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that he should be a good citizen who is encroaching on mutual property; in connected by motives of self-interest whatever light we regard it, we thall with so many, than the abstemious man have reason to stand up in it's defence, who is united to none.

and the sentiment of Confucius itill reIn whatsoever light therefore we con mains unshaken; that we should enjoy sider luxury, whether as employing a as many of the luxuries of life as are number of hands naturally too feeble consistent with our own safety, and the for more laborious employment, as find prosperity of others; and that he who ing a variety of occupation for others • finds out a new pieature is one of the who might be totally idle, or as furnish • most useful members of society.' ing out new inlets to happiness, without

LETTER XII.

TO THE SAME.

FROM the funeral folemnities of In short, an hundred stratagems are

the politelt people in the world, I must been induced to perform only by being make a transition to the funeral solemni. told — Sir, you are part all hopes, and ties of the English, who think themselves • had as good think decently of dying.' as polite as they. The numberless ce Belides all this, the chamber is darkremonies wbich are used here when a ened, the whole house echoes to the cries perton is fick, appear to me so many of the wife, the lamentations of the evident marks of fear and apprehenfion. children, the grief of the servants, and Ask an Englishman, however, whether the sighs of friends. The bed is fur. he is afraid of death, and he boldly an rounded with priests and doctors in fwers in the negative; but observe his black, and only flambeaux emit a yelbehaviour in circumstances of approach low gloom. Where is the man, how ing fickness, and you will find his ac- intrepid foever, that would not shrink tions give his assertions the lye.

at such a hideous solemnity? For fear The Chinese are very sincere in this of affrighting their expiring friends, the respect; they hate to die, and they con- English praStile all that can fill them fess their terrors: a great part of their with terror. Strange effect of human life is spent in preparing things proper prejudice, thus to torture merely froin for their funeral; a poor artizan shall miltaken tenderness! spend half his income in providing him You see, my friend, what contradicself a tomb twenty years before he wants tions there are in the tempers of thote it; and denies himself the neceslaries of illanders; when prompted by ambition, life, that he may be amply provided for revenge, or disappointment, they meet when he shall want them no more.

death with the utmost resolution; the But people of distinction in England very man who in his bed would have really deserve pity, for they die in cir trembled at the aspect of a doctor, shall cumitances of the most extreme distress. go with intrepidity to attack a bastion, It is an established rule, never to let a or deliberately noose himself up in his man know that he is dying: physicians garters. are fent for, the clergy are called, and The passion of the Europeans for every thing passes in silent folemnity magnificent interments is equally strong round the fick bed; the patient is in with that of the Chinese.

When a agonies, looks round for pity, yet not tradesman dies, his frightful face is a single creature will say that he is dy painted up by an undertaker, and placed ing. If he is possessed of fortune, his in a proper situation to receive company; relations entreat him to make his will, this is called lying in ftate. To this as it may reitore the tranquillity of his disagrecable spectacle all the idlers in mind. He is desired to undergo the town flock, and learn to loath the rites of the church, for decency requires wretch dead, whom they despised when it. His friends take their leave only be living. In this manner you lee some Huse they do not care to see him in pain, who would have refused a fhilling to

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save the life of their dearest friend, he up in terms as flattering as possible; and itow thousands on adornirg their putrid that he would make it the employment corpse. I have been told of a fellow, of his whole life to deserve it! who, grown rich by the price of blood, I have not yet been in a place called left it in his will that he should lie in state, Westminster Abbey, but foon intend to and thus anknowingly gibbered himself visit it. There I ain told I shall see into infamy, when he might have other- justice done to deceased merit; none, wise quietly retired into oblivion. I am told, are permitted to be buried

When the person is buried, the next there but such as have adorned as well care is to make his epitaph ; they are as improved mankind. There no ingenerally reckoned beit which fatter truders, by the influence of friends or molt; such relations therefore as have fortune, presume to mix their unhalreceived most benefits from the defunct, lowed alhes with philofophers, heroes, discharge this friendly office; and gene. and poets. Nothing but true merit has rally fater in proportion to their joy. a place in that awtul sanctuary: the When we read thole monumental his. guardianship of the tombs is committed tories of the dead, it may be juítly said, to several reverend prelts, who are never tható all men are equal in the duft;' for guilty for a fuperior reward of taking they all appear equally remarkable for down the names of good men, to make being the inoit fincere Christians, the room for others of equivocal character, most benevolent neighbours, and the nor ever prophane the sacred walls with honesteit men of their time. To go pageants, that pofterity cannot know, through anEuropean cemetery,one would or Thall blush to own. be apt to wonder how mankind could I always was of opinion, that sepulhave so balely degenerated from such chral honours of this kind should be excellent anceltors; every tomb pretends conlidered as a national concern, and to claim your reverence and regret; !ome not trusted to the care of the priests of are prailed for piety in those inscrip- any county, how respectable soever; but tions who never entered the temple un from the conduct of the reverend pertil they were dead; some are praised for fonages, whose disinterelted patriotism I being excellent poets, who were never Mall Mortly be able to discover, I am mentioned, except for their dullness, taught to retract my former sentiments. when living; others for sublime orators, It is true, the Spartans and the Persians who were never noted except for their made a fine political use of fepulchral impudence; and others still for military vanity; they permitted none to be thus atchievements, who were never in any interred, who had not fallen in the vinotirer skirmishes but with the watch. dication of their country; a monument Some even make epitaphs for themselves, thus became a real mak of distinction, and bespeak the reader's good-will. It it nerved the hero's arin with tenfold were indeed to le wilhed, that every vigour; and he fought without fear, man would early learn, in this manner, who only fought for a grave. Farewell. to make his own; that he would draw it

LETTER XIII.

FROM THE SAMZ.

I

Ain just returned from Westminster cielings. Think, then, what were my the pliilowphers, beroes, and kings of scene! I stood in the midst of the temEngland. What a gloom do monu ple, and threw my eyes round on the mental inscriptions and all the venerable walls filled with the statues, the infcripremains of deceased merit in lpire! Ima- tions, and the monuments of the dead. gine a reinple marked with the hand of • Alas!' I said to myself, “how does antiquity, solemn as religious awe, pride attend the pony child of duit adorned with all the magnificence of even to the grave! Even humble as I barbarous profusion, dini windows, I poflets more consequence in the fretted pilars, long colonades, and dark prelent Icene than the greatest hero of

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r them all; they have toiled for an hour taking half a score towns, is thought ' to gain a tranfient immortality, and a fufficient qualification?'- Gain• are at length retired to the grave, where + ing lautles, or taking towns,' replied

they have no attendant but the worm, the man in black, may be of service; none to flatter but the epitaph.' • but a gentleman may have a very fine

As I was indulging such reflections, monuinent here without ever seeing a a gentleman, dressed in black, perceiving • battle or a fege.'- This then is the me to be a stranger, came up, entered monument of fome poet, I presume ; into conversation, and politely offered to of one whose wit has gained him imbe my initructur and guide through the nortality?'-— No, Sir,' replied my temple. " If any monument,' said he, guide, ' the gentleman who lies here 'fhould particularly excite your curio never made verles; and as for wit, he

fity, I ihall endeavour to fatisfy your : despised it in others, because he had

demands.' I accepted, with thanks, none himself.'_ Pray tell me then the gentleinan's offer; adding, that I in a word,' said I, peevishly,' what was come to observe the policy, the wis is the great man who lies here partidom, and the justice of the English, in Icularly remarkable for?' Remark. conferring rewards upon deceased merit. rable, Sir!' said my companion ; 'why, « If adulation like this,' continued I, ' Sir, the gentleman that lies here is

be properly conducted, as it can no l'emarkable, very remarkable for a

ways injure those who are flattered, so (tomb in Westminster Abbey: – But, ' it may be a glorious incentive to those • head of my Ancestors ! how has he . who are now capable of enjoying it. got

here? Ifancy he could never bribe • It is the duty of every good govern. • the guardians of the temple to give

ment to turn this monumental pride him a place: Should he not be asham.

to it's own advantage, to become ed to be seen among company, where • strong in the aggregate from the weak. even moderate merit would look like

ness of the individual. If none but infamy?'- I suppose, replied the the truly great have a place in this man in black, the gentleman was rich,

awful repository, a temple like this ' and his friends, as is usual in such a • will give the finest lessons of morality, • cafe, told him he was great. He rea

and be a strong incentive to true am dily believed them; the guardians of

bition. I ain told, that none have a • the temple, as they got by the felf• place here but characters of the most • delusion, were ready to believe him • diftinguished merit.' The man in • too; so he paid his money for a fine black seemed impatient at my observa • monument; and the workman, as tions; so I discontinued my remarks, you see, has made him one the most and we walked on together to take a + beautiful. Think not, however, that view of every particular monument in this gentleman is fingular in his defire order as it lay.

of being buried among the great; there As the eye is naturally caught by the are several others in the temple, who, fincit obiecs. I could not avoid being " hated and shunned by the great while particularly curious about one monu « alive, have come here, fully resolved ment which appeared more beautiful to keep then company now they are than the rest; That,' faid I to my

dead.' guide, ' I take to be the tomb of loine As we walked along to a particular

very great man. By the peculiar ex- part of the temple There,' says the 'cellence of the workinanzip, and the gentleman, pointing with his finger,

magnificence of the design, this must that is the Poets Corner; there you

be a trophy railed to the memory of • see the monuments of Shakespeare, • some king who has saved his country • and Milton, and Prior, and Drayton.' ' from ruin; or law-giver, who has re - Drayton,' I replied, I never heard • duced his fellow-citizens from anar • of him before ; but I have been told ·chy into juft fubie&tion.' It is not of one Pope, is he there?'- It is • requit.!?,' replied my companion, time enough,' replied my guide, Siniling, to have such qualifications " there hundred years, he is not long

in order to liave a very fine monument · dead, people have not done hating here. More humble abilities will suf • him yet.'--- Strange!' cried I, 'can fice'- What, I suppose, then, the “any be found to hate a man, whose gaining two or three batlles, or the life was wholly spent in entertaining

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' and instructing his fellow-creatures?' ing to enter, when a person, who held

- Yes,' says my guide;' they hate the gate in his hand, told me I must pay • him for that very reason. There are first. I was furprised at such a demand; • a set of men called answerers of books, and asked the man whether the people

who take upon them to watch the re of England kept a foew? Whether the

public of letters, and distribute repu- paltry fum he demanded was not a na• tadion by the sheet; they somewhat tional reproach ? Whether it was not

referble’ the eunuchs in a seraglio, more to the honcur of the country to let who are incapable of giving pleasure their magnificence or their antiquities be

themselves, and hinder those that openly seen, than thus meanly to tax a ( would. These answerers have no curiosity which terded to their own hoother employment but to cry out nour?

• As for your questions,' re• Dunce, and Scribbler; to praise the plied the gate-keeper,' to be sure they · dead, and revile the living; to grant may be very right, because I don't

a man of confeffed abilities fome Imall understand thein; but as for that there • share of merit, to applaud twenty • three. I

-- pence,

I farm it from one, who • blockheads in order to gain the repu rents it from another, who hires it • tation of candour, and to revive the from a third, who leases it from the ( moral character of the man whole writ guardians of the temple, and we all • ings they cannot injure. Such wretches must live.' I expected, upon paying

are kept in pay by some mercenary here, to see something extraordinary, • bookseller, or more frequently, the since what I had leen for nothing filled • bookfeller himself takes this dirty me with so much furprise; but in this I ( work off their hands, as all that is re was disappointed; there was little more

quired is to be very abusive and very within than black coffins, rusty armour, duil; every Poet of any genius is sure tattered standards, and some few joven

to find such enemies; he feels, though ly figures in wax. I was sorry I had <he seems to despise their malice, they paid, but I comforted myself by cono make him miserable here, and in the lidering it would be my last payment.

pursuit of empty fame, at lait he gains A person attended us, who, without i solid anxiety:

once blushing, told an hundred lyes; he • Has this been the case with every talked of a lady who died by pricking poet I see here?". cried I. 'Yes, her finger, of a king with a golden head,

with every mother's son of them,' re and twenty such pieces of abfurdity. plied he, except he happened to be • Look ye there, gentlemen,' says he,

born a mandarine. If he has much pointing to an old oak chair,' there's money, he may buy reputation from a curiosity for ye! in that chair the your book answerers, as well as a

kings of England were crowned; you monument from the guardians of the fee also a stone underneath, and that • temple.'

' ftone is Jacob's pillow.' I could see < But are there not some inen of di no curiolity either in the oak chair or • ftinguished taste, as in China, who are the stone; conid I, indeed, behold one

willing to patronize men of merit, and of the old kings of England feated in " foften the rancour of malevolent dule this, or Jacob's head laid upon the ( ness?'

other, there might be something curious • I own there are many,' replied the in the fight; but, in the present cale, man in black ; but, alas! Sir, the there was no more reason for my surprize « book answerers croud about them, than if I Tould pick a stone from their • and call themselves the writers of itreets, and call it a curiosity, merely o books; and the patron is too indolent because one of ihe kings happened to to distinguish: thus poets are kept at

it as he parled in a procesa a distance, while their enemies eat up fion.

all their rewards at the mandarine's From hence our conductor led us • table.'

through several dark walks and winding Leaving this part of the temple, we ways, uttering lycs, talking to himself, made up to an iron gate, through which and Houriĝing a wand which be held in my companion told me we were to pass his hand. He reminded me of the black in order to see the monuments of the magicians of Kobi. After we had been kings. Accordingly I marched up, almost fatigaient with a variety of obicéts, without further ceremony, and was go. he, at last, desired me to contider alten.

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tively a certain suit of armour, which ney!- Every gentleman gives fomeseemed to thew rothing remarkable. thing, Siri'-.l'll give thee nothing,' « This armour,' said he, belonged to returned I;' the guardians of the tem« General Monk.'— Very surprising, • ple should pay you your wages, friend,

that a general Mhould wear armour!' and not permit you to squeeze thus " And pray,' added he, ' observe this ' from every spectator. When we pay cap,

this is General Monk's cap.'-- our money at the door to see a Mew, • Very strange indeed! very strange, we never give more as we are going • that a general should have a cap also!

Sure the guardians of the tem• Pray, friend, what might this cap ople can never think they get enough! • have cost originally ? That, Siri' • Shew me the gate; if I stay longer, I says he, I don't know; but this cap may probably meet with more of those is all the wages I have for my

trouble.' • ecclefiaftical beggars.' - A very small recompence, truly!' Thus leaving the temple precipitatesaid I. Not so very smail,' replied he, ly, I returned to my lodgings, in order • for every gentleman puts some money to ruminate over what was great, and

into it, and I spend the money.' to despise what was mean in the occur< What, more money! itill more mo rences of the day.

out.

LETTER XIV.

FROM THE SAME.

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Was some days ago agreeably fur was born so far from home? What an I

prised by a mesage froin a lady of • unulual share of somethingness in his dillinction, who sent me word, that she

' whole appearance! Lord, how I am molt pasionately defired the pleasure of charmed with the outlandish cut of my acquaintance; and, with the utinoit • his face! how bewitching the exotic impatience, expecied an interview. I 'breadth of his forehea<!! I would give will not deny, my dear Fum Houm, but the world to lee him in his own counthat my vanity was raised at such an in

try dress. Pray turn about, Şir, and vitation ; I Aattered mytuf ihat she had ' let me fee you behind. There! there's setnine in some public place, and had a travell d air for you! You that atconceived an affection for my perfon, ' tend there, bring up a plate of beef which thus induced her to deviate from cut into finall pieces; I have a violent the usual decorums of the fex. My paslion to see him eat. Pray, Sir, imagination painted her in ail the bloon

have you got your chop íticks about of youth and beauty. I fancied her at. you? It will be so pretty to see the tended by the Loves and Graces, and I 'ment carried to the mouth with a jerk. fet out with the most pleasing expecta • Pray speak a little Chinese: I have tions of feeing the conqueft I had made. I learned fome of the language myself.

When I was introduced into her apart ' Lord! have you nothing pretty from ment, my expectations were quickly at China about you ; something that one an end; I perceived a little Thrivelled • does not know what to do with? I figure indolently reclined on a sofa, who " have got twenty things from China nödded by way of approbation at my that aie of no use in the world. Look approach. This, as I was afterwards at those jars, they are of the right peainformed, was the lady herself, a wo. green: these are the furniture;'man equally distinguished for rank, po Dear Madam,' said I, there, though liteness, taste, and understanding. As " they riay appear tine in your eyes, are I was dressed after the fashion of Europe, • but palırvio a Chinele; but, as they The had taken me for an Englishman, are useful utensils, it is proper they and consequently faluted me in her ordi

I should have a place in every apartnary manner; but when the footman ment.'-' Useful! Sir,' replied the informed her grace that I was the gen. lady; • sure you mistake, they are of tleman from China, the instantly lifted no use in the world.'_ What! are herself from the couch, while her eyes they not filled with an infusion of tea sparkled with unusual vivacity. Bless as in China?' replied I. Quite **me! can this be the gentleman that einpty and useless, upon my honour,

• Sir.'

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