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most insidious efforts are now being put forth to remove the very foundations of Christianity. Among these is the assumption that the soul or spirit is nothing more than a result of the bodily organism, by which it is begotten, and with which it dies. Also that still more subtile figment, which resolves both soul and body into "force." So of the theories that would spread the pall of unconsciousness over the dead, that would annihilate personality,

deny recognition, and dissolve the very heaven of glory * into an airy, unsubstantial dream, by denying our essential

humanity in the future state. Against these and kindred skeptical notions we have sought to furnish an antidote, recognizing, at all times, that there can be no true Philosophy of Human Nature, without the recognition of the Bible as the true interpreter of the suggestions of reason and the teachings of nature.

At the outset we found it impossible to turn aside to discuss the theories of modern speculatists, without becoming too prolix. The same reasons have kept us to the original plan in the volume. The form of address, and the style of composition, in some portions of the work, still bear the impress of the occasion and purpose for which those parts were written. We trust it will not prove any less valuable to the reader on that account. From a wide field of reading and study we have gathered our material, and then wrought it up so as to make it our own. To how many authors we are indebted, and in what proportions, it is impossible to say. We have endeavored to acknowledge, in the appropriate places, our indebtedness to each.

The preparation of this work has been a soul-nurture to the author. May it become such to the reader!

D. W. C.

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

3

PAGE.

II. ORGANIZATION IS PRODUCED BY LIFE, AND NOT LIFE BY ORGAN-

IZATION..........

38

The life principle, 38. Concurrence between the animal and vegetable world,

38. Plastic power, 39. Omne animal ex ovo, 39. Duration of the living -

principle in the seed and the egg, 39.

III. ANTAGONISMS BETWEEN ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE LIFE............ 40

Differences evolving grander harmony, 40. Equilibrium of the atmosphere,

41. The six antagonisms, 41. Dissimilarity in the principle of life sug-

gested, 41. Vegetable life something more than a mere physical opera-

tion, 42. No organization without the antecedent

germ,

42.

IV. HIGHER ELEMENTS OF LIFE IN MAN...

42

The vegetable, animal, and human series, 42. Man's superiority not in phys-

ical organization, 42. The human body adapted to be the vehicle of spirit,

43. Mysterious union of body and soul, 43.

V. THE MODERN THEORY OF FORCE AS CONSTITUTING THE SOUL...... 43

| The soul an independent substance, 43. Essence of matter and spirit as-

sumed to be force, 44. Leibnitz and Descartes, 44. Self-developing force,

44. Morell's theory, 45. Darwin's primeval monads, 46. Huxley, 46.

“Force” and the old-fashioned theology,” 47. The process by which

these materialists reach their conclusions, 48. The anti-dualism of the

new philosophy, 48. How the universe, if an aggregate of mathematical

points, may disappear, 49.

VI. ENUMERATION OF POINTS ESTABLISHED...

49

1. We have been led to the true idea of organization, 49. 2. A just discrim-

ination has been obtained between animal and vegetable life, 50. 3. A pre-

sumption-amounting to almost absolute demonstration-is reached, from

a consideration of their respective organisms, that the living soul in man

differs widely from both vegetable and animal life, 51. 4. The subject

suggests the possible relations man may sustain to the unknown and

infinite, 51.

III.

PAGE.

body, 56.

Chemical composition of the brain, 57. Of the pineal gland, 57.

Do these elements produce the manifestation of intellect? 58.

III. The SOUL EXERTS A CONTROLLING INFLUENCE OVER THE BODY,

AND THEREFORE MUST BE SOMETHING MORE THAN A MERE RESULT OF

BODILY ORGANIZATION ............

58

Relation of force to machinery, 58. Is the mind simply force produced by

bodily machinery ? 59. Action of mind upon body, 59. Triumphs of soul

over bodily suffering in martyrdom, 60. The force and teaching of such

examples, 61.

IV. THE POWER OF THE SOUL IS OFTEN DISPROPORTIONED TO THAT OF

THE BODY, AND THEREFORE CAN NOT BE THE MERE RESULT OF

BODILY ORGANIZATION............

61

The refined physical process of materialists, 61. Triumphs of intellect in

the midst of bodily infirmities, 61. Richard Watson, 62. Talleyrand-

Dean Swift—The dying body and the intellect-Dr. Fisk-Bishop Butler's

argument, 63.

V. THE HUMAN BRAIN MAY BE DISEASED AND THE MIND REMAIN

UNAFFECTED; THEREFORE THE LATTER IS NOT A FUNCTION OF THE

FORMER....

63

Statements of anatomists, 63. Brain impaired but mind unaffected, 64.

Lady mentioned by Dr. Abercrombie, 64. The right hemisphere of the

brain diseased, 64. These examples demonstrate an independent existence

and power, 64. An organ using itself, 64. A double organ versus two

minds, 65.

VI. THE CONSCIOUS INDIVIDUALITY OF SPIRIT IN BEING AND ACTION

DEMONSTRATES THAT IT IS NOT A FUNCTION OF MATTER....... 65

Consciousness as a department of knowledge, 65. Distinct mental processes

recognized by consciousness, 65. Mental changes independent of any

physical causes,

65.

VII. THE FAILURE OF ANY MATERIAL OR CHEMICAL COMBINATION TO

PRODUCE LIFE, IS FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT MIND IS NOT A FUNC-

TION OF MATTER..............

66

Science acknowledges that no life exists without the antecedent germ, 66.

Physical elements of the body ascertained, 66. The compounding of them

fails to produce life, 66. The Promethean fire, 67.

VIII. THE STATE OF THE MIND IN DYING AFFORDS ALSO A PROOF OF

THE SOUL's SUPERIOR AND INDEPENDENT Being....

67

The soul's conscious expectation of continued life, 67. Rev. Alanson Reed,

67. Mr. Pope, 68. Boerhaave, 68. Haller, 68. Halyburton, 68. The

soul-triumph, 68.

IX. CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS.............

69

1. The soul and the body are mutually adapted to each other, 69. 2. Man is

A special device of the Creator, 69. 3. The doctrine of soul and body does

not imply that man is a dualism, 70. 4. The subject also suggests the

dignity of the spirit and the culture demanded for it, 70.

Correspondence between purely spiritual beings and material things, 71.

The senses a means of communication between embodied spirits and the

outer world, 71. Material things have a real existence, 72. What sensa-

tions are, 72. Connection between the sensuous system and the soul, 72.

The position advocated: THE BODILY SENSES, WHETHER IN THE MAN OR IN THE

ANIMAL, ARE MERELY ORGANIC INSTRUMENTS, AND, THEREFORE, ARE NOT TO BE

CONFOUNDED WITH EITHER ANIMAL LIFE OR THE INTELLIGENT SOUL............... 73

I. THE SOUL HAS A POWER OVER THE ORGANS OF SENSE TO DIRECT

THEM, AND HAS POWER ALSO TO MAKE A CHOICE AMONG THEM, THERE-

FORE THEY ARE MERE INSTRUMENTS..........

73

Twofold function of the living organism, 73. The mind the impelling force,

73. Control of the muscles and limbs, 74. Selection of senses, 74. Inter-

preting sensations, 74.

II. THAT THE ORGANS OF SENSE ARE MERE INSTRUMENTS IS PROVED

FROM THE FACT THAT ATTENTION TO THE IMPRESSION MADE UPON THE

ORGAN IS NECESSARY TO SENSATION................

74

In sensation there is a change in the state of the soul as well as in the organ,

74. Mechanical perfection of the organs of sense, 75. The mind absorbed

is dead to impressions made upon the senses, 75. Examples, 76.

III. THE MIND NOT ONLY INTERPRETS THE IMPRESSIONS MADE UPON

THE ORGANS OF SENSE, BUT HAS THE POWER OF COMPARING SENSA-

TIONS, AND THUS PERFECTING ITS KNOWLEDGE OF EXTERNAL THINGS. 76

The physical process in sensation, 76. Where the mind takes up the process,

76. Four essentials in sensation, 76. The process interrupted, 76. Atten-

tion at last, 77. Familiar example, 77. The mind comparing sensations,

77; e. g., a vase of flowers, 78; e. g., a basket of fruit, 78. Comparison be-

tween sensations, 78. The mind's arbitration, 78. The mind's function

determined, 79.

IV. THAT THE SENSES ARE MERE INSTRUMENTS OF THE SOUL IS FURTHER

PROVED FROM THE FACT THAT THE LOSS OF ONE OF THE ORGANS OF

SENSE, THOUGH IT MAY EMBARRASS OPERATIONS OF THE INTELLECT,

DOES NOT IMPAIR EITHER ITS VITALITY OR POWER...........

79

The missing saw of the carpenter, 79. The broken string of the violin, 79.

Loss of the sense of hearing, 79. Effects, 80. Acuteness of the senses re-

tained, 80. Touch,. 80. Dr. Saunderson, 80. Books for the blind, 80.

James Metcalf, 80. The problem of this acuteness solved, 81.

V. CONCLUDING REMARKS..........

81

1. The foregoing argument applies to animal life and sensation, as well as

human, 81. 2. The views here developed suggest an explanation of the

phenomena of disordered sensations, 82. 3. The influence of the mind

upon the body is easily accounted for in this connection, 85. 4. This sub-

ject also suggests that as the bodily senses are the mere instruments to be

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