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to be good, when they find they shall lose no-difficulties to prove his patience and excite his thing by it.
industry. The same, if not greater labour, is First, for avarice. The miser is more in- required in the service of vice and folly as of dustrious than the saint: the pains of getting, virtue and wisdom ; and he hath this easy the fears of losing, and the inability of enjoy. choice left him-whether, with the strength ing his wealth, have been the mark of satire he is master of, he will purchase happiness or in all ages. Were his repentance upon his ne-repentance. glect of a good bargain, his sorrow for being over-reached, his hope of improving a sum, No. 625.) Friday, November 26, 1714. and his fear of falling into want, directed to their proper objects, they would make so
De tenero mediatur ungui. many different Christian graces and virtue.
Hor. Od. vi. Lib. 2. 23. He may apply to bimself a great part of| saint Paul's catalogue of sufferings. In jour
Love, from her tender years, her thoughts employ'd. neying often; in perils of waters, in perils of The love casuist hath referred to me the folrobbers, in perils among false brethren, In lowing letter of queries, with his answers to weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, leach question, for my approbation. I have acin hunger and thirst, in fastings often.'-Atcordingly considered the several matters therehow much less expense might he lay up to in contained, and hereby confirm and ratify his himself treasures in heaven! Or, if I may lanswers, and require the gentle querist to conin this place be allowed to add the sayings of form herself thereunto. a great philosopher, he may provide such possessions as fear neither arms, nor men, nor
• SIR, Jove himself.'
"I was thirteen the 9th of November last, and In the second place, if we look upon the must now begin to think of settling myself in toils of ambition in the same light, as we have the world ; and so I would humbly beg your considered those of avarice, we shall readily advice, what I must do with Mr. Fondle, who own that far less trouble is requisite to gain makes his addresses to me. He is a very pretty lasting glory, than the power and reputation man, and hath the blackest eyes and whitest of a few years; or, in other words, we may teeth you ever saw. Though he is but a younger with more ease deserve honour than obtain brother, he dresses like a man of quality, and it. The ambitious man should remember car- nobody conies into a room like him. I know dipal Wolsey's complaint, 'Had I served God he hath refused great offers, and if he cannot with the same application wherewith I served marry me, he will never have any body else. my king, he would not have forsaken me in But my father hath forbid him the house, bemy old age.' The cardinal here softens bis cause he sent me a copy of verses ; for he is ambition by the specivus pretence of serving one of the greatest wits in town. My eldest his kivg;' whereas bis words, in the proper sister, who, with her goodwill, would call me construction, imply, that, if instead of being miss as long as I live, must be married before acted* by ambition, he had been acted by me, they say. She tells them that Mr. Fondle religion, he should now have felt the comforts makes a fool of me, and will spoil the child, of it, when the whole world turned its back as she calls me, like a confident thing as she upon him.
is. In short, I am resolved to marry Mr. Thirdly, let us compare the pains of the sen-Fondle, if it be but to spite her. But because sual with those of the virtuous, and see wbich I would do nothing that is imprudent, I beg are heavier in the balance. It may seem of you to give me your apswers to some quesstrange, at the first view, that the men oftions I will write down, and desire you to get pleasure should be advised to change their them printed in the Spectator, and I do not course, because they lead a painful life. Yet doubt but you will give such advice as, I am when we see them so active and vigilant in sure, I shall follow. quest of delight ; under so many disquiets, When Mr. Fondle looks upon me for half and the sport of such various passions ; let an hour together, and calls me Angel, is he not them answer, as they can, if the pains they in love? undergo do not outweigh their enjoyments. Answer. No. The infidelities on the one part between the May not I be certain he will be a kind hustwo sexes, and the caprices on the other, the band, that has promised me half my portion in debasement of reason, the pangs of expec-pin money, and to keep me a coach and six in tation, the disappointments in possession, the the bargain ?' stings of remorse, the vanities and vexations: No. attending even the most refined delights that Whether I, who have been acquainted with make up this business of life, render it so him this whole year almost, am not a betsilly and uncomfortable, that no man is ter judge of his merit than my father and thought wise until he hath got over it, or hap-mother, who never heard him talk but at table ? py, but in proportion as he hath cleared him. No. self from it.
· Whether I am not old enough to choose for The sum of all is this. Man is made an ac- myself ?' tive being. Whether he walks in the paths of No. virtue or vice, he is sure to meet with many Whether it would not have been rude in
me to refuse a lock of his hair?'
No. ?? Actuated.
• Should not I be a very barbarous creature, 1 I HAVE seen a little work of a learned mar. if I did not pity a man who is always sigbing consisting of extemporary speculations, which for my sake ?
lowed their birth to the most Irifting occurrenNo.
ces of life. His usual method was, to write • Whether you would not advise me to run down any sudden start of thought which arose away with the poor man?'
in his mind upon the sight of any odd gesNo.
ticulation in a man, any whimsical mimickry • Whetber you do not think, that if I will not of reason in a beast, or whatever appeared have him, he will drown himself?'.
remarkable in any subject of the visible creNo.
ation. He was able to moralize upon a sout • What shall I say to him the next time he box, would flourish eloquently upon a tuckasks me if I will marry him ?'
er or a pair of ruffles, and draw practical inNo.
ferences from a full-bottomed periwig. This
I thought fit to mention, by way of excuse, The following letter requires neither intro- for my ingenious correspondent, who hath duction nor answer.
introduced the following letter by an image
which, I will beg leave to tell him, is too ridicu'MR. SPECTATOR,
lous in so serious and noble a speculation. I wonder that, in the present situation of
MR. SPECTATOR, affairs, you can take pleasure in writing any thing but news ; for, in a word, who minds When I have seen young puss playing any thing else? The pleasure of increasing her wanton gambols, and with a thousand in knowledge, and learning something new antic shapes express her own gaiety at the every hour of life, is the noblest entertain. same time that she moved mine, while the ment of a rational creature. I have a very old grannum hath set by with the most es. good ear for a secret, and am naturally of emplary gravity, unmoved at all that passed; a communicative temper ; by which means it hath made me reflect what should be I am capable of doing you great services in the occasion of humours so opposite in two this way. In order to make myself useful. I creatures, betwecn whom there was no visible am early in the anti-chamber. where trust difference but that of age : and I have been my head into the thick of the press, and able to resolve it into nothing else but the catch the news at the opening of the door. force of novelty. while it is warm. Sometimes I stand by the
In every species of creatures, those who beef-eaters, and take the buz as it passes by
br have been least time in the world appear best me. At other times I lay my ear close to the pleas
he pleased with their condition: for, besides that wall, and suck in many a valuable whisper, as to a new comer the world hath a freshoess on it runs in a straight line from corner to corner."
Fit that strikes the sense after a most agreeable When I am weary with standing. I repair to manner, being itsell unattended with any great one of the neighbouring coffee-houses, where U variety of enjoyments, excites a sensation of sit sometimes for a whole day, and have the pleasure : but, as age advances, every thing news as it comes from court fresh and fresh. seems to wither, the senses are disgusted with In short, sir, I spare no paips to know how their old entertainments, and existence turns the world goes. A pince of news loses its flat and insipid. We may see this exemplified flavour when it hath been an hour in the air. in mankind. The child let him be free from I love, if I may so speak to have it fresh pain, and gratified in his change of toys, is di. from the tree ; and to convey it to my friends verted with the smallest trifle. Nothing disbefore it is faded. Accordingly, my expenses
oses turbs the mirth of the boy but a little punishin coach-bire make no small articie : 'which ment or confinement. The youth must bave you may believe when I assure you, that I
more violent pleasures to employ bis time The post away from coffee-house to coffer-house, man loves the hurry of an active life, devoted and forestall the Evening Post by two hours.
to the pursuits of wealth or ambition. And, There is a certain gentleman, who hath given lastly, old age, having lost its capacity for these me the slip twice or thrice, and hath been
avocations, becomes its owo unsupportable burbeforehand with me at Child's. But I have then. This variety may in part be accounted played him a trick. I have purchased a pair for by the vivacity and decay of the faculties ; of the best coach-horses I could buy for mo
but I believe is chiefly owing to this, that the ney, and now let him out-strip me if he can.
longer we have been in possession of being, the Once more, Mr. Spectator, let me advise you
less sensible is the gust we have of it ; and the to deal in news. You may depend upon my mol
mümore it requires ot adventitious amusements to assistance. But I must break off abruptly, for relieve us from the satiety and weariness it I have twenty letters to write.
brings along with it. • Your's in haste,
"And as novelty is or a very powerful so THO. QUID NUNC. is it of a most extensive influence. Moralists
have long since observed it to be the source
of admiration, which lessens in proportion to No. 626.] Monday, November 29, 1714.
lour familiarity with objects, and upon a thoDulcique animos novitate tenebo.
rough acquaintance is utterly extinguished. Ooid, Met. Lib. 4. 284. But I think it hath not been so commonly reWith sweet novelty your taste I'll please.
marked, that all the other passions depend Eusden. considerably on the same circumstance.
What is it but novelty that awakens desire, not a little to the advancement of learning; enhances delight, kindles anger, provokes for, as Cicers takes notice, that which inakes envy, iospires horror? To this cause we must men willing to undergo the fatigues of philoascribe it, that love languishes with fruition. sophical disquisitions, is not so much the and friendship itself is recommended by inter- greatness of objects as their novelty. It is vals of absence: hence monsters, by use, are not enough that there is a field and game for beheld without loathing, and the most enchant. the chase, and that the understanding is ing beauty without rapture. That emotion of prompted with a restless thirst of knowledge, the spirits, in which passion consists, is usu- effectually to rouse the soul, sunk into a state ally the effect of surprise, and, as long as it of sloth and indolence; it is also necessary continues, heightens the agreeable or disa- that there be an uncommon pleasure annexed greeable qualities of its object; but as this to the first appearance of truth in the mind. emotion ceases, (and it ceases with the novel- This pleasure being exquisite for the time it ty) things appear in another light, and affect lasts, but transient, it bereby comes to pass us even less than might be expected from that the mind grows into an indifference to its their proper energy, for having moved us too former notions, and passes on after new dismuch before.
coveries, in hope of repeating the delight. It * It may not be a useless inquiry, how far is with knowledge as with wealth, the pleasure the love of novelty is the unavoidable growth of which lies more in making endless addiof nature, and in what respects it is peculiar- tions than in taking a review of our old store. ly, adapted to the present state. To me it There are some inconveniencies that follow seems impossible, that a reasonable creature this temper, if not guarded against, particushould rest absolutely satisfied in any acqusi- larly this, that through too great an eagertions whatever, without endeavouring farther; ness of something new, we are many times imfor, after its highest improvements, the mind patient of staying long enough upon a queshath an idea of an infinity of things still be- tion that requires some time to resolve it; or, hind, worth knowing to the knowledge of which is worse, persuade ourselves that we which therefore it cannot be indifferent; as are masters of the subject before we are so, by climbing up a hill in the midst of a wide only to be at the liberty of going upon a fresh plain, a man hath his prospect enlarged, and scent : in Mr. Locke's words, “ We see a together with that, the bounds of his desires. little, presume a great deal, and so jump to Upon this account. I cannot think he detracts the conclusion." from the state of the blessed, who conceives “A farther advantage of our inclination for them to be perpetually employed in fresh novelty, as at present circumstantiated, is, that searches into nature, and to eternity advanc-it annihilates all the boasted distinctions ing into the fathomless depths of the divine among mankind. Look pot up with envy to perfections. In this thought there is nothing those above thee! Sounding titles, stately but what doth honour to these glorified spi- buildings, fine gardens, gilded chariots, rich rits; provided still it be remembered, that equipages, what are they? They dazzle their desire of more proceeds not from their every one but the possessor: to him that is disrelishiog what they possess; and the plea- accustomed to them they are cheap and resure of a new enjoyment is not with them gardless things; they supply him not with measured by its novelty, (which is a thing brighter images, or more sublime satisfacmerely foreign and accidental) but by its tions, than the plain man may have, whose real intrinsic value. After an acquaintance sinall estate will just enable him to support of many thousand years with the works of the charge of a simple anencumbered life. God, the beauty and magnificence of the cre- He enters heedless into his rooms of state, ation fills them with the same pleasing won as you or I do under our poor sheds. The der and profound awe, which Adam felt him-noble paintings and costly furniture are lost self seized with as he first opened his eyes on him ; he sees them not; as how can it be upon this glorious scene. Truth captivates otherwise, when by custom a fabric infinitely with unborrowed cbarms, and whatever hath more grand and finished, that of the universe, once given satisfaction will always do it. In stands unobserved by the inhabitants, and the all which they have manifestly the advantage everlasting lamps of heaven are lighted up in of us, who are so much governed by sickly vain, for any notice that mortals take of them? and changeable appetites, that we can with Thanks to indulgent nature, which not only the greatest coldness behold the stupendous placed her children originally upon a level, displays of Omnipotence, and be in trans- but still, by the strength of this principle, in a ports at the puny essays of human skill; great measure preserves it, in spite of all the throw aside speculations of the sublimest na- care of man to introduce artificial distinctions. ture and vastest importance into some obscure "To add no more-is not this fondness for corner of the mind, to make room for new novelty, wbich makes us out of conceit witb notions of no consequence at all; are even all we already have, a convincing proof of a tired of health, because not enlivened with al. future state ? Either man was made in vain, ternate pain ; and prefer the first reading of or this is not the only world he was made for : an indifferent author to the second or third for there cannot be a greater instance of vaperusal of one whose merit and reputation nity than that to which man is liable, to be are established.
. deluded from the cradle to the grave with Our being thus formed serves many useful fleeting shadows of happiness. His pleasures, purposes in the present state. It contributes and those not considerable neither, die in the possession, and fresh enjoyments do not rise I have dressed up every hedge in woodbines, fast enough to fill up half his life with satis- sprinkled bowers and arbours in every corner, faction. When I see persons sick of them. and made a little paradise around me : yet I selves any longer than they are called away am still like the first man in bis solitude, but by something that is of force to chain down half blessed without a partner in my happithe present thought; when I see them hurry Dess. I bave directed one walk to be made from country to town, and then from the town for two persons, where I promise ten thousand back again into the country, continually shift- satis actions to myself in your conversation. I ing postures, and placing life in all the differ already take my evening's turn in it, and have ent lights they can think of; “ Surely," say I worn a path upon the edge of this little alley, to myself,“ life is vain, and the man beyond while I soothed myself with the thought of your expression stupid, or prejudiced, who froin walking by my side. I have held many ima the vanity of life cannot gather that he is ginary discourses with you in this retirement; designed for immortality."
and when I have been weary, have sat down
with you in the midst of a row of jessamines. No. 627.] Wednesday, December 1, 1714.
The many expressions of joy and rapture I
use in these silent conversations have made Tantum inter densas umbrosa cacumina fagos
me, for some time, the talk of the parish; but Assidue veniebat; ibi haec incondita solus Montibus et sylvis studio jactabat inani.
a neighbouring young fellow, who makes love
Virg. Ecl. ii. 3. to the farmer's daughter, hath found me out, Ho, underneath the beaten shade, alone,
and made my case known to the whole neighThus to the woods and mountains made his moan.
Dryden. | “In planting of the fruit trees, I have not The following account, which came to my
forgot the peach you are so food of. I have hands some time ago, may be no disagreeable
made a walk of elms along the river side, and entertainment to such of my readers as have
intend to sow all the place about with cowlips,
which I hope you will like as well as that I tender hearts, and nothing to do.
have heard you talk of by your father's house "MR. SPECTATOR,
in the country. • A friend of mine died of a fever last week.J “Oh! Zelinda, what a scheme of delight which he caught by walking too late in a dewy have I drawn up in my imagination! What evening amongst his reapers. I must inform day-dreams do I indulge myself in! When will you that bis greatest pleasure was in husban- the six weeks be at an end, that lie between dry and gardening He had some huumours me and my promised bappiness. which seemed inconsistent with that good “How could you break off so abruptly in sense he was otherwise master of. His unea- your last, and tell me you must go and dress siness in the company of women was very re- for the play ? If you loved as I do, you would markable in a man of such perfect good- find no more company in a crowd tban I have breeding; and his avoiding one particular in my solitude. walk in his garden, where he had used to pass
“I am, &c." the greatest part of his time, raised abundance On the back of this letter is written, in the of idle conjectures in the village where he liv- hand of the deceased, the following piece of ed. Upon looking over his papers we found history : out the reason, which he never intimated to "Mem. Having waited a whole week for an his nearest friends. He was, it seems, a pas-answer to this letter, I hurried to town, where sionate lover in his youth, of which a large I found the perfidious creature married to my parcel of letters he left behind him are a wit- rival. I will bear it as becomes a man, and ness. I send you a copy of the last he ever endeavour to find out happiness for myself in wrote upon that subject, by which you will that retirement which I had prepared in vain find that he concealed the true name of his for a false, uugrateful woman.' mistress under that of Zelinda.
1 am, &c.” “ A long month's absence would be insupportable to me, if the business I am employed No. 628.] Friday, December 3. 1714. in were not for the service of my Zelinda, and of such a nature as to place her every moment Labitur et labetur in o
Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis xvum. in my mind. I have furnished the house ex
Hor. Ep. ü. Lib. 1. 13. actly according to your fancy, or, if you
It rolls, and rolls, and will forever roll. please, my own; for I have long since learned 'MR. SPECTATOR, to like nothing but what you do. The apart There are none of your speculations which ment designed for your use is so exact a copy please me more than those upon infinitude and of that wbich you live in, that I often think eternity. You have already considered that myself in your house when I step into it, but part of eternity which is past, and I wish you sigh when I find it without its proper inhabit- would give us your thoughts upon that which ant. You will have the most delicious pros. is to come. pect from your closet window that England • Your readers will perhaps receive greater affords: I am sure I should think it so, if the pleasure from this view of eternity than the landscape that shows such variety did not at former, since we have every one of us a conthe same time suggest to me the greatness of cern in that which is to come : whereas a the space that lies between us.
speculation on that which is past is rather clie " The gardens are laid out very beautifully ; rious than useful,
* Besides, we can easily conceive it possible! Si quod gubernet nunen humanum genus, for successive duration never to have an end ; (At, quod gubernet, esse clamant omnia)
Virtute non gaudere certe non potest : though, as you have justly observed, that eter
Nec esse non beata, qua gaudet, potest. nity which never had a beginning is altogether Sed quâ beata sede ? Quove in tempore ! incomprehensible ; that is, we can conceive Haec quanta terra, tota est Caesaris. an eternal duration which may be, though we
Quid dubious hæret animus usque adeo ? Brevi
Hic nodum hic omnem expediet. Arma en induor. cannot an eternal duration which hath been ;
Ensi manum admovens. or, if I may use the philosophical terms, we In utramque partem facta; qusque vim inferant, may apprehend a potential though not an act Et que propulsout! Dextera intentat necem ;
Vitam sinistra: vulnus hæc dabit manus; ual eternity.
Altera medelam vulneris: hic ad exitum This notion of a future eternity, which is
Deducet, ictu simplici; hæc vetant mori. natural to the mind of man, is an unanswera Secura ridet anima mucronis minas, ble argument that he is a being designed for Ensesque strictos, interire nescia.
Extinguet atas sidera diuturnior: it ; especially if we consider that he is capable
Ætate languens ipsu sol obscurius of being virtuous or vicious here; that he
Emittet orbi consenescenti jubar : bath faculties improvable to all eternity ; and, Natura et ipsa seotient quondam vices
Ætatis ; annis ipsa deficient gravis: by a proper or wrong employment of them,
At tibi juventus, at tibi immortalitas : may be happy or miserable throughout that in
Tibi parta divům est vita. Periment mutuis finite duration. Our idea indeed of this eter Elementa sese et interibut ictibus. nity is not of an adequate or fixed nature, but Tu permanebis sola semper integra,
Tu cuncta rerum quassa, cuncta paufraga, is perpetually growing and enlarging itself to
Jarn portu in ipso tuta, contemplabere. ward the object, which is too big for human
Coinpage ruptà, corruent in se invicem, comprehension. As we are now in the begin Orbesque fractis ingerentur orbibus; nings of existence, so shall we always appear
Illæsa tu sedebis extra fragmina.' to ourselves as if we were for ever entering
ACT V. SCENE I. upon it. After a million or two of centuries,
CATO alone, &c. some considerable things, already past, may
It must be so----Plato, tbou reason'st well slip out of our memory, which if it be not
Else whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire, strengthed in a wonderful manner, inay possi
This longing after immortality ?
Or whence this secret dread, and inward horror, bly forget that ever there was a sun or planets
Of falling into nought? Why shrinks the soul and yet, notwithstanding the long race that
Back on herself, and startles at destruction ? we shall then have run, we shall still imagine "Tis the divinity that stirs within us; ourselves just starting from the goal, and find "Tin Heaven itself that points out an hereafter,
And intimates eternity to man. no proportion between that space which we
Eternity: thou pleasing, dreadful thought! know had a beginning, and what we are sure will never have an end.
• Through what variety of untry'd being,
Through what new scenes and changes must we pass * But I shall leave this subject to your man
The wide, th'unbounded prospect lies before me; agement, and question not but you will throw But shadows, clouds, and darkness, rest upon it. it into such lights as shall at ones improve and
Here will I hold. If there's a Power above us,
(And that there is all Nature cries aloud entertain your reader.
Through all her works), he must delight in virtue. I have, enclosed, sent you a translation*
And that which he delights in must be happy. of the speech of Cato on this occasion, which But when, or where?--This world was made for Cæsar, hath accidentally fallen into my hands, and I'm weary of conjectures-This must end them.
(Laying his han on his sword. which, for conciseness, purity, and elegance
Thus am I doubly arm'd; my death and life, of phrase, cannot be sufficiently admired. My bane and antidote, are both before mo.
This in a moment bring me to an end;
But this informs me I shall never die.
The soul, secur'd in her existence, smiles
At the drawn dagger, and defes its point. • Sic, sic so habere rem nocence prorsus est,
The stars shall fade away, the sun himself Ratione vincis, dollubensjmanus, Plato.
Grow dimn with age, and nature sink in years; Quid enim dedisset, quæ dedit frustra nihil,
But thou shalt flourish in immortal youth, Æternitatis insitam cupidinem
Unburt amidst the war of elements,
The wrecks of matter and the crush of worlds.'
No. 629.] Monday, December 6, 1714,
Experiar quid consedatur in illos, Attonita, quoties, morte ne pereat, timet?
Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis, atque Latina, Particula nempe est cuique nascenti indita .
Juv. Sat. j. 170. Divinior; quæ corpus incolons agit ;. Hominique succinit, tua est æternitas.
Since none the living dare implead Æternitas! O lubricum nipis aspici,
Arraign them in the persons of the dead. Dryden. Mixtumque dulci gaudium formidine!
Next to the people who want a place, there "Quæ deinigrabitur alia hinc in corpora ?
are none to be pitied more than those who are Quæ terra mox incognita ? Quis orbis novus
solicited for one. A plain answer with a deniManet incolendue? Quanta erit mutatio ? Hæc intuenti ypatia mihi quaqua patent
al in it is looked upon as pride, and a civil anImmensa: sed caligiuosa nox premit:
swer as a promise. Nec luce clarà vult videri singula.
Nothing is more ridiculous than the pretenFigendus hic pes ; certa sunt hæc hactonus :
sions of people upon these occasions. Every
thing a man hath suffered, whilst his enemies * This translation was by Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Bland, Once schoolmaster, theu provost of Eton, and dean of were in play, was certainly brought about by Durham,
the malice of the opposite party. A bad cause