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It is however some comfort to us, that we 'Love refines a man's behaviour, but makes shall be always doing what we shall be ne- a woman's ridicnlous. ver able to do, and that a work which can • Love is generally accompanied with goodnot be finished, will however be the work of will in the young, interest in the middlean eternity.'

aged, and a passion too gross to name in the

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No. 591.] Wednesday, September 8, 1714.

• The endeavours to revive a decaying pas

sion generaliy extinguish the remains of it. Tenerorum lasor amorum.

A woman who from being a slattern beOvid, Trist. 3. El. iii. Lib. 3. 73. comes over-neat, or from being over-neat beLove, the soft subject of his sportive muse.

comes a slattern, is most certainly in love.

I shall make use of this gentleman's skill as I HAVE just received a letter from a gentle | I see occasion; and, since I am got upon the man, who tells me has observed, with no small subject of love, shall conclude this paper with concern, that my papers have of late been a copy of verses which were lately sent me by very barren in relation to love; a subject which, an unknown hand, as I look upon them to be when agreeably handled, can scarcely fail of above the ordinary run of sonnetteers. being well received by both sexes.

The author tells me they were written in one If my invention therefore should be almost of his despairing fits; and I find entertaios exhausted on this head, he offers to serve un- some hope that his mistress may pity such a der me in the quality of a love-casuist ; for passion as he has described, before she knows which place he conceives himself to be tho-lihat she herself is Corinna. roughly qualified, having made this passion his principal study, and observed it in all its Conceal, fond man, conceal thy mighty smart, different shapes and appearances, from the

Nor tell Corinna she has fir'd thy heart.

In vain would'nt thou complain, in vain pretend fifteenth to the forty-fifth year of his age.

To ask a pity which she must not lead. He assures me, with an air of confidence, She's too much thy superior to comply, which I hope proceeds from his real abilities,

And too, too fair to let thy passion die.

Languish in secret, and with dumb surprise that he does not doubt of giving judgment to

Drink the resistless glauces of her cyes. the satisfaction of the parties concerned on

At awful distance entertain thy grief, the most nice and intricate cases which cap Be still in pain, but never ask relief. happen in an amour; as,

Ne'er tempt her scorn of thy consuming state, How great the contraction of the fingers

Be any way undone, but fly her hate.

Thou must submit to see thy charmer bless must be before it amounts to a squeeze by the Some happier youth that shall admire her less ; hand.

Who in that lovely form, that heavenly mind, What can be properly termed an absolute

Shall miss ten thousand beauties thou could'st find.

Who with low fancy shall approach her charms, denial from a maid, and what from a widow,

While half enjoy'd, she sinks into his arms. What advances a lover may presume to

She knows not, must not know, thy noble fire, make, after having received a pat upon his Whom she, and whom the muses do inspire; shoulder from his mistress's fan.

Her image only sball thy breast employ,

Aud fill thy captivo soul with shades of joy; Whether a lady, at the first interview, may

Direct thy dreams by night, thy thoughts by day; allow an humble servant to kiss her hand. And never, never from thy bosom stray.**

How far it may be permitted to caress the maid in order to succeed with the mistress. No. 592.] Friday, September 10, 1714.

What constructions a man may put upon a smile, and in what cases a frown goes for no

Studium sine divite vena.

Hor. Ars Poct. 409. thing. On what occasions a sheepish look may do

Art without a vein. Roscommon. service, &c.

I LOOK upon the play-house as a world with As a farther proof of his skill, he also sent in itself. They have lately furnished the midme several maxims in love, which he assures de recinn

die region of it with a new set of meteors, in me are the result of a long and profound re

order to give the sublime to many modern tlection, some of which I think myself obli

tragedies. I was there last winter at the first ged to coinmunicate to the public, not remem

rehearsal of the new thunder,t which is much bering to have seen them before in any au

any au- more deep and sonorous than any hitherto thor.

nade use of. They have a Salmodeus be• There are more calamities in the world! arising from love than from hatred.

Love is the daughter of idleness, but the. These verses were writteu by Gilbert, the second bromother of disquietude.

ther of Eustace Budgel, Esq. • Men of grave natures, says sir Francis

This is an allusion to Mr. Dennis's new and improved Bacon, are the most constant; for the same method of making thunder. Dennis had contrived this reason men should be more constant than wo- thunder for the advantage of his tragedyof Appius and men.

Virginia; the players highly approved of it, and it in the

same that is used at the present day. Notwithstanding the "The gay part of mankind is most amorous,

effect of this thunder, however, the play was coldly rethe scrious most loving.

ceived, and laid aside. Some nights after, Dennis being in "A coquette often loses ber reputation while the pit at the representation of Macbeth, and hearing the she preserves her virtue.

thunder made use of, arose from lus seat in a violent pas.

sion, exclaiming with an oath, that that was his thunder. "A prude often preserves her reputation See (said he) how these rascals use me: they will not le: when she has lost her virtue.

my play run, and yet they stcal my thunder.'

hind the scenes who plays it off with great! Envy and cavil are the natural fruits of lasuccess. The lightnings are made to flash/ziness and ignorance; which was probably more briskly than heretofore, their clouds are the reason that in the heathen mythology Moalso better furbelowed, and more voluminous ; mus is said to be the son of Nox and Somnus. not to mention a violent storm locked up in a of darkness and sleep. Idle men, who have great chest, that is designed for the Tempest. not been at the pains to accomplish or distinThey are also provided with above a dozen guish themselves, are very apt to detract from showers of snow, which, as I am informed, others; as ignorant men are very subject to are the plays of many unsuccessful poets ar- decry those beauties in a celebrated work tificially cut and shredded for that use. Mr. which they have not cyes to discover. Many Ryner's Edgar is to fall in snow at the next of our sons of Momus, who dignify themselves acting of King Lear, in order to heighten, or by the name of critics, are the genuine derather to alleviate, the distress of that unfor- scendants of these two illustrious ancestors. tupate prince; and to serve by way of deco- They are often led into those numerous abrations to a piece which that great critic bas surdities, in which they daily instruct the peowritten against.

ple, by not considering that, first, there is I do not indeed wonder that the actors should sometimes a greatcr judgment shown in debe such professed enemies to those among our viating from the rules of art than in adhering nation who are commonly known by the name to thein; and, secondly, that there is more of critics, since it is a rale among these gen- beauty in the works of a great genius, who is tlemen to fall upon a play, not because it is ignorant of all the rules of art, than in the ill written, but because it takes. Several of works of a little genius, who not only know's them lay it down as a maxim, that whatever but scrupulously observes them. dramatic performance has a long run, must of First, We may often take notice of men necessity be good for nothing; as though the who are perfectly acquainted with all the rules first precept in poetry were not to please.' of good writing, and, notwithstanding, choose Whether this rule holds good or not, I shall to depart from them on extraordinary occaleave to the determination of those who are sions. I could give instances out of all the better judges than myself: if it does, I am sure tragic writers of antiquity who have shown it tends very much to the honour of those gen-their judgment in this particuular; and purtlemen who have established it; few of their posely receded from an established rule of pieces have been disgraced by a run of three the drama, when it has made way for a much days, and most of them being so exquisitely higher beauty than the observation of such a writien, that the town would never give theni rule would have been. Those who have surmore than one night's hearing.

veved the noblest pieces of architecture and I have a great esteem for a true critic, such statuary, both arcient and modern, koow very as Aristotle and Longinus among the Greeks: well that there are frequent deviations from Horace and Quintilian among the Romans; art in the works of the greatest masters, Boileau and Dacier among the French. But which have produced a much nobler effect it is our misfortune that some, who set up for than a more accurate and exact way of proprofessed critics among us, are so stupid that ceeding could have done. This often arises they do not know how to put ten words toge- from what the Italians call the gusto grande ther with clegance or common propriety; and in these arts, which is what we call the sublime withal so illiterate, that they have no taste of in writing. the learned languages, and therefore criticise In the next place, our critics do not seem upon old authors only at second-hand. They sensible that there is more beauty in the works judge of them by what others have written, of a great genius, who is ignorant of the rules and not by any notions they have of the au- of art, than in those of a little genius who thors themselves. The words, unity, action, knows and observes them. It is of these men sentiment, and diction, pronounced with an of genius that Terence speaks, in opposition air of authority, give them a figure among un- to the little artificial cavillers of his time ; learned readers, who are apt to beliare they are very deep, because they are unintelligible.

Quorum remulari exoptat negligentiam 'Phe ancient critics are full of the praises of

Potius quin istorum obscuram diligentiam their contemporaries; they discover beauties! Whose negligence he would rather imitato than these which escaped the observation of the vulgar, men's obscure diligence.' and very often fiod out reasons for palliating and excusing such little slips and oversights as A critic may have the same consolation in were committed in the writings of eminent the ill success of his play as Dr. South tells authors. On the contrary, most of the smat- us a physician has at the death of a patient, terers in criticism, who appear among us, that he was killed secundum artem. Our make it their business to vilify and depreciate inimitable Shakspeare is a stumbling-block every new production that gains applause, to to the whole tribe of these rigid crities. Who decry imaginary blemishes, and to prove, by would not rather read one of his plays, far-fetched arguments, that what pass for beau- where there is not a single rule of the stage ties in any clebrated piece are faults and er- observed, than any production of a modern rors. In short, the writings of these critics, critic, where there is not one of them viocompared with those of the ancients, are like lated ! Shakspeare was indeed born with all the works of the sophists compared with those the seeds of poetry, and may be compared of the old philosophers.

to the stone in Pyrrhus's ring, yhich, as Pliny Vol. II.

ti

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tells us, had the figure of Apollo and the in sleep we have not the command of thein. nine muses in the veins of it, produced by the The ideas which strike the fancy arise in spontaneous hand of nature, without any belp us without our choice, either from the occur. froni art.

rences of the day past, the temper we lic down in, or it may be the direction of some

superior being. No. 593.] Monday, September 13, 1714.

It is certain the imagination may be so dit

|ferently affected in sleep, that our actions or Qualo per incertam lunam sub luce maligna Est iter in sylvis

Virg. Æn. vi. 270. the day might be either rewarded or punished

with a little age of happiness or misery. Saint Thus wander travellers in woouls by night,

Austin was of opinion that, if in Paradise there By the moon's doubtful and malignant light.

Drudom. was the same vicissitude of sleeping and wak

ing, as in the present world, the dreams of its My dreaming correspondent, Mr Shadow, inhabitants would be very happy. has sent me a second letter, with several curi. And so far at present are our dreams in our ous observations on dreams in general, and the power, that they are generally comformable to method to render sleep improving: an extract our waking thoughts, so that it is not impossiof his litter will not, I presume, be disagreeable ble to convey ourselves to a concert of music, to my readers.

the conversation of distant friends, or any oth

er entertainment which has beca before lodged • Since we have so little time to spare, that in the mind. none of it may be lost, I see no reason why wel My readers, by applying these hints, will should neglect to examine those imaginary find the necessity of making a good day of scenes we are presented with in sleep, only be it, if they heartily wish themselves a good cause they have less reality in them than our night. waking meditations. A traveller would bring! I have often considered Marcia's prayer, and his judgment in question, who should despise Lucia's account of Cato, in this light. the directions of his map for want of real roads in it, because here stands a dot instead of al

Marc. O yr immortal powers, that guard the jast,

Watch round bis couch, and soften his repose, town. or a cypher instead of a city ; and it Banish his surrows, and becalm his soul must be a long day's journey to travel through With easy dreams; remember all his virtues, two or three inches. Fancy in dreams gives us

And show mankind that goodness is your care. inuch such another landscape of life as that

Luc. Swect are the limbers of the virtuous man!

O Marcia, I have seen thy sod-like father ; does of countries : And, though its appear-| Some power invisible supports his soul, ance may seem strangely jumbled together, And boars it up in all its wopted greatness. we may often observe such traces and foot. A kind refreshiog sleep is fallen upon him :

I saw him stretch'd at case, his fancy lost steps of noble thoughts, as, if carefully pur.

In pleasing dreams. As I drew near his couch sued, miglit lead us into a proper path of ac Ho smil'd, and cry'd, Cesar, thou canst not hurt me. tion. There is so much rapture and ecstacy in our fancied bliss, and something so dis- Mr. Shadow acquaints me in a postcript, mal and shocking in our fancied misery, that, that he has no manner of title to the vision though the inactivity of the body has given which succeeded his first letter ; but adds, occasion for calling sleep the image of death, that, as the gentleman who wrote it dreams the briskness of the fancy affords us a strong very sensibly, he shall be glad to meet him intimation of something within us that can some night or other under the great elmnever die.

tree, by wbich Virgil has given us a fine metaI have wondered that Alexander the Great,phorical image of sleep, in order to turn orer who came into the world sufficiently dreamed a few of the leaves together, and oblige the of by his parents, and had himself a tolerable public with an account of the dreams that lie knack of dreaming, should often say that sleep under them. was one thing which made him sensible he was mortal. I, who have not such fields of action in the day-time to divert my attention from No. 594.] Wednesday, September 15, 1714. this matter, plainly perceive that in those ope

Absentem qui rodit amicum: rations of the mind, while the body is at rest, Qui non defendit alio culpante; solutos there is a certain vastness of conception very Qui captat risus hominuun, famamque dicacis; switable to the cenacity and demonstrative suitable to the capacity, and demonstrative of

Fingere qui non visa potest; commissa tacere

Qui nequit; hic niger est : hunc tu, Romane, casetn. the force of that divine part in our composition

Hor. Sat. iv. Lib. 1. 81. which will last for ever. Neither do I much

Ho that shall rail against his absent friends, doubt but, had we a true account of the won

Or hears them scandaliz'd, and not defends; ders the hero last-mentioned performed in his Sports with their fame, and speaks whate'er he can. sleep, his conquering this little globe would

And only to be thought a witty man; hardly be worth mentioning. I may affirm,

Tells tales, and brings bis friends in disesteem;

That man's a knave;-be sure beware of him. without vanity, that, when I compare several actions in Quintus Curtius with some others in my own noctuary, I appear the greater hero of WERE all the vexations of life put togethe two.'

ther, we should find that a great part of I shall close this subject with observing, them proceed from those calumnies and rethat while we are awake we are at liberty lproaches which we spread abroad concerning to fix our thoughts on wbat we please, but one another.

And...es, and brings bis wure beware of hihicereh.

There is scarce a man living, who is not, in as far distant from truth as the cars are froin some degree, guilty of this offence ; though at the eyes.'* By which he would intimate, the same time, however we treat one another, that a wise man should not easily give credit it must be confessed, that we all consent in to the report of actions which he has not speaking ill of the persons who are notorious scen. I shall, under this head, mention two for this practice. It generally takes its rise or three remarkable rules to be observed by either from an ill-will' to mankind, a private the members of the celebrated Abbey de la inclination to make ourselves esteemed, an os. Trappe, as they are published in a little French tentation of wit, a vanity of being thought in book.t the secrets of the world, or from a desire of The fathers are there ordered never to give gratifying any of these dispositions of mind in an ear to any accounts of base or criminal those persons with whom we converse. actions : to turn off all such discourse if pos.

The publisher of scandal is more or less odi. sible: but, in case they hear any thing of ous to mankind, and criminal in himself, as be this nature so well attested that they cannot is influenced by any one or more of the fore- disbelieve it, they are then to suppose that the going motives. But, whatever may be the oc- criminal action may have proceeded from a casion of spreading these false reports, he good intention in him who is guilty of it. ought to consider that the effect of them is This is, perhaps, carrying charity to an exequally prejudicial and pernicious to the per-travagance ; but it is certainly much more son at whom they are aired. The injury is the laudable tban to suppose, as the ill-natured same, though the principle from which it pro- part of the world does, that indifferent and ceeds may be different.

even good actions proceed from bad principles As every one looks upon himself with too and wrong intentions. much indulgence, when he passes a judgment in the third place, a man should examine his on his own thoughts or actions, and as very few heart, whether he does not find in it a secret would be thought guilty of this abominable inclination to propagate such reports as tend proceeding, which is so universally practised, to the disreputation of another. and at the same time so universally blamed, 1. When the disease of the mind, which I have shall lay down three rules, by which I would hitherto been speaking of, arises to this degrec have a man examine anii search into his own of malignity. it discovers itself in its worst heart before he stands acquitted to himself of symptom, and is in danger of becoming incu. that evil disposition of mind which I am bereirable. I need not therefore insist upon the mentioning.

guilt in this last particular, which every one First of all, Let him consider whether he cannot but disapprové, who is not void of hudoes not take delight in hearing the faults of manity, or even common discretion. I shall others.

only add, that, whatever pleasure any man Secondly, Whether he is not too apt to be- may take in spreading whispers of this nalieve such little blackening accounts, and more ture, he will find an infinitely greater satisinclined to be credulous on the uncharitable fiction in conquering the temptation he is unthan on the good-natured side.

der by letting the secret dic within his own Thirdly, Whether he is not ready to spread breasi. and propagate such reports as tend to the disreputation of another.

These are the several steps by which this vice No. 595.] Friday, September 17, 1714. proceeds and grows up into slander and desamation.

Non ut plocidis cocant inmitja, non ut

Scrpentes avibus geminentur, tigribus agni. In the first place a man who takes delight

Hor. Ars Poet. ver. 12, in hearing the faults of others, shows suffi. ciently that he has a true relish of scandal,

--- Nature god the common laws of sense, and consequently the seeds of this vice witbin Forbid to reconcile and pathirs; him. If his mind is gratified with hearing

Or make a snake cogender with a dore, the reproaches which are cast on others, he

And hungry ugers court the tender largbg.

Rosconnun. will find the same pleasure in relating them, and be the more apt to do it, as he will natu- Ip ordinary authors would condescend to rally imagine every one he converses with is Write as they think, they would at least be delighted in the same manner with bimself. allotted the praise of being intelligible. But A man should endeavour therefore to wear they really take pains to be ridiculous ; ani, out of his mind this criminal curiosity, which by the studied ornaments of style, perfectly is perpetually heightened and inflamed by disguise the little sense they aim al. There listening to such stories as tend to the disrepu-l is a grievance of this sort in the communtation of others.

wealth of letters, which I have for sone time In the second place a man should cousult his resolved, to redress, and accordingly, I have own heart, whether he be not apt to believe sct this day apart for justice. What I mean such little blackening accounts, and more in- is the mixture of inconsistent metaphors, whichi clined to be credulous on the ancbaritable than is a fault but too often found in learned wrion the good-natored side.

Such a credulity is very vicious in itself, and generally arises from a man's conscious

* Stobaei Serm. 61. ness of his own secret corruptions. It is al . Felibien, Description de l'Abbaye de la Trappe, pretty saving of Thales,

1 Paris 1671; reprinted in 1982. It is a lotter of M. l'eli. Falsehood is just bien totho dutes of Licucourt.

SIR,

ters, but in all the unlearned without excep-torrid zones, and pursued her from one pole tion.

to the other. In order to set this matter in a clear light to I sball conclude this paper with a letter writevery reader, I shall in the first place observe, ten in that enormous style, which I hope my that a metaphor is a simile in one word, which reader bath by this time set his heart against. serves to convey the thoughts of the mind on. The epistle hath heretofore received great apder resemblances and images which affect the plause ; but after what hath been said, let any senses. There is not any thing in the world, man coinmend it if he dare. which may not be compared to several things if considered in several distinct lights ; or, in other words, the same thing may be expressed "After the many heavy lashes that have falby different metaphors. But the mischief is en from your pen, you may justly expect in that an unskilful author shall run these meta-l return all the load that my ink can lay opon phors so absurdly into one another, that your shoulders. You have quartered all the there shall be no simile, no agreeable picture, I foul languare upon me that could be raked no apt resemblance, but confusion, obscurity, lout of the air of Billingsgate, without knowing and noise. Thus I have knows a hero com- I who I am. or whether I deserved to be cupped pared to a thunderbolt, a lion, and the gea; land scarified at this rate. I tell you, once for all and each of them proper metaphors for all. turn your eyes where you please, you shall impctuosity, courage, or force. But by bad never smell me out. Do you think that the management it hath so happened, that the panicks, which you sow about the parish, will thunderbolt hath overflowed its banks, the ever build a monument to your glory ! No, lion hath been daried through the skies, and sir you may fight these battles as long as you the billows have rolled out of the Libyan de-I will, but when you come to balance the ACscrt.

count you will find that you have been fishing The absurdity, in this instance is obvious. l in troubled waters, and that an ignus faluus And yet every time that clashing metaphors hath bewildered you, and that indeed you are put together, this fault is committed more have built upon a sandy foundation, and or less. It hath already been said, that meta-brought your hogs to a fair market. phors are images of things which affect the

• I am, Sir. senses. An image, therefore, taken from

• Yours, &c.' what acts upon the sight, cannot, without violence, be applied to the hearing; and so of the rest. It is no less an impropriety to make No. 596.] Monday, Seplember 20, 1714. any being in nature or art to do things in its

Molle meum levibus cor est violabile telis. metaphorical state, which it could not do in

Orid, Ep. 18. 79. its original. I shall illustrate what I have said by an instance which I have read more

Cupid's liglit darts my tender bosom move.-Pope. than once in controversial writers. The The case of my correspondent, who sends heavy lashes,' saith a celebrated author, 'that me the following letter, has somewhat in it have dropped from your pen, &c.' I sup- so very whimsical, that I know not how 10 enpose this gentleman, having frequently heard tertain my readers better than by laying it of “ gall dropping from a pen, and being lash- before them. ed in a satire,' he was resolved to have them both at any rate, and so uttered this complete

'SIR, Middle-Temple, Sept. 18. piece of nonsense. It will most effectually dis- 'I am fully convinced that there is not upcover the absurdity of these monstrous unions, on earth a more impertinent creature than an if we will suppose these metaphors or images importunate lover. We are daily complaining actually painted. Imagine then a hand holu. of the severity of our fate to people who are ing a pen, and several lashes of whipcord fal- wholly unconcermed in it; and hourly imling from it, and you have the true represen-proving a passion, which we would persuade tation of this sort of eloquence. I believe, the world is the torment of our lives. Notby this very rule, a reader may be able to withstanding this reflection, sir, I cannot for judge of the union of all metaphors whatso- bear acquainting you with my own case. You cver, and determine wbich are homogeneous, must know, then, sir, that, even from my and which heterogeneous; or, to speak more cbildhood, the most prevailing inclination I plainly, which are consistent and which iccon- could perceive in myself was a strong desire sistent..

to be in favour with the fair-sex. I am at preThere is yet one evil more which I must sent in the one-and-twentieth year of my age; take notice of, and that is the running of me- and sbould 'have made choice of a she-bedtaphors into tedious allegories; which, though fellow many years since, had not my father, an error on the better hand, causes confusion who has a pretty good estate of bis own get. as much as the other. This becomes abomi- ting, and passes in the world for a prudent nable, when the lustre of one word leads a man, been pleased to lay it down as a maxwriter out of his road, and makes him wander im, that nothing spoils a young fellow's forfrom his subject for a page together. I re-tune so much as marrying early; and that member a young fellow of this turn, who, ba- no man ought to think of wedlock until sixving said by chance that his mistress bad a and twenty, Knowing his sentiments upon world of charms, thereupon took occasion to this head. I thought it in vain to apply my. consider frer as onc possessed of 'frigid and self to women of condition, who expect seto

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