particularly noted on account of Cyrus, the leader of the besieging forces, and the founder of the great Medish-Persian empire.
It only remains to remark, that Herodotus, the Greek historian, who wrote about seventy or eighty years after the date of this capture of Babylon, says that Cyrus entered the city by the bed of the river Euphrates, the course of which he had turned, and surprised the inhabitants, who were intent on the celebration of a great festival. The book of Daniel simply says: In that night was Belshazzar, the king of the Chaldeans, slain. And Darius, the Median, [probably Cyaxares, as before mentioned] took the kingdom, being about three-score and two years old.
Watch of Israel, we shall rest
If in sleep our spirits dream,
But if sleep be far away,
THE FOSSIL ELEPHANT OR MAMMOTH.
An incorrect figure of the fossil elephant or mammoth was by a singular inadvertence admitted into a former paper on this subject. In order to explain the cause of this error, and induced by the interesting nature of the subject, we add some particulars not given in that article.
The annexed figure, is that which should properly have been given at page 76; it is copied from M. Cuvier's great work on fossil remains, and represents the mammoth found frozen in Siberia, as already related. Parts of the flesh and skin still remain on it, as on the skull; and the feet still retain part of the
The fossil bones of the elephant have been found in every part of the earth which has been searched for the purposes of such discoveries. Not only in the old world, but in America, where no living elephants are now found; and in proportion as more attention was paid to these remains, the difference between the fossil or extinct, and the existing species, became more and more apparent; but still it was obvious that the two belonged to what naturalists call the same genus, and consequently that no essential part of their respective forms could so far vary as to indicate any great difference in their habits and food.
In 1801, Mr. W. Peale, an American, was successful in obtaining parts of the skeleton of an animal which had been found in the neighbourhood of Newburg on the Hudson; and by copying in wood the deficient bones from other specimens of the same animal, and by supplying on the one side those bones which were only found belonging to the other, he completed two skeletons, one of which was deposited in the Museum of Philadelphia, and the other was brought over to England by his son, Mr. R. Peale, for public exhibition.
Mr. Peale published an account of this skeleton, and in it stated his reasons for believing that the tusks, instead of turning upwards, as in the elephant, were reversed; for this point was doubtful, from the circumstance of the cranium or upper part of the skull not having been found complete. Accordingly, he had given the tusks this inverted position in his skeleton which he exhibited; and from a print published at that time the figure in our former article was, by a misconception, copied by our artist.*
Baron Cuvier, who examined the bones of this newly discovered animal, has, however, shown that, by all analogy, it was to be concluded that the tasks had a similar position to those of the mammoth, and that the animal had a trunk or proboscis, and principally differed from the elephant in the formation of the teeth; its height being nearly that of a well-grown elephant, but its body was longer and slenderer in proportion, while the limbs were thicker: it subsisted on vegetables, which was almost proved by the discovery, in 1805, of a collection of bones in Virginia, belonging to the same extinct species, in the midst of which was a mass of small branches, seeds and leaves, in a half chewed state, among which was recognised a species of reed still common in that country, and the whole was enveloped in a sort of sack, which was considered to have been the stomach of the individual. It has been called the great Mastodon or animal of the Ohio.
* There is no reason for believing that Mr. Peale had any interested or improper motive for this alteration of position of the tusks, as a correspondent suggests to us, in a letter signed Itusticus: his error arose from an insufficient knowledge of comparative anatomy, but which might have been committed at that period by any man who was not a Cuvier.
FAMILIAR REMARKS ON ARCHITECTURE.
In a former number we have given some familiar remarks upon architecture, in order to assist travellers, and casual observers of Cathedrals and Churches, in determining their age and the style in which they are built. We will now lead them from the general description to the detail of these buildings, and describe the several parts and divisions of which each structure consists.
A church or a cathedral admits generally of four great divisions; namely, a tower, or steeple; a nave, which is the body of the church; a chancel, or choir; and one or more aisles. Many large churches, and all cathedrals, are built in the form of a cross, of which the parts running north and south, are called the North and South Transepts: but small churches, erected in former times, and almost all in the present day, have only a body and chancel. In fact, in many of the latter, the chancel has almost disappeared, and there is only a recess for the altar instead of it.
The nave or body of the church is the part westward of the chancel or choir, and is situated within the piers supporting the roof or galleries.
The aisles of a church are those divisions, north or south, which are between the piers and the outer walls. From them there is an entrance to the pews, which have been introduced since the Reformation. The following figure represents the general form in which a cathedral is built.
The eastern space near the altar is, in collegiate and cathedral churches, called the choir, because in it were formerly chanted or sung the services of the church, by a choir of singers appointed for the purpose. This custom is still preserved in many cathedrals, and in the chapels of colleges. In most churches, however, this part is called the chancel; a name given to it from the skreen or lattice-work (cancelli) by which it was separated from the outer part of the church. This skreen is frequently very beautifully carved, as are also the stalls or seats with desks before them, which still remain in the choirs of many ancient churches.
The steeple of a church is that part which is higher than the roof, and in which the bells are hung. Sometimes it is headed by a spire, and sometimes consists of a simple tower or turret. In either case it forms a very picturesque object in our scenery, while the association of ideas which it awakens, opens a pleasing source of reflection to every serious mind.
The towers of churches were formerly used as fortresses, to which the inhabitants of the parish fled in times of danger and alarm. The church at Rugby, Warwickshire, was evidently erected with a regard to this circumstance. It is lofty, and of a square form: the lower windows are at a great distance from the ground, and very narrow. The only entrance to the tower is through the church; and it is fitted up with a fire-place for the accommodation of a party of besieged persons, during the continuance of danger.
The spires of churches have frequently been useful as guides to travellers over barren moors, and as landmarks to ships at sea. From this fact, the spire of Astlcy Church, Warwickshire, was called the lantern of Ardcn; and that of Boston, Lincolnshire, has fre