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tlements ; so that all my amours have hitherto who is also very pretty. Now I assure you, been with ladies who had no fortunes : but Mr. Spectator, this did not proceed from any I know not how to give you so good an idea real affection I had conceived for her: but, of me, as by laying before you the history of being a perfect stranger to the conversation of my life.

men, and strongly addicted to associate with I can very well remember, that at my the women, I knew no other language but that school-mistress's, whepever we broke up, I of love. I should however be very much obliged was always for joining inyself with the miss to you if you could free ine from the perplexity who lay-in, and was constantly one of the I am at present in. I have sent word to my first to make a party in the play of Husband old gentleman in the country, that I am despeand Wife. This passion for being well with rately in love with the younger sister ; and her the females still increased as I advanced in father, who knew no better, poor man, acyears. At the dancing-school I contracted so quainted bim by the same post, that I had for many quarrels by struggling with my fellow some time made my addresses to the elder. scholars for the partner I liked best, that upon Upon this old Testy sends me up word, that he a ball-night, before our mothers made their has heard so much of my exploits, that he inappearance, I was usually up to the nose in tends immediately to order me to the South-sea. blood. My father, like a discreet man, soon re-Sir, I have occasionally talked so much of dy. moved me from this stage of softness to a school ing, that I begin to think there is not much in of discipline, where I learnt Latin and Greek, it, and if the old 'squire persists in his design, I underwent several severities in this place, un- I do hereby give him notice that I am providing til it was thought convenient to send me to myself with proper instruments for the destructhe university : though to confess the truth, tion of despairing lovers : let him therefore I should not have arrived so early at that seat look to it, and consider that by his obstinacy of learning, but from the discovery of an in- he may himself lose the son of his strength, the trigue between me and my master's house- world an hopeful lawyer, iny mistress a paskeeper ; upon whom I had employed my rhe- sionate lover, and you, Mr. Spectator, toric so effectually, that, though she was a

Your constant admirer, very elderly lady, I had almost brought her

* JEREMY LOVEMORE.' to consent to marry me. Upon my arrival at Oxford, I found logic so dry, that, instead of giving attention to the dead, I soon fell to N addressing the living. My first amour was

- Mens sjne pondere ludit.

Petr. with a pretty girl whom I shall call Parthenope: her mother sold ale by the town-wall. | The mind uncuinber'd plays.

Being often caught there by the proctor, I was forced at last, that my mistress's reputa- SINCE I received my friend Shadow's letter. tion might receive no blemish, to confess my several of my correspondents have been pleased addresses were honourable. Upon this I was to send me an account how they have been immediately seót home ; but Parthenope soon employed in sleep, and what notable adventures after marrying a shoe-maker. I was again they have been engaged in during that moonsuffered to return. My next affair was with shine in the brain. I shall lay before my rea. my tailor's daughter, who deserted me for the ders an abridgment of some few of their exsake of a young barber. Upon my complain-travagances, in hopes that they will in time Ing to one of my particular friends of this accustom themselves to dream a little more to misfortune, the cruel wag made a mere jest of the purpose.. my calamity, and asked me, with a smile.! One, who styles himself Gladio, complains where the needle should turn but to the pole ? * heavily that his fair-one charges him with inAfter this I was deeply in love with a milliner, constancy, and does not use him with half the and at last with my bed-maker; upon which I kindness which the sincerity of his passion may was sent away, or, in the university phrase. I demand ; the said Gladio having by valour and rusticated for ever.

stratagem, put to death tyrants, enchanters, Upon my coming home, I settled to my monsters, knights, &c. without number, and studies so beartily, and contracted so great a exposed himself to all manner of dangers for reservedness by being kept from the company

her sake and safety. He desires in his postI most affected, that my father thought he

script to know whether, from a constant sucinight'venture me at the Temple.

cess in them, he may not promise himself to . Within a week after my arrival I began to succeed in her esteem at last. shine again, and became enamoured with a Another, who is very prolix in his narrative, mighty pretty creature, who had every thing writes me word, that having sent a venture bebut money to recommend her. Having fre-yond sea, he took occasion one night to fancy quent opportunities of uttering all the soft himself gone along with it, and grown on a sudthings which an heart formed for love could den the richest man in all the Indies. Having inspire me with, I soon gained her consent been there about a year or two, a gust of wind to treat of marriage; hut, unfortunately for that forced open his casement, blew him over * us all, in the absence of my charmer I usually to his native country again, where, awaking at talked the same language to her eldest sister, six o'clock, and the change of the air not a.

greeing with him he turned to his left side in *A pole was the common sign of a barber's shop. It is order to a second voyage ; but before he could bow seldom seen in the pretropolis.

get on ship-board was unfortunately apprehended for stealing a horse, tried and condemn- in the morning, bis Imperial Vajesty was de. ed for the fact, and in a fair way of being ex- posed by a chimney-sweeper. ecuted, if somebody stepping hastily into his On the other hand, I have epistolary testichamber had not bronght him a reprieve. This monies of gratitude from many miserable peofellow too wants Mr. Shadow's advice; who, 1 ple, who owe to this clamorous tribe frequent Jare say, would bid bim be content to rise afdeliverances from great misfortunes. A smallter his first nap, and learn to be satisfied as soon coal-inan, by waking one of these distressed as nature is.

gentlemen,saved him from ten years imprisonThe next is a public-spirited gentleman, who ment. An bonest watchman, bidding a loud tells me, that on the second of Sepsember, at good-morrow to another, freed him from the night, the whole city was on fire, and would walice of many potent encmies, and brought certainly bave been reduced to ashes again by all their designs against him to nothing. A this time, if he had not flowo over it with the certain valetudinarian confessed he has often New River on his back, aud happily extin- been cured of a sore-throat by the hoarseness guished the flames before they had prevailed too of a carman, and relieved from a fit of the gout far. He would be informed whether he has by the sound of old shoes. A noisy puppy,that not a righe to petition the lord mayor and al- plagued a sober gentleman all night long with dermen for a reward.

bis impertinence, was silenced by a cinderA letter, dated September the ninth, acquaints wench with a word speaking. me, that the writer, being resolved to try his Instead therefore of suppressing this order of fortune, had fasted all that day ; and, that he mortals, I would propose it to my readers to Inight be sure of dreaming upon something at make the best advantage of their morning sanight, procured a handsome slice of bride-cake, lutations. A famous Macedonian prince, for which he placed very conveniently under his fear of forgetting himself in the midst of his pillow. In the morning his memory hap- good fortune, had a youth to wait on him every pened to fail him, and he could recollect no- morning, and bid him remember that he was a thing but an odd fancy that he had eaten bis man. A citizen, who is waked by one of these cale; which being found upon search reducedcriers, may regard him as a kind of repemto a few crumbs, he is resolved to remember brancer, come to admonish him that it is time more of his dreams another time, believing to return to the circumstances he has overfrom this that there may possibly be somewhat looked all the night time, to leave off fancying of truth in them.

himself what he is not, and prepare to act soitaI have received numerous complaints from bly to the condition he is really placed in. several delicious dreamers, desiring ine to in- People may dream on as long as they please, vent some method of silencing those noisy but I shall take no notice of any imaginary adslaves, whose occupations lead them to take ventures that do not happen while the sun is their early rounds about the city in a morning, on this side the horizon. For which reason I doing a deal of mischief, and working strange stifle Fritilla's dream at church last Sunday, confusion in the affairs of its inhabitants. Se who, while the rest of the audience were enveral monarchs have done me the honour to joying the benefit of an excellent discourse, was acquaint me how often they have been shook losing her money and jewels to a gentleman at from their respective thrones by the rattling play, until after a strange run of ill-luck she of a coach, or the ruinbling of a wheelbarrow. was reduced to pawn three lovely pretry chilAnd many private gentlemen, I find, have been dren for her last stake. When she had thrown bawled out of vast estates by fellows not worth them away, her companion went off, discoverthree-pence. A fair lady was just on the pointing himself by his usual tokens, a cloven foot of being married to a young, handsome, rich, and a strong smell of brimstone, which last ingenious nobleman, when an impertinent tin-proved a bottle of spirits, which a good old laker passing by, forbid the bans; and an hope- dy applied to her nose, to put her in a condition ful youth who had been newly advanced to of hearing the preacher's third head concerngreat honour and preferment, was forced by a ing time. neighbouring cobbler to resign all for an old sf a man has no mind to pass abruptly from song. It has been represented to me that those his imagined to his real circumstances, he may inconsiderable rascals do nothing but go about employ himself a while in that new kind of obdissolving of marriages, and spoiling of for- servation which my oneirocritial correspontunes, impoverishing ricb, and ruining great dent has directed him to make of bimself. Purpeople, interrupting beauties in the midst of suing the imagination through all its axtravatheir conquests, and generals in the course of gancies, whether in sleeping or waking, is no their victories A boisterous peripatetic hardly improper method of correcting and bringing it goes through a street without waking half a to act in subordination to reason, so as to be dozen kings and princes, to open their shops or delighted only with such objects as will affect clean shoes, frequently transforming sceptres it with pleasure when it is never so cool and into paring-shovels, and proclamations into sedate. bills. I have by me a letter from a young statesman, who in five or six hours came to be emperor of Europe, after which he made war No. 598.] Friday, September 24, 1714. upon the Great Turk, routed him horse and foot, and was crowned lord of the universe in Jamne igitur laudas, quod de sapientibus alter

Ridebat, quoties d limine inoverat unuin Constantinople : the conclusion of all his suc

Protuleratque pedom: flebat contrarius alter ? cesses is, that on the 12th instant, about seven

Jät. Sat. X. 32.

11

Will ye not now the pair of sages praise,

into this cave. It was usual in those times, Who the same ond pursu'd bvscveral ways 3

when any one carried a more than ordinary One pity'd, one condemned, the woful times One laugh'd at follies, one lamented crimes.

gloominess in his features, to tell him that he Dryden. looked like one just come out of Trophonius's

cave. MANKIND inay be divided into the merry and On the other hand, writers of a more merry the serious, who both of them make a very good complexion have been no less severe on the figure in the species so long as they keep their lopposite party : and have had one advantage respective humours from degenerating into the above them, that they have attacked them neighbouring extreinc ; there being a natural with more turns of wit and humour. tendency in the one to a inelazicholy morose. After all, if a man's temper were at his own ness, and in the other to a fantastic levity. disposal, I think he would not choose to be of

The merry part of the world are very amiable, leither of these parties : since the most perfect while they diffuse a cheerfulness through con- character is that which is formed out of both versation at proper seasons and on proper occa of them. A man would neither choose to be sions ; but, on the contrary, a great grievance a hermit nor a buffoon ; human nature is not to society when they infect every discourse with so miserable. as that we should be always insipid mirth, and turn into ridicule such sub-melancholy: nor so happy as that we should jects as are not suited to it. For though laugh- he always merry. In a word, a man should ter is looked upon by the philosophers as the not live as if there was no God in the world. property of reason, the excess of it has been nor. at the same time, as if there were no always considered as the mark of folly.

men in it. On the other side, seriousness has its beauty whilst it is attended with cheerfulness and humanity, and does not come in unseasonably to No. 599.) Monday, September 27, 1714. pall the good humour of those with whom we converse.

--Ubique These two sets of men, notwithstanding they

Luctus, ubique pavor. Virg. Æn. ii. 369. each of them shine in their respective charac

1 All parts resound with tumults, plaints, and fears ters, are apt to bear a natural aversion and an

Dryden. tipathy to one another.

What is more usual than to hear men of sc. It has been my custom, as I grow old, to rious tempers, and austere morals, enlarging allow myself some little indulgencies, which upon the vanities and follies of the young and I never took in my youth. Among others is gay part of the species, while they look with a that of an afternoon's nap, which I fell into kind of horror upon such pomps and diversions in the fifty-fifth year of my age, and have conas are innocent in themselves, and only culpable tinued for the three last years past. By this when they draw the mind too much?. means I enjoy a double morning, and" rise

I could not but smile upon reading a passage twice a day fresh to my speculations. It hap. in the account which Mr. Baxter gives of his pens very luckily for ine, that some of my own life, wherein he represents it as a great dreams have proved instructive to my counblessing that in his youth he very narrowly es- trymen, so that I may be said to sleep, as well caped getting a place at court.

as to wake, for the good of the public. I was It must indeed be confessed that levity of yesterday meditating on the account with temper takes a man off his guard, and opens a which I have already entertained my reader3 pass to his soul for any temptation that assaults concerning the cave of Trophonius. I was no it. It favours all the approaches of vice, and sooner fallen into my usual slumber, but I weakens all the resistance of virtue : for which dreamed that this cave' was put into my posreason a renowned statesman in queen Eliza-session, and that I gave public notice of its abeth's days, after having retired from court virtue, inviting every one to it who had a mind and public business, in order to give himself up to be a serious man for the remaining part of to the duties of religion, when any of his old his life. Great multitudes immediately resortfriends used to visit him, had still this word of ed to me. The first who made the experiment advice in his mouth, 'Be serious.'

was a Merry-andrew, who was put into my hand An eminent Italian author of this cast of by a neighbouring justice of peace, in order to mind, speaking of the great advantage of a reclaim him from that profligate kind of life. serious and composed temper, wishes very Poor Pickle-herring had not taken above one gravely, that for the benefit of mankind he had turn in it, when he came out of the cave, like Trophonius's cave in his possession ; which, a hermit from his cell, with a penitential look says he, would contribute more to the reform- and a most rueful countenance. I then put ation of manner than all the workhouses and in a young laughing fop, and, watching for bridewells in Europe.

This return, asked him, with a smile, how he We have a very particular description of this liked the place ? He replied, 'Pr'ythee, friend, cave in Pausanias, who tells us that it was be not impertinent;' and stalked by me as made in the form of a huge oven, and had grave as a judge. A citizen then desired me many particular circumstances, which dis-to give free ingress and egress to his wife who posed the person who was in it to be more was dressed in the gayest coloured ribands I pensive and thoughtful than ordinary; inso- had ever seen. She went in with a flirt of much, that no man was ever observed to laugh her fan and a smirking countenance, but came all his life after, who hrad once made his entry lout with the severity of a vestal; and thrown ing from her several female gewgaws, told/ terrupted the old lady, and taking her daughter ine, with a sigh, that she resolved to go into by the hand, · Madam,' said I, .be pleased to deep mourning, and to wear black all the retire into my closet while your mother tells rest of her life. As I had many coqueties re- me your case.' I then put her into the mouth commended to me by their parents, their hus- of the cave; when the mother, after baring bands, and their lovers, I let them in all at begged pardon for the girl's rudeness, told me once, desiring them to divert themselves toge that she had often treated her father and tbe ther, as well as they could. Upon their emerg- gravest of her relations in the same manner; ing again into day-light, you would have fan- that she would sit giggling and laughing with ried my cave to have been a puunery, and her companions from one end of a tragedy to that you had seen a solemn procession of re- the other ; nay, that she would sometimes ligious marching out, one behind another, in burst out in the middle of a sermon, and the most profound silence and the most ex. set the whole congregation a staring at her, emplary decency. As I was very much de-The mother was going on. When the roun lighted with so edifying a sight, there came lady came out of the cave to us with a comtowards rae a great company of males and fe- posed countenance and a low courtesy. She males, laughing, singing, and dancing, in such was a girl of such exuberant mirth that ber a manner, that I could hear them a great while visit to Trophonius only reduced her to a more before I saw theun. Upon my asking their lea- than ordinary decency of behaviour, and made der what brought them thither ? they told me a very pretty prude of her. After having perall at once that they were French protestants formed innumerable cures, I looked about me lately arrived in Great Britain, and that find- with great satisfaction, and saw all my paing themselves of too gay a humour for my tients walking by themselves in a very pensive country, they applied themselves to me in or- and musing posture, so that the whole space der to compose them for British conversation. seemed covered with philosophers. I was at I told them that, to oblige tiem, I would soon length resolved to go into the cave myself, spoil their mirth; upon which I adınitted a and see what it was that had produced such whole shoal of thein, who after having taken wonderful effects upon the company ; but as a survey of the place, came out in very good I was stooping at the entrance, the door being order, and with looks entirely English. I af- somewhat low, I gave such a nod in my chair terwards put in a Dutchman, who had a great that I awaked. After having recovered myself fancy to see the kelder, as he called it; but I from my first startle, I was very well pleased could not observe that I had made any alter- at the accident which had befallen me, as not ation in him.

knowing but a little stay in the place might A comedian, who had gained great reputa-have spoiled my Spectators. tion in parts of humour, told me that he had a mighty mind to act Alexander the Great, and fancied that he should succeed very well No. 600.) Wednesday, September 29, 1714. in it if he could strike two or three laughing

Solemque suum, sua sidera nôrunt. features out of his face. He tried the expe

Virg. En. vi. 61. riment, but contracted so very solid a look by it, that I am afraid he will be fit for no part! Stars of their own, and their own suns they know.

Dryder hereafter but a Timon of Athens, or a Mute in The F:ineral.

| I HAVE always taken a particular pleasure I then clapped up an empty fantastic citizen, l in examining the opinions which men of difin order to qualify him for an alderman. He ferent religions, different ages, and different was succeeded by a young rake of the Middle countries, have entertained concerning the Temple, who was brought to me by his grand- immortality of the soul, and the state of hap. mother; but, to her great sorrow and surprise, 'piness which they promise themselves in ano. he came out a quaker. Seeing myself sur-liher world for, whatever prejudices and rounded with a body of freethinkers and scoffers errors human nature lies under. we find at religion, who were making themselves merry that either reason, or tradition from our at the sober looks and thoughtful brows of first parents, has discovered to all people those who had been in the cave. I thrust

us something in these great points which bears them all in, one after another, and locked the

the analogy to truth, and to the doctrines opened door upon them. Upon my opening it, they liousi

my opening it, they to us by divine revelation. I was lately dis. all looked as if they had been frightened out coursing on this subject with a learned perof their wits, and were marching away with

son who has been very much conversant ropes in their hands to a wood that was within lamong the inhabitants of the more western sight of the place. I found they were not parts or Africa." Upon his conversing with able to bear themselves in their first serious

nous several in that country, he tells me that thoughts ; but, knowing these would quickly their notion of heaven or of a future state bring them to a better frame of mind, I gave of happiness is this. that everything we them into the custody of their friends until that the

that there wish for will immediately present itself happy change was wrought in them.

to us. We find, say they, our souls are of The last that was brought to me was a young such a nature that they require variety, and woman, who at the first sight of my short face fell into an immoderate fit of laughter, and

• Addison's father. dean Lancelot Addison, who prab was forced to hold her sides all the while here

lished an account of West Barbary, &c. he died in 1903, mother was speaking to me. I'pon this I in- aged 71.

are not capable of being always delighted impossible, according to the opinions of many with the same objects. The Supreme Being, eminent divines, but there may be new faculties therefore, in compliance with this taste of in the souls of good men made perfect, as well happiness which he has planted in the soul as new senses, in their glorified bodies. This of man, will raise up from time to time, say we are sure of, that there will be new objects they, every gratification hich it is in the offered to all those faculties which are essenhumour to be pleased with. If we wish to tial to us. he in groves or bowers, among running We are likewise to take notice that every streams, or falls of water. we shall imme-particular faculty is capable of being employdiately find ourselves in the midst of such led on a very great variety of objects. The a scene as we desire. If we would be en-understanding, for example, may be happy tertained with music and the melody or in the contemplation of moral, natural, mathesounds, the concert arises upon our wish, matical, and other kinds of truth. The meand the whole region about us is filled with mory likewise may turn itself to an infinite harmony. In short, every desire will be fol- multitude of objects, especially when the soul lowed by fruition; and whatever a man's incli- shall have passed through the space of many nation directs himn to will be present with him. millions of years, and shall reflect with pleqNor is it material whether the Supreme Power sure on the days of eternity. Every other creates in conformity to our wishes, or whether faculty may be considered in the same extent. he only produces such a change in our imagi- We cannot question but that the happiness nation as makes us believe ourselves conver- of a soul will be adequate to its nature; and sant among those scenes which delight us. that it is not endowed with any faculties which Our happiness will be the same, whether it are to lie useless and unemployed. The happroceed from external objects, or from the im- piness is to be the happiness of the whole pressions of the Deity upon our own private man; and we may easily conceive to ourfancies. This is the account which I have re- selves the happiness of the soul, while any ceived from my learned friend. Notwithstand one of its faculties is in the fruition of its chief ing this system of belief be in general very good. The happiness may be of a more exchimerical and visionary, there is something alted nature in proportion as the faculty emsublime in its manner of considering the influ- ployed is so : but, as the whole soul acts in ence of a Divine Being on a human soul. It the exertion of any of its particular powers, has also, like most other opinions of the hea- the whole soul is happy in the pleasure which then world upon these important points ; it arises from any of its particular acts. For, has, I say, its foundation in truth, as it sup- notwithstanding, as has been before hinted, poses the souls of good men after this life to and as it has been taken notice of by one of be in a state of perfect happiness; that in this the greatest modern philosophers,* we divide state there will be no barren hopes, nor fruitless the soul into several powers and faculties, wishes, and that we shall enjoy every thing there is no such division in the soul itself, we can desire. But the particular circum- since it is the whole soul that remembers, unstance which I am inost pleased with inf this derstands, wills, or imagines. Our manner scheme, and which arises from a just reflection of considering the memory, understanding, upon human nature, is that variety of plea- will, imagination, and the like faculties, is for sures which it supposes the souls of good men the better enabling us to express ourselves will be possessed of in another world. This I in such abstracted subjects of speculation, not think bigbly probable, from the dictates both that there is any such division in the soul itself. of reason and revelation. The soul consists Seeing then that the soul has many different of many faculties, as the understanding, and faculties; or, in other words, many different the will, with all the senses, both outward and ways of acting; that it can be intensely pleased inward; or, to speak more philosophically, the or made happy by all these different faculties, or soul can exert herself in many different ways ways of acting ; that it may be endowed with of action. She can understand, will, imagine, several latent faculties, which it is not at presee, and hear; love, and discourse, and ap- sent in a condition to exert; that we cannot ply herself to many other the like exercises believe the soul is endowed with any faculty of different kinds and natures; but, what is which is of no use to it; that, whenever any more to be considered, the soul is capable of one of these faculties is transcendently pleasreceiving a most exquisite pleasure and satis-ed, the soul is in a state of happiness; and, faction from the exercise of any of these its in the last place, considering that the happiness powers, when they are gratified with their of another world is to be the happiness of proper objects; she can be entirely happy by the whole man, who can question but that the satisfaction of the memory, the sight, the there is an infinite variety in those pleasures hearing, or any other mode of perception. we are still speaking of? and that tbis fulness Every faculty is a distinct tase in the mind. of joy will be made up of all those pleasures and bath objects accommodated to its proper which the nature of the soul is capable of rerelish. Doctor Tillotson somewhere says,/ceiving? that he will not presume to determine in what We shall be the more confirmed in this docconsists the happiness of the blessed, because tripe, if we observe the nature of variety God Almighty is capable of making the soul with regard to the mind of man. The soul happy by ten thousand different ways. Be- does not care to be always in the same bent. sides those several avenues to pleasure, which The faculties relieve one another by turns, the soul is endowed with in this life, it is not Vol. II.

Locke.

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