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you will discourage every practice that rather

To the Speetalor. proceeds from a regard to interest than to happiness. Now you cannot but observe, that most

.'sir, of our fine young ladies readily fall in with the “It had been usual to remind persons of direction of the graver sort, to retain in their rank, on great occasions in life, of their race service, by some small encouragement, as great and quality, and to what expectations they A number as they can of supernumerary and were born; that by considering what is wor. insignificant fellows, which they use like whif-thy of them, they may be withdrawn from fers, and commonly call “shoeing-horns." - inean pursuits, and encouraged to laudable These are never designed to know the length undertakings. This is turning nobility into a of the foot, but only, when a good offer principle of virtue, and making it productive comes, to whet and spur him up to the point. of merit, as it is understood to have been ori. Nay, it is the opinion of that grave lady. ma- ginally a reward of it. dan Matchwell, that it is absolutely conve-l • It is for the like reason, I imagine, that nient for every prudent family to have several you have in some of your speculations asserted of these implements about the house to clap to your readers the dignity of human nature. on as occasion serves ; and that every spark But you cannot be insensible that this is a ought to produce a certificate of his being controverted doctrine ; there are authors who a shoeing-horn before he be admitted as a consider human nature in a very different view, shoe. A certain lady whom I could name, if and books of maxims have been written to it was necessary, has at present more shoeing- show the falsity of all human virtues.* The horns of all sizes, countries, and colours in reflections which are made on this subject usuher service, than ever she had new shoes in ally take some tincture from the tempers and her life. I have known a woman make use characters of those that make them. Politicians of a shoeing-horn for several years, and find can resolve the most shining actions among ing him unsuccessful in that function, con- men into artifice and design; others, who are vert him at length into a shoe. I am mista. soured by discontent, repulses, or ill-usage, are ken if your friend, Mr. William Honeycomb, apt to mistake their spleen for philosophy; was not a cast shoeing-horn before his late men of profligate lives, and such as find themmarriage. As for myself, I must frankly selves incapable of rising to any distinction declare to you, that I have been an errant among their fellow-creatures, are for pulling shoeing-hord for above these twenty years. Udown all appearances of merit which seem to served my first mistress in that capacity above upbraid them; and satirists describe nothing five of the number, before she was shod. I but deformity. From all these hands we have confess, though she had many who made their such draughts of mankind, as are represented application to her, I always thought myself in those burlesque pictures wbich the Italians the best shoe in her shop; and it was not until call caricatures; where the art consists in prea month before her marriage that I discovered serving, amidst distorted proportions and agwhat I was.

gravated features, some likeness of the person, This had like to have broke my heart, and but in such a manner as to transform the most raised such suspicions in me, that I told the agreeable beauty into the most odious monster. next I made love to, upon receiving some un-! .It is very disingenuous to level the best of kind usage from her, that I began to look upon mankind with the worst, and for the faults of myself as no more than her shoeing-horn. Up- particulars to degrade the whole species. Such on which, my dear, who was a coquette in her methods tend not only to remove a man's good nature, told me I was hypochondriacal, and I opinion of others, but to destroy that reverence might as well look upon myself to be an egg, for himself, which is a great guard of ionoor a pipkin. But in a very short time after cence, and a spring of virtue. she gave me to know that I was not mistaken 'It is true indeed, that there are surprising in myself. It would be tedious to you to re-mixtures of beauty and deformity, of wisdom count the life of an unfortunate shoeing-horn. and folly, virtue and vice, in the human make : or I might entertain you with a very long and such a disparity is found amoung numbers of melancholy relation of my sufferings. Upon the same kind; and every individual in some the whole, I think, sir, it would very well be-instances, or at some times, is so unequal to come a man in your post, to determine in wbat himself, that man seems to be the most wavercases a woman may be allowed with honour to ing and inconsistent being in the whole creamake use of a shoeing-horn, as also to declare tion. So that the question in morality conwhether a maid on this side five-and-twenty. I cerning the dignity of our nature may at first or a widow, who has not been three years in sight appear like some difficult questions in nathat state, may be granted such a privilege, tural philosophy, in which the arguments on with other difficulties which will naturally oc- both sides seem to be of equal strength. But, cur to you upon that subject.

as I began with considering this point as it reI am, Sir,

lates to action, I shall here borrow an admira. with the most profound veneration, ble reflection from monsieur Paschal, which I

Yours, &c.'s think sets it in its proper light.

“It is of dangerous consequence," says he, No. 537.] Salurday, November 15, 1712.

“ to represent to man how near he is to the Toi peir gap géros iouén Arat.

• This is an allusion to the Reflections et Maximcs MoFor we are his nffspring. Acts xvii. 28. rales de M. le Duc de la Rochefoucault.

SIR,

you will discourage every practice that rather

To the Speetalor. proceeds from a regard to interest than to happiness. Now you cannot but observe, that most of our fine young ladies readily fall in with thel “It had been usual to remind persons of direction of the graver sort, to retain in their rank, on great occasions in life, of their race service, by some small encouragement, as great and quality, and to what expectations they a number as they can of supernumerary and were born; that by considering what is wor. insignificant fellows, which they use like whif- thy of them, they may be withdrawn from Aers, and commonly call “shoeing-borns."— inean pursuits, and encouraged to laudable These are never designed to know the length undertakings. This is turning nobility into a of the foot, but only, when a good offer principle of virtue, and making it productive comes, to whet and spur him up to the point. of merit, as it is understood to have been ori. Nay, it is the opinion of that grave lady, ma-ginally a reward of it. dani Matchwell, that it is absolutely conve-l • It is for the like reason, I imagine, that nient for every prudent family to have several you have in some of your speculations asserted of these implements about the house to clap to your readers the dignity of human nature. on as occasion serves ; and that every spark But you cannot be insensible that this is a ought to produce a certificate of his being controverted doctrine ; there are authors who a shoeing-horn before he be admitted as a consider human nature in a very different view, shoe. A certain lady whom I could name, ir and books of maxims have been written to it was necessary, has at present more shoeing-show the falsity of all human virtues.* The horns of all sizes, countries, and colours in reflections which are made on this subject usuher service, than ever she had new shoes in ally take some tincture from the tempers and her life. I have known a woman make use characters of those that make them. Politicians of a shoeing-horn for several years, and find can resolve the most shining actions among ing him unsuccessful in that function, con- men into artifice and design; others, who are vert him at length into a shoe. I am mista- /soured by discontent, repulses, or ill-usage, are ken if your friend, Mr. William Honeycomb, apt to mistake their spleen for philosophy; was not a cast shoeing-horn before his laté men of profligate lives, and such as find themmarriage. As for myself, I must frankly selves incapable of rising to any distinction declare to you, that I have been an errant among their fellow-creatures, are for pulling shoeing-born for above these twenty years. I down all appearances of merit which seem to served my first mistress in that capacity above upbraid them; and satirists describe nothing five of the number, before she was shod. I but deformity. From all these hands we have confess, though she had many who made their such draughts of mankind, as are represented application to her, I always thought myself in those burlesque pictures which the Italians the best shoe in her shop; and it was not until call caricatures; where the art consists in prea month before her marriage that I discovered serving, amidst distorted proportions and ag. what I was.

gravated features, some likeness of the person, This had like to have broke my heart, and but in such a manner as to transform the most raised such suspicions in me, that I told the agreeable beauty into the most odious monster. next I made love to, upon receiving some un. It is very disingenuous to level the best of kind usage from her, that I began to look upon mankind with the worst, and for the faults of myself as no more than her shoeing-horn. Up- particulars to degrade the whole species. Such on which, my dear, who was a coquette in her methods tend not only to remove a man's good nature, told me I was hypochondriacal, and I opinion of others, but to destroy that reverence might as well look upon myself to be an egg, for himself, which is a great guard of innoor a pipkin. But in a rery short time after cence, and a spring of virtue. she gave me to know that I was not mistaken It is true indeed, that there are surprising in myself. It would be tedious to you to re- mixtures of beauty and deformity, of wisdom count the life of an unfortunate shoeing-horn. and folly, virtue and vice, in the human make : or I might entertain you with a very long and such a disparity is found amoung numbers of melancholy relation of my sufferings. Upon the same kind; and every individual in some the whole, I think, sir, it would very well be-l instances, or at some times, is so unequal to come a man in your post, to determine in what himself, that man seems to be the most wavercases a woman may be allowed with honour to ing and inconsistent being in the whole creamake use of a shoeing-horn, as also to declare tion. So that the question in morality conwhether a maid on this side five-and-twenty, cerning the dignity of our nature may at first or a widow, who has not been three years in sight appear like some difficult questions in nathat state, may be granted such a privilege, tural philosophy, in which the arguments on with other difficulties which will naturally oc

both sides seem to be of equal strength. But, cur to you upon that subject.

as I began with considering this point as it reI am, Sir,

lates to action, I shall here borrow an admira. with the most profound veneration, ble reflection from monsieur Paschal, which I

• Yours. &c.' think sets it in its proper light.

L “ It is of dangerous consequence," says he, No. 537.] Salurday, November 15, 1712..

to represent to man how near he is to the Tou per gap záros i ruée Arat.

• This is an allusion to the Reflections et Maximos Mo. For we are his offspring. Acts xvii. 28. rales de M. le Duc de la Rochefoucault.

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level of beasts, without showing him at the are translated; pamely, to the source from same time his greatness. It is likewise danger- whence they had their birth. The soul alone, ous to let him see his greatness without his neither present nor departed, is the object of meanness. It is more dangerous yet to leave our eyes.". him ignorant of either; but very beneficial that “Thus Cyrus. But to proceed :" No one he should be made sensible of both.” What shall persuade me, Scipio, that your worthy ever imperfections we may have in our nature, father or your grandfathers Paulus and Afri. it is the business of religion and virtue to rec-canus, or Africanus his father or uncle, or many tify them, as far as is consistent with our pre-other excellent men whom I need not name, sent state. In the mean time, it is no small perforined so many actions to be remembered encouragement to generous minds to consider, by posterity, without being sensible that futu. that we shall put them all off with our morta-rity was their right. And, if I may be allowed lity. That sublime manner of salutation with an old man's privilege to so speak of myself, do which the Jews approach their kings,

you think I would have endured the fatigue of

so many wearisome days and nights, both at "O king, live for ever!"

home and abroad, if I imagined that the same may be addressed to the lowest and most de

ist and most de. boundary which is set to my life must termispised mortal among us. under all the infirmi- nate my glory? Were it not more desirable to ties and distresses with which we see him sur-I have worn out my days in ease and tranquillity. rounded. And whoever believes in the im- free from labour, and without emulation ? But. mortality of the soul. will not need a better I know not how, my soul has always raised argument for the dignity of his nature, nor a itself, and looked forward on futurity, in this stronger incitement to actions suitable to it. view and expectation, that when it shall depart

"I am naturally led by this reflection to a out of life it shall then live forever; and if subject I have already touched upon in a for- this were not true, that the mind is immortal. mer letter, and cannot without pleasure call to the soul of the most worthy would not, above mind the thought of Cicero to this purpose, in all others, have the strongest impulse to glory. the close of his book concerning old age. Every *“ What besides this is the cause that the one who is acquainted with his writings will wisest men die with the greatest equanimity. remember that the elder Cato is introduced in the ignorant with the greatest concern? Does that discourse as the speaker, and Scipio and it not seem that those minds which have the Lelius as his auditors. This venerable person most extensive views foresee they are removing is represented looking forward as it were from to a happier condition, which those of a narrow the verge of extreme old age into a future state, sight do not perceive ? 1, for my part, am and rising into a contemplation on the un. transported with the hope of seeing your anperishable part of his nature, and its existence cestors, whom I have honoured and loved; and after death. I shall collect part of his discourse. am earnestly desirous of meeting not only those And as you have formerly offered some argu- excellent persons whom I have known, but ments for the soul's immortality, agreeable both those too of whom I have heard and read, and to reason and the Christian doctrine, I believe of whom I myself have written; nor would I your readen will not be displeased to see how be detained from so pleasing a journey. O hap. the same great truth shines in the pomp of py day, when I shall escape from this crowd, this Roman eloquence.

heap of pollution, and be admitted to that diThis (says Cato) is my firm persuasion, that vine assembly of exalted spirits! when I shall since the human soul exerts itself with so great go not only to those great persons I have named, activity ; since it has such a remembrance of but to my Cato, iny son, than whom a better the past, such a concern for the future; since man was never born, and whose funeral rites it is enriched with so many arts, sciences, and I myself performed, whereas he ought rather discoveries; it is impossible but the being which to have attended mine. Yet has not bis soul contains all these must be immortal.

deserted me, but, seeming to cast back a look • The elder Cyrus, just before his death, is on me, is gone before to those habitations to represented by Xenophon speaking after this which it was sensible I should follow him. And manner : " Think not, iny dearest children, though I might appear to have borne my loss that when I depart from you I shall be no more; with courage, I was not unaffected with it; but remember, that my soul, even while I lived but I comforted myself in the assurance, that among you, was invisible to you: yet by my it would not be long before we should meet actions you were sensible it existed in this body. again and be divorced no more." Believe it therefore existing still though it be

· I am, Sir, &c. still unseen. How quickly would the honours of illustrious men perish after death, if their souls performed nothing to preserve their fame! No. 538.] Monday, November 17, 1712. For my own part, I never could think that the

Ultra soul while in a mortal body lives, but when

Finem tendere opus, departed out of it dies: or that its conscious.

Hor. Sat. i. Lib. 2. 1. ness is lost when it is discharged out of an un- . conscious habitation. But when it is freed

To launch beyond all bounds. from all corporeal alliance, then it truly exists. SURPRISE is so much the life of stories, that Turther, since the human frame is broken by every one aims at it who endeavourg to please death, tell us what becomes of its parts? It is by telling them. Smooth delivery, an elegant visible whither the materials of other beings I choice of words, and a sweet arrangement.art

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all beautifying graces, but not the particulars count for, until I chanced to cast my eyes upin this point of conversation which either long wards, and found that I was passing under a command the attention, or strike with the vio- sign-post on which the picture of a cat was lence of a sudden passion, or occasion the burst hung,'. of laughter which accompanies humour. I have The extravagance of this turn in the way of sometimes fancied that the mind is iu this case surprise gave a stop to the talk we had been like a traveller wbo sees a fine seat in haste; carrying on. Some were silent because they he acknowledges the delightfulness of a walk doubted, and others because they were con. set with regularity, but would be uneasy if he quered in their own way; so that the genwere obliged to pace it over, when the first tleman had an opportunity to press the beview had let him into all its beauties from one lief of it upon us, and let us see that he was end to the other.

rather exposing himself than ridiculing others. However, a knowledge of the success which I must freely own that I did not all this stories will have when they are attended with while disbelieve every thing that was said ; a turn of surprise, as it has happily made the but yet I thought some in the company had characters of some, so bas it also been the ruin been endeavouring who should pitch the bar of the characters of others. There is a set of furthest; that it had for some time been a men who outrage truth, instead of affecting us measuring cast, and at last my friend of the with a manner in telling it; who overleap the cat and sign-post had thrown beyond them line of probability that they may be seen to all. move out of the common road; and endeavour! I then considered the manner in which this only to make their hearers stare by imposing story had been received, and the possibility upon them with a kind of nonsense against that it might have passed for a jest upon the philosophy of nature, or such a heap of others, if he had not Jaboured against himwonders told upon their own knowledge, as it self From hence, thought I, there are two is not likely one man should have ever met ways which the well-bred world generally

takes to correct such a practice, when they I have been led to this observation by a com- do not think fit to contradict it flatly. pany into which I fell accidentally. The sub. The first of these is a general silence, ject of antipathies was a proper field wherein which I would not advise any one to intersuch false surprisers might expatiate, and there pret in his own behalf. It is often the effect were those present who appeared very fond to of prudence in avoiding a quarrel, when they show it in its full extent of traditional history. see another drive so fast that there is no Some of them, in a learned manner, offered to stopping him without being run against; and our consideration the miraculous powers which but very seldom the effect of weakness in the effluviums of cheese have over bodies whose believing suddenly. The generality of manpores are disposed to receive them in a noxious kind are not so grossly ignorant, as some manner; others gave an account of such who overbearing spirits would persuade themcould indeed bear the sight of cheese, but not selves; and if the authority of a character the taste; for which they brought a reason or a caution against danger make us suppress from the milk of their nurses. Others again our opinions, yet neither of these are of force discoursed, without endeavouring at reasons, enough to suppress our thoughts of them. If concerning an unconquerable aversion which a man who has endeavoured to amuse his com. some stomachs have against a joint of meat|pany with improbabilities could but look into when it is whole, and the eager inclination they their minds, he would find that they imagine bave for it when, by its being cut up, the shape he lightly esteems of their sense when he thinks which had affected them is altered. From hence to impose upon them, and that he is less esteem. they passed to eels, then to parsnips, and so ed by them for his attempt in doing so. His from one aversion to another, until we had endeavour to glory at their expense becomes worked up ourselves to such a pitch of com- a ground of quarrel, and the scorn and indirplaisance, that when the dinner was to come ference with which they entertain it begins in we inquired the name of every dish, and the immediate punishment: and indeed (if we hoped it would be no offence to any in com- should even go no further) silence, or a negpany, before it was admitted. When we had ligent indifference, has a deeper way of woundsat down, this civility among us turned the dis-ing than any opposition, because opposition course from eatables to other sorts of aver-proceeds from an anger that he has a sort of sions ; and the eternal cat, which plagues every generous sentiment for the adversary mingling conversation of this nature, began then to en- along with it, while it shows that there is some gross the subject. One had sweated at the esteem in your mind for him : in short, that sight of it, another had smelled it out as it lay you think him worth while to contest with. concealed in a very distant cupboard ; and he But silence, or a negligent indifference, prowho crowned the whole set of these stories.ceeds from anger, mixed with a scorn that reckoned up the number of times in which it shows another he is thought by you too conhad occasioned him to swoon away. 'At last,' temptible to be regarded. says he, that you may all be satisfied of my The other method which the world has invincible aversion to a cat, I shall give an un-taken for correcting this practice of false suranswerable instance. As I was going through prise, is to overshoot such talkers in their own a street of London, where I never had been bow or to raise the story with further degrees until then, I felt a general damp and faintness of impossibility, and set up for a voucher to all over me, which I could not tell how to ac-them in such a manner as must let them see they stand detected. Thus I have heard a|I have clusters of pretty fellows come already discourse once managed upon the effects of to visit me, some dying with hopes, others fear. One of the company had given an ac- with fears, though they never saw me. Now, count how it had turned his friend's hair gray what I would beg of you would be to know in a night, while the terrors of a shipwreck whether I may venture to use these pert felencompassed him. Another, taking the hintlows with the same freedom as I did my counfrom hence, began, upon his own knowledge, try acquaintanee. I desire your leave to use to enlarge bis instances of the like nature to them as to me shall seem meet, without im. such a number, that it was not probable helputation of a jilt ; for since I make declara. could ever have met with them : and as he tion that not one of them shall have me, I still grounded these upon different causes for think I ought to be allowed the liberty of inthe sake of variety, it might seem at last, sulting those who have the vanity to believe it from his share of the conversation, almost is in their power to make me break that resoimpossible that any one who can feel the lution. There are schools for learning to use passion of fear should all his life escape so foils, frequented by those who never design to common an effect of it. By this time some of fight; and this useless way of aiming at the the company grew negligent, or desirous to heart, without design to wound it on either contradict hiin ; but one rebuked the rest with side, is the play with which I am resolved to an appearance of severity, and with the known divert myself. The man who pretends to win, old story in his head, assured them he did not I shall use him like one who comes into a fenscruple to believe that the fear of any thing cing-school to pick a quarrel. I hope upon this can make a man's hair gray, since he knew foundation you will give me the free use of the one whose periwig had suffered so by it. Thus natural and artificial force of my eyes, looks, he stopped the talk, and made them easy. and gestures. As for verbal promises, I will Thus is the same method taken to bring us to make none, but shall have no mercy on the shame, which we fondly take to increase our conceited interpreters of glances and motions. character. It is indeed a kind of mimickry, I am particularly skilled in the downcast eye, by which another puts on our air of conver- and the recovery into a sudden full aspec: and sation to show us to ourselves. He seems to away again, as you may have seed sometimes look ridiculous before you, that you may re-practised by us country beauties beyond all member how near a resemblance you bear to that you have observed in courts and cities. him, or that you may know that he will not Add to this, sir, that I have a ruddy beedless lie under the iinputation of believing you look, which covers artifice the best of any Then it is that you are struck dumb immedi- thing. Though I can dance very well, I affect ately with a conscientious shame for what you a tottering untaught way of walking, by which have been saying. Then it is that you are I appear an easy prey; and never exert my inwardly grieved at the sentiments which you instructed charms, until I find I have engaged cannot but perceive others entertain concern- a pursuer. Be pleased, sir, to print this letter, ing you. In short, you are against yourself; which will certainly begin the chase of a the laugh of the company runs against you ; rich widow. The many foldings, escapes, rethe censuring world is obliged to you for that turns, and doublings, which I make, I shall triumph wbich you have allowed them at your from time to time communicate to you, for the own expense; and truth, which you have in-better instruction of all females, who set up: jured, has a near way of being revenged on like me, for reducing the present exhor bitant you, when by the bare repetition of your power and insolence of man. story you become a frequent diversion for the

I am, Sir, public.

Your faithful correspondent,

RELICTA LOVELY.'' * MR. SPECTATOR, 1 The other day, walking in Pancras church. "DEAR MR. SPECTATOR, yard, I thought of your paper wherein you I depend upon your professed respect for mention epitaphs, and am of opinion this has virtuous love for your immediately answering a thought in it worth being communicated to the design of this letter : which is no other your readers.

than to lay before the world the severity of “ Here innocence and beauty lies, whose breath

certain parents, who desire to suspend the Was spatch'd by carly, not untimely, death. marriage of a discreet young woman of eighHence did she go, just as she did begin

teen, three years longer, for no other reason Sorrow to know, before she knew to sin. Death, that does sin and sorrow thus prevent,

but that of her being too young to enter into Is the next blessing to a life well spont."

that state. As to the consideration of riches, *I am, Sir,

my circumstances are such, that I cannot be • Your servant.'

suspected to make any addresses to her on such low motives as avarice or ambition. If

ever innocence, wit, and beauty, united their No. 539.] Tuesday, November 18, 1712.

utmost charms, they have in her. I wish you Heteroclita sunto. Qua Genus. would expatiate a little on this subject, and Be they heteroclites.

admonish her parents that it may be from the

very imperfection of human nature itself, and 'MR. SPECTATOR,

not only personal frailty of her or me, that I am a young widow of good fortune and our inclinations baffled at present may alter; family, and just come to town ; where I find and while we are arguing with ourselves to

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