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thousand years ago have certainly no the Chinese to be a colony planted by connection at all. However, the learn. Noah juft after the deluge. Fiski, from ed have written on and pursued the fub, the vaft fimilitude there is between the ject through all the labyrinths of anti- name of Fohi, the founder of the Chi, quity; though the early dews and the nele monarchy, and that of Noah, the tainted gale be passed away, though no preserver of the human race: Noah, footsteps remain to direct the doubtful Fohi, very like each other truly; they chace, yet still they run forward, open have each but four letters, and only two upon the uncertain scent, and though of the four happen to differ. But to in fact they follow nothing, are earnest strengthen the argument, Fobi, as the in the pursuit. In this chace, however, Chinese chronicle asserts, had no father. they all take different ways. One, for Noah, it is true, had a father, as the example, confidently assures us, that European Bible tells us; but then, as China was peopled by a colony from this father was probably drowned in the Egypt. Sesostris, he observęs, led his food, it is jut the same as if he had no army as far as the Ganges; therefore, father at all; therefore Noah and Fohi if he went so far, he might itill have are the same. Just after the food, the gone as far as China, which is but about earth was covered with mud; if it was a thousand miles from thence; therefore covered with mud, it must have been he did go to China; therefore China incrustated mud; if it was incrustated, was not peopled before he went there; it was cloathed with verdore ; this was therefore it was peopled by him. Be a fine, unembarraffect road for Noab to fides, the Egyptians have pyramids; the Ay from his wicked children ; be there Chinese have in like manner their por- fore did fly from them, and took a jour. celane tower; the Egyptians used to ney of two thousand miles for his own light up candles upon every rejoicing, amusement; therefore Noah and Fobi the Chinese have lanthorns upon the are the same. fame occasion; the Egyptians had their Another fect of literati, for they all great river, so have the Chinese; but pass among the vulgar for very great what serves to put the matter pait a scholars, allert, that the Chinese came doubt is, that the ancient kings of neither from the colony of Sefoftris, nor China and those of Egypt were called from Noah, but are descended from by the same names, The Emperor Ki Magog, Melhec, and Tubal; and there is certainly the same with King Atoes; fore neither Sefoftris, nor Noah, nos for, if we only change K into A, and Fohi, are the fame. i into toes, we shall have the name It is thus, my friend, that indolence Atoes; and with equal ease Menes may be assumes the airs of wisdom; and while proved to be the same with the Emperor it toffes, the cup and ball with infantine Yu; therefore the Chinese are a colony folly, defires the world to look on, and from Egypt.

calls the stupid pastime Philofophy and Bitt another of the learned is entirely Learning, 'Adiey.. different from the last; and he will have

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LETTER XC.

FROM THE SAME.

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HEN the men of this country tarnished coat, or pinched hat, are some

are once turned of thirty, they to receive no quarter. If they mert no regularly retire every year at proper in- foreigner however to fight with, they tervals to lie in of the spleen, The vul- are in fuch cases generally content with gar, unfurnished with the luxurious beating each other. comforts of the soft cushion, down bed, The rich, as they have more fengand easy chair, are obliged, when the fit bility, are operated upon with greater is on tiem, to nurse it up by drinking, . violence by this disorder. Different from idleness, and ill-humour. In such dif the poor, ingead of becoming more in positions, unhappy is the foreigner who Colent, they grow totally wfr for op. bappens to cross them; his long chin, position. A general here, who would

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have faced a culverih when well, if the To this he made no reply; but groans fit be on him, thall hardly find courage ing, and till holding the Aute to his to fouff a candle. An admiral, who lip, continued to gaze at me for some could have opposed a broadlfide without moments very angrily, and then pros Shrinking, thall fit whole days in his ceeded to practise his gammut as bez chamber, mobbed up in double night, fore. After having produced a variety caps, fhuddering at the intrusive breeze, of the most hideous tones in nature;. af and diftinguishable from his wife only last

, turning to me, he demanded, whe by his black beard and heavy eye ther I did not think he had made a fur brows.

prizing progress in two days ?* You In the country, this diforder moftly fee, continues he, ' I have got the attacks the fair-sex; in town it is most • Ainbusheer already; and as for finunfavourable to the men. ' A lady, gering, my master tells me, I shall who has pined whole years amidit coo have that in a few lessons more. I ing doves and complaining nightin- was so much astonished with this in gales in rural retirement, thall resume stance of inverted ambition, that I knew all her vivacity in one night at a city not what to reply, but soon discerned gaming.table; her husband who toared, the cause of all his absurdities; my kunted, and got drunk at home, thall friend was under a metamorphosis by grow fplenetic in town, in proportion to the power of Spleen, and fute-blowing his wife's good-humour. Upon their was unluckily become his adventitious arrival in London, they exchange their passion. disorders. In consequence of her par. In order, therefore, to banish his anxities and excurfions, he puts on the fur. ery imperceptibly, by seeming to in red cap and scarlet ftomacher, and per. dulge it, I began to descant on those feetly resembles an Indian husband; gloomy topics by which philosophers who, when his wife is fafely delivered, often get rid of their own (pleen, by permits her to tranfa&t business abroad, communicating it; the wretchedness of while he undergoes all the formality of a man in this life, the happiness of some keeping his bed, and receiving all the wrought out of the miseries of others, condolence in her place.

the necessity that wretches thould ex· But those who refide constantly in pire under punishment, that rogues town, owe this disorder mostly to the might enjoy affluence in tranquillity; I influence of the weather. It is impos: led him on from the inhumanity of the fible to describe what a variety of trans rich to the ingratitude of the beggar, mutations an East wind fall produce; from the insincerity of refinement to it has been known to change a lady of the fierceness of rusticity; and, at laff, Fashion into a parlour couch; an alder. had the good fortune to restore him to man into a plate of custards; and a dif- his usual serenity of temper, by permita penser of juftice into a rat-trap. Even ting him to expatiate upon all the modes philosophers themselves, are not exempt of human mifery. from it's influence ; it has often convert- • Some nights ago," says my friend, ed a poet into a coral and bells, and a • fitting alone by my fire, I happened patriot fenator into a dumb-waiter. • to look into an account of the detec

Some days ago, I went to visit the tion of a set of men oalled the Thiefman in black, and entered his house • takers. I read over the many hidewith that chearfulness which the cer. ous cruelties of those haters of mana tainty of a favourable reception always • kind, of their pretended friendship to inspires. Upon opening the door of his wretches they meant to betray, of their apartment, I found him with the most sending men out to rob, and then Tuefül face imaginable, in a morning- hanging them. I could not avoid gown and flannel night-cap, earnestly sometimes interrupting the narrative, employed in learning to blow the Ger. * by crying out " Yet these are men!" man-flute. Struck with the absurdity "As I went on, I was informed that of a mian in the decline of life thus they had lived by this practice several blowing away all his conftitution and years, and had been enriched by the fpirits, even without the confolation of price of blood. And yes, cried I, being musical, I ventured to ask whát "'I have been sent into this world, and copld induce him to attempt learning " am defired to call these men my broto difficult an instrument fo late in life. "thers !" I read, that the very man

a crown.

who led the condemned wretch to the * and frove to resume my ferenity. gallows, was he who fallely fwore his. But the watchman foon gave me a fé.

life away—“And yet," continued I, cond alarıq. I had scarcely recover" that perjurer had just such a nole, luched from this, when my peace was af

lips, such hands, and fuch eyes, as * faulred by the wind at my window; & Newton." 'I at last came to the ac- and, when that ceafed to blow, I lift.

count of the wretch that was searched "ened for death-watches in the waim after robbing one of the thief-takers **[cot. I now found my whole fyftem of half a

Those of the con- discompofed, I ftrove to find a refource federacy knew that he had got but in philosophy and reason; but what that single half-crown in the world; could I oppose,' or where direct my after Tong search, therefore, which • blow, when I could see no enemy to they knew would be fruitless, and combat? I saw no misery approachtaking from him the half-crown, which ing, nor knew any I had to fear; yet they knew was all lie had, one of the

till I was miserable. Morning came, gang, compassionately cried out- I fought for tranquillity in diffipa

Alas! poor creature, let him keep all • tion, fauntered from one place of pubthe rest he has got, it will do him ser. lic resort to another; but found my“ vice in Newgate, where we are fend- • felf disagreeable to my acquaintance,

ing hin." This was an instance of and ridiculous to others. I tried at fuch complicated guilt and hypocrisy, different times dancing, fencing, and that I threw down the book in an ago. riding; 1 solved geometrical problems, ny of rage, and began to think with shaped tobacco-ftoppers, wrote verses, malice of all the human kind. I fat and cut paper. Ai laft I placed my filent for some minutes; and foori per affections on music; and find, that ceiving the ticking of my watch be- carnest employment, if it cannot cure, ginning to grow noisy and troublesome, at leait will palliate every anxiety. I quickly placed it out of hearing,

Adieu.

LETTER. XCI.

FROM THE SAME.

I Consider une infine content on toiminto :

consider the influence which foil and we are to examine the characteristic difclimate have upon the disposition of the ferences of climate and foil; so in an inhabitants, the animals, and vegetables, estimate of the genius of the people, we of different countries. That among muft look among the sons of unpolished the brute creation is much more vifible rusticity. The vulgar English, there. than in man, and that in vegetables fore, may be easily distinguished from more than either. ' In fome places, those all the rest of the world by superior plants which are entirely poilonous at pride, impatience, and a peculiar bardihome, lote their deleterious quality by nefs of soul. being carried abroad. There are ferpents Perhaps no qualities in the world are in Niacedonia so harmless as to be used more susceptible of a fine polifh than these; as play-things for children, and we are artificial complaisance and easy deference told that, in fone parts of Fez, there being superinduced over these, generally are lions fo very timorous as to be fcar- forms a great character; something at sed away, though coming in herds, by once elegant and majestic; affable, valin. the cries of women.

cere. Such, in general, are the betterfort; I know of no country, where the in- but they who are left in primitive rudefluence of climate and soil is more visin ness, are the leaft disposed for society with ble than in England; the faine hidden others, or comfort internally, of any cause which gives courage to their dogs people under the sun. and cocks, gives also fierceness to their The poor, indeed, of every country, men. But chiefly this ferocity appears are but little prone to treat each other among the vulgar. The polite of every with tenderness; their own miferies are country pretty nearly resemble each too apt to engross all their pity; and mlier. Búrås in simpleing, it iš aiñong perhaps, too, they give but little

miferation, as they find but little from : But the greatest eulogy of this people, others. But, in England, the poor is the generosity of their miscreants, the ..treat each other upon every occafion with tenderness in general of their robbers more than favage animoấty, and as if and highwaymen, Perhaps no people - they were in a itate of open war by na- can produce instances of the same kind, - ture. In China, if two porters should where the defperatę mix pity with inmeet in a narrow street, they would lay justice; ftill. Shew that they understand down their burthens, make a thousand a diftinction in crimes, and even in acts

excoles, to each other for the accidental of violence have still some tincture of interruption, and beg pardon on their remaining virtue. In every other coun

knees; if two men of the fame occupa- try, robbery and murder go almost alozstion should meet here, they would first ways together ; here it seldom happens,

begin to fcold, and at last to beat each , except upon ill-judged resistance or purother, One would think they had mi- fuit.", The banditti of other countries .feries enough resulting from penury and are unmerciful to a supreme degree; the labour, not to enereale them by ill-na-, highwayma'n and robber here are geneture among themselves, and fubje&tion rous, at lealt, in their intercourse among to new penalties; but such contiderations” each other, Taking therefore my opi.. never weigh with them.

nion of the English from the virtues But, to recompenfe this strange abfur- and vices practised among the vulgar, dity, they are in the main generous, they at once present to a Itranger all brave, and enterprising. They feel the their faults, and keep their virtues up eflightelt, injuries with a degree of ungo. only for the enquiring eye of a philo

vernes impatience, but rehit the greatest sopher, ucalamities with surprising, fortitude. Foreigners are generally shocked at Those miseries under which any other their insolence upon first coming among people in the world would fink, they them; they find themselves ridiculed have often thewed they were capable of and insulted in every street; they meet enduring: if accidentally çast upon some with none of those triling civilities fo

defolate coaft, their perseverance is be- frequent elsewhere, which are instances 'yond what any other nation is capable of mutual good-will without previous of fustaining; if imprisoned-for crimes, acquaintance; they travel through the their efforts to escape are greater than country either too ignorant or too obamong others. The peculiar strength finate to cultivate a closer acquaintance; of their prisons, when compared to thofe meet every moment something to excite elsewhere, argues their hardinels; even , their disgult, and return home to chathe strongest prisons I have ever seen in ,racterise this as the region of spleen,

other countries, would be very infuffi- insoience, and ill-nature,' In thort, - cient to confine the untameable spirit of England would be the lak place in the an, Englishman. la mort, what man world I would travel to by way of dares do in circunstances of danger, an amulernent; but the first for instruction. Engiihman will. His virtues seem to I would chule to have others for my acsleep in the calm, and are called out quaintance, but, 'Englifnen for my fonly to combat the kindred Itorin. friends.

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TO THE SAME. HE mind is ever ingenious in mak-, ascends; he finds himself in afluence beggar, who has none to protect, to feed, loon bueeds anxiety ; qud he desires not 1 or to Naelter bin, tancies compleat hap- , only to be freed from pain, but to be

piness in labour, and a full, meal; take possessed of pleasure : pleasure is granted him from rags and want, feed, cloath, him, and this but opens his soul to amand employ him, bo wishes now rife one bition; and ambition will be sure to taint Itop above his fation s he could be hap- his future happiness either with jea. py were he posliiled of raiment, food, lousya disappointment, or fatigue. and ease. Suppose his wilhes gratified But of all the arts of distress found even in these, his profverts quidepas bedeur by man for his own torment, per

haps

haps that of philofophic misery is mof this change was to happen at fome in..
truly ridiculous 33 palfiôn no where definite time, and therefore, like death,
carried ca fo extravagant an excess, as in the thoughts of it inight easily be bornee
the country where I now refide. It is not But there is a revolution, a fixed deter-
enough to engage all the compaffion of mined revolution, which must certainly
a philofopher herethat his own globe i come to pass; yet which, by good for
is harrasted, with wars, pestilence, or: tune, I thall never feel, except in my
barbarity; he shall grieve for the inha- pofterity. The obliquity of the equa.
bitants of the moon, if the fituation of tor" with the ecliptic is now twenty
her iinagınary mountains happen to al minutes less than when it was obferved
ter; and dread the extinction of the fud, two thousand years ago by Piteas. If
if the spots on it's furface happen to en- this be the case, in fix thoufand the
crease. One fould imagine that philo- obliquity will be ftill less by a whole
Sophy was introduced to make men degree.' This being supposed, it is evi..
happy; but here it serves to make hun- dent that our earth, as Louville has
dreds miferable.

clearly proved, has a motion, by which My landlady, some days ago, brought the climates m ft necessarily change me the diary of a philosopher of this place ; and, in the space of one million deiponding fort, who had lodged in the of years, England shall a&tually travel apartment before me. It contains the to the Antarctic pole. I fhudder ac history of a life which seems to be one the change! How fhall our unhappy continued tiffue of sorrow, appreben- grandchildren endure the hideous clikon, and distress.. A single week will mate! A million of years will soon be ferve as a specimen of the whole... accomplished; they are but a moment,

when compared to eternity ; then shall MONDAY.

our charming country, as I may fay, IN what a transient decaying

situation in a moment of time, resemble the hideare we placed; and what various rea. ous wilderness of Nova Zembla. fons does philosophy furnish to make

WEDNESDAY. mankind unhappy! A single grain of muliard shall continue to produce it's

To-night, by my calculation, the Lunilitude through numberlefs fuccel long-predicted comet is to make it's firit hons; yet what has been granted to this appearance. Heavens! what terrors little feed, has been denied to our plane. are impending over our little dim fpeck tary system; the multard-feed is still of earth! Dreadful visitation! Are we unaltered, but the tyftem is growing thered in the vapour of it's tail? That

to be scorched in it's fires, or only imoold, and muit quickly fall to decay. is the question! Thoughtless mortals, How terrible will it be, when the mo. tions of all the planets have at laft become go build houses, plant orchards, pure fo irregular as to need repairing; when chafe eftates, for to-morrow you die. the moon shall fall into frightful parox. That would be equally fatal! Comets.

But what if the comer should not come! ysms of alreration; when the earth, deviating from it's ancient track, and are feryants, which periodically return with every other planet forgetting it's to supply the sun with fuel. If our fung, circular revolutions, fhall become lo ec- therefore, should be disappointed of the centric, that, unconfined by the laws of expected supply, and all his fuel be in the fyftem, it mall fly off into boundless mean time burnt out, he muit expire Space, to knock against some distant like an exhausted taper. What a miezi world, or fall in upon the sun, either serable situation must our earth be in. extinguishing his light, or burried up

without his enlivening ray! Have we by his fames in a moment! Perhaps, not seen several neighbouring funs en while I write, this dreadful change is tirely disappear? Has not a fixed ftare un begun.. Shield me from universal ruin! near the tail of the Ram, lately been Yet, idiot man laughs, fings, and

re quite extinguished? joices, in the very face of the fun, and

THURSDAY. seems no way touched with his ftua

The comet has not yet appeared; I am tion,

sorry for it: first, forry because my cal. TUESDAY,

culation is false; fecondly, forry left Went to bed in great distress, awaked the fun should want fuel; thirdly, sorry and was comforted, by considering that left the wits should laugh at our errone

ous

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