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nature of heavenly bodies; because, says he, moter and preacher of it. To me it seems that his mind will become more extensive and un- the latter part of his judgment adds great confined; and when he descends to treat of weight to his opinion of St. Paul's abilities, human affairs, he will both think and write in since, under all the prejudice of opinions dia more exalted and magnificent manner. For rectly opposite, he is constrained to acknow. the same reason, that excellent master would ledge the merit of that apostle. And no doubt, bave recommended the study of those great such as Longinus describes St. Paul, such he and glorious mysteries which revelation has disappeared to the inhabitants of those countries covered to us ; to which the noblest parts of which he visited and blessed with those doc. this system of the world are as much inferior trines he was divinely commissioned to preach. as the creature is less excellent than its Creator. Sacred story gives us, in one circumstance, a The wisest and most knowing among the hea- convincing proof of his eloquence, when the thens had very poor and imperfect notions men of Lystra called him Mercury, “because of a future state. They had indeed some un- he was the chief speaker;" and would have certain hopes, either received by tradition, or paid divine worship to him, as to the god who gathered by reason, that the existence of virtu- invented and presided over eloquence. This ous men would not be determined by the sepa- one account of our apostle sets his character, ration of soul and body ; but they either dis- considered as an orator only, above all the cebelieved a future state of punishment and lebrated relations of the skill and influence of misery ; or, upon the same account that Ap- Demosthenes and his contemporaries. Their pelles painted Antigonous with one side only power in speaking was admired, but still it towards the spectator, that the loss of his eye was thought human ; their cloquence warmed might not cast a blemish upon the whole piece ; and ravished the hearers, but still it was so these represented the condition of man in thought the voice of man, not the voice of its fairest view, and endeavoured to conceal God. What advantage then had St. Paul above what they thought was a deformity to human those of Greece or Rome? I confess I can nature. I have often observed, that whenever ascribe this excellence to nothing but the the above-mentioned orator in his philosophi- power of the doctrines he delivered, which may cal discourses is led by his argument to the have still the same influence on the hearers ; mention of immortality, he seems like one which have still the power, when preached by awakened out of sleep : roused and alarmed a skilful orator, to make us break out in the with the dignity of the subject, he stretches bis same expressions as the disciples who met our imagination to conceive something uncommon, Saviour in their way to Emmaus made use of; and, with the greatness of his thoughts, casts, Did not our hearts burn within us wlien he as it were, a glory round the sentence. Un- talked to us by the way, and while he opened certain and unsettled as he was, he seems fired to us the scriptures?" I may be thougbt bold with the contemplation of it. And nothing in my judgment, by some, but I must affirm, but such a glorious prospect could have forced that no one orator has left us so visible marks so great a lover of truth as he was, to declare and footsteps of his eloquence as our apostle. his resolution never to part with his persuasion It may perhaps be wondered at, that in his of immortality, though it should be proved to reasonings upon idolatry at Athens, where elobe an erroneous one. But had he lived to see quence was born and flourished, he confines all that Christianity has brought to light, how hiinself to strict argument only; but my reader would he have lavished out all the force of may remember what many authors of the best cloquence in those noblest contemplations credit have assured us, that all attempts upon which human nature is capsble of, the resur- the affections, and strokes of oratory, were ex. rection and the judgment that follows it! How pressly forbidden, by the laws of that country, had bis breast glowed with pleasure, when the in courts of judicature. His want of eloquence whole compass of futurity lay open and ex- therefore here was the effect of his exact conposed to bis view! How would his imagina- forinity to the laws ; but his discourse on the tion have hurried him on in the pursuit of the resurrection to the Corinthians, bis harangue mysteries of the incarnation ! How would he before Agrippa upon his own conversion, and bave entered, with the force of lightning, into the necessity of that of others, are truly great, the affections of his hearers, and fixed their and may serve as full examples to those excelattention, in spite of all the opposition of cor- lent rules for the sublime, which the best of rupt nature, upon those glorious themes which critics has left us. The sum of all this dishis eloquence hath painted in such lively and course is, that our clergy have no farther to Jasting colours !

look for an example of the perfection they * . This advantage Christians have ; and it may arrive at, than to St. Paul's harangues ; was with no small pleasure I lately inet with a that when he, under the want of several adfragment of Longinus, which is preserved as vantages of nature, as he himself tells us, was a testimony of that critic's judgment, at the heard, admired and made a standard to sucbeginning of a manuscript of the New Tes-ceeding ages by the best judges of a different tament in the Vatican library. After that persuasion in religion ; I say, our clergy may author has numbered up the most celebrated learn that, however instructive their sermons orators among the Grecians, he says. “add to are, they are capable of receiving a great adthese Paul of Tarsus, the patron of an opinion dition: which St. Paul has given them a noble not yet fully proved." As a heathen, he con- example of, and the Christian religion has demns the Christian religion; and, as an im- furnished them with certain means of attain partial critic, he judges to favour of the pro-ing to.'

No. 634.] Friday, Deeember 17, 1714. Iciple that influenced them throughout the

whole series of their lives and exploits. Ales. 'Oineziotar despexos i 191TT. Ows

ander tells them, that his aim was to conquer; Socrates apud Xen.

Julius Cæsar, that his was to gain the highest The fewer our wants, the nearer we resemble the gods. post in his country ; Augustus, to govern well;

Trajan, that his was the same as that of It was the common boast of the heathen Alexander, namely, to conquer. The question, philosophers, that by the efficacy of their seve- at length, was put to Marcus Aurelius, who reral doctrines, they made human nature re- plied, with great modesty, that it had always semble the divine. How much mistaken so- been his care to imitate the gods. This con. ever they might be in the several means they duct seems to have gained him the most proposed for this end, it must be owned that votes and best place in the whole assembly. , the design was great and glorious. The finest Marcus Aurelius being afterwards asked to works of invention and imagination are of explain himself, declares that, by imitating very little weight when put in the balance the gods, be endeavoured to imitate them in with what refines and exalts the rational the use of bis understanding, and of all other mind. Longinus excuses Homer very hand- faculties; and in particular, that it was alsomely, when he says the poet made his gods ways his study to have as few wants as possilike men, that he might make his men appear ble in himself, and to do all the good he could like the gods. But it nust be allowed that to others. several of the ancient philosophers acted as Among the many methods by which revealed Cicero wishes Homer had done : they endea. religion has advanced morality, this is one, voured rather to make men like gods, than that it has given us a more just and perfect gods like men.

lidea of that Being whom every reasonable According to this general maxim in philo-creature ought to imitate. The young man, in sophy, some of them have endeavoured to a heathen comedy, might justify his lewdness place men in such a state of pleasure, or in- by the example of Jupiter; as, indeed, there dolence at least, as they vainly imagined the was scarce any crime that might not be coun. happiness of the Supreme Being to consist in. tenanced by those notions of the deity which On the other hand, the most virtuous sect of prevailed among the common people in the philosophers have created a chimerical wire heathen world. Revealed religion sets forth a man, whom they made exempt from passion proper object for imitation, in that Being who and pain, and thought it enough to pronounce is the pattern, as well as the source, of all him all-sufficient.

spiritual perfection This last character, when divested of the While we remain in this life, we are subject glare of human philosophy that surrounds it, to innumerable temptations, which, is listened signifies no more than that a good and wise to, will make us deviate from reason and good. man should so arm himself with patience, as ness, the only things wherein we can imitate not to yield'tamely to the violence of passion the Supreme Being. In the next life we meet and pain; that he should learn so to suppress with nothing to excite our inclinations that and contract his desires as to have few wants; doth not deserve them. I shall therefore dis. and that he should cherish so many virtues in miss my reader with this maxim, viz. Our his soul as to have a perpetual source of plea-happiness in this world proceeds from the supe gure in himself.

pression of our desires, but in the next world The Christian religion requires that, after from the gratification of them.' having framed the best idea we are able of the divine nature, it should be our next care to conform ourselves to it as far as our im-No. 635.] Monday, December 20, 1714. perfections will perinit. I might mention se

Sentio te sedem hominum ac domum contemplari; que veral passages in the sacred writings on this

os si tibi parvu (ut est) ita videtur, bæc cælestia semper spechead, to which I might add many maxims and tato; ila humana contemnito. wise sayings of moral authors among the

Cicero Somn. Scip. Greeks and Roinans. I shall only instance a remarkable passage,

I perceive you contemplate the seat and habitation of

men; which if it appears as little to you as it really is, fis, to this purpose, out of Julian's Cæsars.* your eyes perpetually upon heavenly objects, and despise That emperor having represented all the Ro-earthly. man emperors, with Alexander the Great, as passing in review before the gods, and striving The following esssay comes from the ingenfor the superiority, lets them all drop, ex-ious author of the letter upon novelty, printed cepting Alexander. Julius Cæsar, Augustus in a late Spectator :* the notions are drawn Cæsar, Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, and Con- from the Platouic way of thinking ; but, as stantine. Each of these great heroes of an- they contribute to raise the mind, and may intiquity lays in his claim for the upper place : spire noble sentiments of our own future granand, in order to it, sets forth his actions after deur and happiness, I think it well deserves to the most advantageous manner. But the be presented to the public. gods, instead of being dazzled with the lustre of their actions, inquire by Mercury)

| If the universe be the creature of an intelliinto the proper motive and governing prin gent mind, this mind could bave no immediate

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regard to himself in producing it. He needed (slides, and he tumbles down headlong into the not to make trial of his omnipotence to be in-grave. formed what effects were within its reach; the Thinking on this, I am obliged to believe, in world, as existing in his eternal idea, was then justice to the Creator of the world, that there as beautiful as now it is drawn forth into is another state when man shall be better situbeing ; and in the immense abyss of his es- ated for contemplation, or rather have it in sence are contained far brighter scenes than his power to remove from object to object, will be ever set forth to view ; it being impos- and from world to world ; and be accommosible that the great Author of nature should dated with senses, and other helps, for makbound his own power by giving existence to a ing the quickest and most amazing discovesystem of creatures so perfect that he cannot ries. How does such a genius as Sir Isaac improve upon it by any other exertions of his Newtoo, from amidst the darkness that inalmighty will. Between finite and infinite volves human understanding, break forth, there is an unmeasured interval, not to be fillo and appear like one of another species! The ed up in endless ages ; for which reason, the vast machine we inhabit lies open to him ; he most excellent of all God's works must be seems not unacquainted with the general laws equally short of what his power is able to pro- that govern it, and while with the transport duce as the most imperfect, and may be ex-of a philosopher he beholds and adinires the ceeded with the same ease.

glorious work, he is capable of paying at once This thought hath made some imagine (what a more devout and more rational homage to it must be confessed is not impossible) that his Maker. But, alas! how narrow is the the unfathomed space is ever teeming with prospect even of such a mind! And how ohnew births, the younger still inheriting greater scure to the compass that is taken in by the perfection than the elder. But, as this doth ken of an angel, or of a soul but newly escapnot fall within my present view, I shall con-ed from its imprisonment in the body! For tent myself with taking notice, that the con- my part, I freely indulge my soul in the confisideration now mentioned proves undeniably, dence of its future grandeur; it pleases me that the ideal worlds in the divine under- to think that I, who know so small a portion standing yield a prospect incomparably more of the works of the Creator, and with slow ample, various, and deligtful, than any cre- and painful steps creep up and down on the ated world can do: and that therefore, as it surface of this globe, shall ere long shoot is not to be supposed that God should make away with the swiftness of imagination, trace a world merely of inanimate matter, however out the hidden springs of nature's operations, diversified or inhabited only by creatures of be able to keep pace with the heavenly bodies no higher an order than brutes, so the end in the rapidity of their career, be a spectator for which he designed his reasonable offspring of the long chain of events in the natural and is the contemplation of his works, the enjoy- moral worlds, visit the several apartments of ment of himself, and in both to be happy ; the creation, know how they are furnished having, to this purpose, endowed them with and how inhabited, comprehend the order, correspondent faculties and desires. He can| and measure the magnitudes and distances of have no greater pleasure from a bare review those orbs, which to us seem disposed withof his works than from a survey of his own out any regular design, and set all in the ideas; but we may be assured that he is well same circle ; observe the dependence of the pleased in the satisfaction derived to beings parts of each system, and (if our minds are capable of it, and for whose entertainment big enough to grasp the theory) of the several he hath erected this immense theatre. Is not systems upon one another, from whence rethis more than an intimation of our immor- sults the harmony of the universe. In etertality ? Man, who, when considered as on nity, a great deal may be done of this kind. his probation for a happy existence hereafter, I find it of use to cherish this generous amis the most remarkable instance of divine wis- (bition ; for, besides the secret refreshment it dom. if we cut bim off from all relation to diffuses through my soul, it engages me in an eternity, is the most wonderful and unaccount- endeavour to improve my faculties, as well as able composition in the whole creation. He to exercise them conformably to the rank I hath capacities to lodge a much greater variety now hold among reasonable beings, and the of knowledge than he will be ever master of, hope I have of being once advanced to a more and an unsatisfied curiosity to tread the se- exalted station. cret paths of nature and providence : but, The other, and that the ultimate end of man, with this, his organs, in their present structure, is the enjoyment of God, beyond which he canare rather fitted to serve the necessities of a not form a wish. 'Dim at best are the concen. vile body; than to minister to his understand- tions we have of the Supreme Being, who, as ing; and, from the little spot to which he is it were, keeps his creatures in suspense, neither chained, he can frame but wandering guesses discovering nor hiding himself; hy which concerning the innumerable worlds of light means, the libertine hath a handle to dispute that encompass him ; which, though in them- his existence, while the most are content to selves of a prodigious bigness, do but just glim- speak him fair, but in their hearts prefer every mer in the remote spaces of the heavens : and triffing satisfaction to the favour of their Maker, when, with a great deal of time and pains, he and ridicule the good man for the singularity hath laboured a little way up the steep ascent of his choice. Will there not a time come, of truth, and beholds with pity the grovel- when the frec-thinker shall see his impious ling multitude beneath, in a moment his foot schemes overturned, and be made a convert to

the truths he hates? when deluded mortals as something analagous to the sense of seeing, shall be covinced of the folly of their pursuits ; which is the medium of our acquaintance with and the few wise, who followed the guidance of this visible world. And in some sucb way can Heaven, and, scorning the blandishments of God make himself the object of immediate insense, and the sordid bribery of the world, as- tuition to the blessed ; and as he can, it is uot pired to a celestial abode, sball stand possessed improbable that he will, always condescending. of their utmost wish in the vision of the Crea- in the circumstances of doing it, to the weak tor ? Here the inind heaves a thought now and ness and proportion of finite minds. His works then towards him, and hath some transient but faiptly reflect the image of his perfections ; glances of his presence : when in the instant it it is a second-hand knowledge : to have a just thinks itself to have the fastest hold, the ob- idea of him, it may be necessary to see him as ject eludes its expectations, and it falls back he is. But what is that? It is something tbat tired and baffled to the ground. Doubtless there never entered into the heart of man to COR . is some more perfect way of conversing with ceive ; yet, what we can easily conceive, will be heavenly beings. Are pot spirits capable ofla fountain of unspeakable and everlasting ran.

apmutual-intelligence, unless immersed in bodies. ture. All created glories will fade and die away or by their intervention 1 Must superior na-lin his presence. Perhaps it will be my happi tures depend on inferior for the main privilege ners to compare the world with the fair exemof social beings, that of conversing with and plar of it in the Divine Miod; perhaps, to view knowing each other? What would they have the original plan of those wise designs that done had matter never been created ? I sup- have been executing in a long succession of pose, not have lived in eternal solitude. As in- ages. Thus employed in finding out his works. corporeal substances are of a nobler order, so, and contemplating their Author, how shall I be sure, their manner of intercourse is answer- fall prostrate and adoring, my body swallowed ably more expedite and intimate. This method up in the immensity of matter, my mind in the of communication we call intellectual vision, infinitude of his perfections !

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ABIGAILS, (male) in fashion among the ladies

Almighty, his power over the imagination

421
Absence in conversation, a remarkable instance

Aristotle's saying of his being

- 465
of it in Will Honeycomb

Amanda, her adventures

. 375
The occasion of his absence

Ainaryllis, her character

144
And means to conquer it . .

Amazons, their commonwealth -
The character of an absent man out of Bruyere

How they educated their children

• 434
The absence of lovers, death in love
241 Their wars - - -

434
How to be made east -
211 They marry their male allies

434
Abstinence, the benefits of it
195| Ambition never satisfied.

27 256
Academy for politics -
305 The occasion of factions

125
The regulations of it

305 By what to be measured
Acasto, his agreeable character

386 Many times as hurtful to the princes who aro led
Accompts, their great usefuluess

by it, as the people

200
Acetus, his character .

Most men subject to it, .

219, 224
Acosta, his answer to Limborch, touching the mul Of use when rightly directed

219
tiplicity of ceremonies in the Jewish religion -

The end of it

- -
Acrostic, piece of false wit. divided into simple and

The effects of it in the mind

256
compound - - - - - -

Subjects us to many troubles
Act of deformity, for the use of the Ugly Club

The true object of a laudable ambition -
Action, the felicity of the soul - .

. 116 Various kinds of it .
A threefold division of our actions
- 213 Laudable -

613
No right judgment to be made of them

• 174 Americans, their opinion of souls
A necessary qualification in an orator

Exemplified in a vision of an American - .
Tuily's observations on action adaptod to the

Used painting instead of writing -

416
British theatre - - - - - 541 | Amity between agreeable porsons of different sexes
Actions, principles of, two in man

dangerous - - - - - - - 400
Actor, absent, who so called by Theophrastus 541 | Amoret the jilt reclaimed by Philander
Admiration, one of the most pleasing passions

Ample, (Lady) her uneasiness, and the reason of it 32
When turned into contempt

Amusements of life, when innocent, necessary and
Short-lived - - - -

allowable

- - - - - -
A pleasing motion of the mind
413 | Anacharsis, the Corinthian drunkard, a saying of his

569
Adversity, no evil in itself
237 Anagram, what, and when first produced -

60
Advertisement of an Italian chirurgeon

Anatomy, the Spectator's speculations on it

543
From St. Jame's coffee-house - -
24 Ancestry, how far honours is to be paid to -

612
From a gentleman that teaches birds to speak 36 Ancients in the east, their way of living

415
From another that is a fine flesh-painter

41 | Andromache, a great fox-hunter
From Mr. Sly, the haberdasher

Animals, the different make of every species

120
About the lottery ticket - -

The instinct of brutes -

12A
Advice: no order of persons too considerable to bo

Exemplified in several instances

120
advised

God himself the soul of brutes

121
In what manner to be given to a faulty friend -

The variety of arms with which they are provid-
Usually received with reluctance
512 ed by nature

121
Adulterers, how punished by primitive Christians 579 Anne Boleyn's last letter to King Henry VIII

397
Affectation, a greater enemy to a fine faco than the Annihilation, by whom desired . -

210
small-pox
- - - - - - 33 3 The most abject of wishes

210
It deforms beauty, and turns wit into absurdity | Answesrs to several letters at once

581, 619
The original of it

33 Anthony, (Mark) his witty mirth commended
Found in the wise man as well as the coxcomb

Tully

- - - - - . .
The way to get clear of it

38Antipathies, a letter about them .
The misfortune of it -

Anxieties, unnecessary, the ovil of them and the
Described .

nity of them
Affliction and sorrow not always expressed by tears 95 Apes, what women so called, and described

244
True affliction labours to be invisible

Apollo's temple on the top of Leucate, by whom
Amictions, how to be alleviated

frequented, and for what purpose

223
Age rendered ridiculous

Apothecary, his employment
Ilow contemned by the Athenians and respected Apparitions, the creation of weak minds

110
by the Spartans

Appearances, the veneration of respect paid to thom
The unnatural misunderstanding between age

in all agos

360
and youth - - - - -
153 Things not to be trusted for them -

464
The authority of an aged virtuous person prefera-

Appetites, sooner moved than the passions
ble to the pleasures of youth

1 The incumbrances of old age -
A comfortable old age tho reward of a well-spent Applause, (public) its pleasure

youth - - - - - - - - 260 1 Censure and applause should not mislead us
The authority assumed by some people on the ac April, (the first of the merriest day in the year -
count of it -

336 Month of, described
Aglaus, his story told by Cowley

610 Arabella, (Mrs.) the grout heiress, the Spectator's
Agreeable man, who
250 follow-traveller . -

132
The art of being agreeable in company
326 Verses on Arabella's singing -

443
Albacinda, her character

Araspas and Panthea, their story out of Xenophon 564
Alexander the Great, wry-necked

Architecture, the ancient's perfection in it . . 415
His artifice in his Indian expedition

Greatness of the manner how it strikes the fancy 415
His answer when asked if he would not be a com-

Of tho manner of both ancients and moderns .
petitor for the prize in the Olympic games

Concave and convex figures have the greatest air
Wherein he imitated Achillos in a piece of cruel-

Every thing that pleases the imagination in it, is
ty, and the occasion of it

337 either great, beautiful, or new
His complaint to Aristotle

379) Aretine made the princes of Europe his tributaries
Allegories, like light to a discourse

421 | Argument, rules for the management of one
Eminent writers faulty in them

Argumentum Basilinum, what
The reception the Spectator's allegorical writ-

Socrates's way of arguing
ings meet with from the public

In what manner managed by states and commu-
Allusions, the great art of a writer

nities
Vol. 11.

thority of arres of youth d of a well-spe

208

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