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APPENDIX K (PAGE 90) For Samuel Hartlib, 'the son of a Polish merchant of German extraction' by an English wife, 'who made London his head-quarters,' see Masson's Milton, iii. 193. Evelyn describes him as 'honest and learned Mr. Hartlib, a public-spirited and ingenious person, who had propagated many useful things and arts.' Diary, i. 326. Pepys attended the wedding of his daughter ‘Nan Hartlib, which was kept at Goring House, with very great state, cost, and noble company.' Diary, i. 115.
In A Shelf of Old Books by Mrs. James T. Fields, New York, 1895, p. 147, is given a facsimile of the following title-page :-Poems, &c., upon Several Occasions. By Mr. John Milton. Both English and Latin, &c. Composed at several times. With a small Tractate of Education. To Mr. Hartlib. London, Printed for Tho. Dring at the Blew Anchor next Mitre Court over against Fetter Lane in Fleet-street, 1673. “It belonged to Thomas Gray when a schoolboy, his name being written nine times by himself upon the title-page.' • The original tract had no title-page, but the following heading on the first page :-OF EDUCATION: To MASTER SAMUEL HARTLIB.' Masson's Milton, iii. 233. See MILTON, 152,
APPENDIX L (PAGE 106)
For Milton's Doctrine of Divorce see Works, i. 332-end ; ii. 1-63. The first edition appeared in 1643, probably as early as Aug. 1. Masson's Milton, iii. 44. Its title was The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, Restor'd, to the good of both Sexes, from the Bondage of Canon Law and other mistakes, to Christian Freedom, guided by the Rule of Charity, &c. The second edition, published in Feb. 1643–4, has a different title, and is 'a great enlargement. Ib. p. 64. Among the causes of divorce 'there is no word of desertion.' Ib. p. 72.
The second tract was The Judgement of Martin Bucer concerning Divorce. Writt'n to Edward the Sixt, in his Second Book of the Kingdom of Christ. And now Englisht. Wherein a late Book restoring the Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce is heer confirm'd and justify'd by the authoritie of Martin Bucer. To the Parlament of England. It was published on July 15, 1644. Bucer had been appointed by Edward VI Professor of Divinity at Cambridge. Masson's Milton, iii. 255; Works, ii. 64.
•The four chief Places of Scripture' were Gen. i. 27, 28, compared and explained by Gen. ii. 18, 23, 24; Deut. xxiv. 1, 2; Matt. v. 31, 32, with Matt. xix from ver. 3 to 11; 1 Cor. vii. from ver. 10 to 16. Ib. ï. 111. The Tetrachordon appeared on March 4, 1644-5. Masson's Milton, iii. 301. Johnson passes over Milton's fourth tract on divorce
- Colasterion, published on the same day as Tetrachordon. Ib. p. 313; Works, ii. 240. In his Treatise on Christian Doctrine (Bk. i. ch. 10), published after his death (Milton, 166 n.), he argued for the lawfulness of polygamy. See Masson's Milton, vi. 830.
APPENDIX M (Page 110)
The Eikon Basilike was published on or before Feb. 9, 1648-9. There were, it is said, fifty editions in various languages within a year. Masson's Milton, iv. 36 n., 129 n.
Lord Chancellor Hyde, in answer to Dr. Gauden, who pressed him for a better reward than the poor bishopric of Exeter (he expected Winchester, and obtained Worcester), wrote about the authorship of this book on March 13, 1660-1:-'Truly when it ceases to be a secret, I know nobody will be glad of it but Mr. Milton, Todd on Eikon, p. 20.
'It was,' writes Burnet, 'universally believed to be the King's own. .. It had the greatest run, in many impressions, that any book has had in our age. There was in it a nobleness and justness of thought, with a greatness of style, that made it to be looked on as the best writ book in the English language. . . . I was bred up with a high veneration of it.' Burnet adds that in 1673 the Duke of York (James II) told him that 'Dr. Gawden writ it.' Burnet's History of my own Time, 1724, i. 50-1.
Toland also prints (Life of Milton, p. 84) a memorandum in the hand of the Earl of Anglesea (MILTON, 143) within a copy of Eikon Basilike, discovered on the sale of his library in 1686, stating that 'King Charles II and the Duke of York did both ... assure me that this . . . was made by Dr. Gauden.'
• Its real author, Dr. John Gauden, caught with great felicity the higher motives which were never absent from Charles' mind. ... The greedily devoured volumes served to create an ideal image of Charles which went far to make the permanent overthrow of the monarchy impossible.' GARDINER, Civil War, iv. 325.
Macaulay, after telling how the licenser of the press, in 1693, authorized the publication of a book by Dr. Anthony Walker, an intimate friend of Gauden, asserting from personal knowledge that Gauden was the author of the Eikon Basilike, continues :-'If he had authorized the publication of a work in which the Gospel of St. John or the Epistle to the Romans had been represented as spurious, the indignation of the High Church party could hardly have been greater. The question was not literary, but religious. Doubt was impiety. The Blessed Martyr was an inspired penman, his Icon a supplementary revelation. ... (James] Fraser (the licenser] found it necessary to resign his place.' Hist. of England, vi. 361.
Southey believed it to be genuine (Life and Corres., 1850, v. 81).
[See also E. Almack, Bibliography of the ... Eikon Basilike (1896), important from the bibliographical point of view; and W. H. Hutton, Influence of Christianity upon National Character, illustrated by the Lives and Legends of the English Saints (Bampton Lectures for 1903, published by Messrs. Wells, Gardner & Co.), pp. 337–52. Mr. Hutton expresses his views as to the authorship at p. 348 n. 2.]
APPENDIX N (PAGE 144)
Milton is not mentioned by Baxter (Warton's Milton's Poems, p. 573) or, I think, by Clarendon in his History or Life. Dryden, in 1674, described Paradise Lost as ‘undoubtedly one of the greatest, most noble, and most sublime poems which either this age or nation has produced.' Works, v. 112.
In 1678 Rymer wrote of 'that Paradise Lost of Milton's, which some are pleased to call a poem. The Tragedies of the Last Age, p. 143.
In 1680 Roscommon praised it. Eng. Poets, xv. 91, 92.
In 1685 Temple, in his essay Of Poetry, wrote :- After these three [Ariosto, Tasso, and Spenser] I know none of the moderns that have made any achievements in heroic poetry worth recording.' Works, iii, 420.
Before 1688 Somers (afterwards Lord Chancellor) encouraged Tonson to print 'a new and elegant edition of Paradise Lost [the fourth].' There were above 500 subscribers. Atterbury, in 1687, sent Tonson thirty-one names from Oxford. Dryden wrote for it his lines on Milton. Malone's Dryden, i. 202.
Tonson, in the duodecimo edition of 1711, says of this elegant edition,' that 'notwithstanding the price of it was four times greater than before, the sale increased double the number every year. The work is now generally known and esteemed.' See also Richardson's Explanatory Notes, &c., Pref. p. 118; Masson's Milton, vi. 784.
Jonathan Richardson, born about 1665, had in his youth honoured Shakespeare, Cowley, Dryden, and other poets, but had never heard of Milton. 'I happened,' he writes, 'to find Paradise Lost in Mr. Riley's painting-room (Riley died in 1691). From that hour all the rest (Shakespeare excepted) faded in my estimation or vanished.' Richardson's Explanatory Notes, &c., Pref. p. 118.
Burnet wrote of Paradise Lost before 1705 :-'Tho' Milton affected to write in blank verse without rhyme, and made many new and rough words, yet it was esteemed the beautifullest and perfectest poem that ever was writ, at least in our language.' History, ed. 1724, i. 163.
Shaftesbury, in 1710, described Paradise Lost as 'our most approved heroick poem. Characteristics, 1714, i. 276.
Milton is not mentioned in Pope's Essay on Criticism, published in 1711.
In 1711-12 Addison's series of papers on Paradise Lost appeared in The Spectator. Post, ADDISON, 162. · Dennis wrote (Original Letters, 1721, p. 174):- Paradise Lost had been printed forty years before it was known to the greatest part of England that there barely was such a book.'
Swift wrote of it in 1732 :- Few either read, liked, or understood it; and it gained ground merely by its merit.' Works, xvii. 396.
The same year Bentley, in the Preface to his edition of Paradise Lost, says that 'for above sixty years it has passed upon the whole nation for a perfect, absolute, faultless composition.' Bentley, however, wished to prove the need of emendations.
In The Table of Modern Fame in Dodsley's Museum, Sept. 13, 1746, i. 489, supposed to be by Akenside, after Pope has been seated Milton is granted the last seat but one. 'He is now admitted for the first time, and was not but with difficulty admitted at all. But have patience ... he may perhaps at last obtain the highest, or at least the second place.' See also Warton's Essay on Pope, ii. 54.
Newton's edition of Paradise Lost, published in 1749, reached its eighth edition by 1775. Newton's Works, ed. 1782, i. 50.
Johnson, in 1750, in his Prologue for Milton's granddaughter, says :
‘At length our mighty bard's victorious lays
Fill the loud voice of universal praise.' Works, i. 115. Warburton wrote in 1757:- The present fashion for Milton makes us as ready to learn our religion from the Paradise Lost; though it be certain he was as poor and fanciful a divine as Shakespeare was a licentious historian.' Warburton's Pope, iv. 154.
'In 1763 I calculate,' writes Professor Masson, ‘Paradise Lost was in its forty-sixth edition. ...There had been four translations into German, two into Dutch, three into French, and two into Italian, and at least one into Latin.' Masson's Milton, vi. 789. The British Museum Catalogue shows that it has been translated also into Armenian, Bohemian, Danish, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian Icelandic, Manx, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, and Welsh. For Milton's reputation as a poet in his lifetime see Masson's Milton, vi. 776. It is rash to differ from Professor Masson; I think, however, that he exaggerates this reputation. See on this subject an interesting note in Cunningham's Lives of the Poets, i. 124.
APPENDIX O (PAGE 159)
*Deborah Clarke,' writes Dr. Birch, 'gave Dr. Ward, Professor of Rhetoric at Gresham College, who saw her not long before her death, the following account, which he communicated to me, Feb. 10, 1737-8. “She informed me that she and her sisters used to read to their father in eight languages, which by practice they were capable of doing with great readiness and accuracy, though they understood what they read in no other language but English ; and their father used often to say in their hearing :-One tongue was enough for a woman.' None of them were ever sent to school, but all taught at home by a mistress kept for that purpose. Isaiah, Homer, and Ovid's Metamorphoses were books which they were often called to read to their father; and at my desire she repeated a considerable number of verses from the beginning of both these poets with great readiness. I knew who she was upon the first sight of her, by the similitude of her countenance with her father's picture. And upon my telling her so, she informed me that Mr. Addison told her the same thing, upon her going to wait on him. For he, upon hearing she was living, sent for her, and desired, if she had any papers of her father's, she would bring them with her, as an evidence of her being Mr. Milton's daughter. But immediately upon her being introduced to him, he said, “Madam, you need no other voucher; your face is a sufficient testimonial whose daughter you are.' And he then made her a handsome present of a purse of guineas, with a promise
of procuring her an annual provision for her life; but he dying soon after, she lost the benefit of his generous design. She appeared to be a woman of good sense and a genteel behaviour, and to bear the inconvenience of a low fortune with decency and prudence.". T. BIRCH, Milton's Works, 1753, Preface, p. 76. See also Gent. Mag. 1776, p. 200; Newton's Milton, Preface, p. 81; Bentham's Works, x. 52.
APPENDIX P (PAGE 192)
Milton, in the Preface to Paradise Lost, speaks of the troublesome and modern bondage of rhyming.' Two or three years earlier than Milton's Preface, Boileau had written :
Maudit soit le premier, dont la verve insensée
Voulut avec la rime enchaîner la raison.' Satires, ii. 53. "Shakespeare, to shun the pains of continual rhyming, invented that kind of writing which we call blank verse, into which the English tongue so naturally slides that in writing prose it is hardly to be avoided.' DRYDEN, Works, ii. 136. Whatever cause Milton alleges for the abolishing of rhyme, his own particular reason is plainly this, that rhyme was not his talent,' Įb. xiii. 29. 'He who can write well in rhyme may write better in blank verse.' Ib. xiv. 211.
Je me souviendrai toujours que je demandai au célèbre Pope, pourquoi Milton n'avait pas rimé son Paradis perdu, et qu'il me répondit:-"Because he could not, parce qu'il ne le pouvait pas.”' VOLTAIRE, Cuvres, xxxv. 435. 'Un poète anglais est un homme libre qui asservit sa langue à son génie; le Français est un esclave de la rime. ... L'Anglais dit tout ce qu'il veut, le Français ne dit que ce qu'il peut.' Ib. i. 310.
Cowper wrote, after finishing The Task:-'I do not mean to write blank verse again. Not having the music of rhyme, it requires so close an attention to the pause and the cadence, and such a peculiar mode of expression, as render it, to me at least, the most difficult species of poetry that I have ever meddled with.' Southey's Cowper, v. 105. See also ib. p. 89.
Tennyson said to Allingham on Sept. 2, 1880:- It is much easier ļo write rhyme than good blank verse.' Allingham MSS. Addison describes how Milton “Unfeţtered in majestic numbers walks.'
Addison's Works, i. 24. 'He that writes in rhymes dances in fetters.'
PRIOR, Eng. Poets, xxxiii. 207.