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him in the first place to make his own po-dreams the advice which Epictetus has couchem, without depending upon Phabus for any ed, after his manner, in a very simple and conpart of it, or calling out for aid upon any one cise precept. “Never tell thy dream," says of the Muses by name. I do likewise posi- that philosopher; “ for though thou thyself tively forbid the sending of Mercury with inayest take a pleesure in telling thy dream, any particular message or despatch relating another will take no pleasure in hearing it." to the peace, and shall by no means sutler After this short preface, I must do justice to Minerva to take upon her the shape of any two or three visions which I have lately pubplenipotentiary concerned in this great work. lished, and which I have owned to have been I do further declare, that I shall not allow written by other hands. I shall add a dream the Destinies to have had a hand in the to these which comes to me from Scotland, deaths of the several thousands who have by one who declares himself of that country; been slain in the late war, being of opinion and, for all I know, may be second-sighted. that all such deaths may be very well ac- There is, indeed, something in it of the spicounted for by the Christian system of pow. rit of John Bunyan; but at the same time der and ball. I do therefore strictly forbid a certain sublime which that author was ne. the Fates to cut the thread of man's life un- ver master of. I shall publish it, because on any pretence whatsoever, unless it be for I question not but it will fall in with the the sake of the rhyme. And whereas I have taste of all my popular readers, and amuse good reason to fear that Neptune will have a the imaginations of those who are more progreat deal of business on his hands, in several found; declaring, at the same time, that this poems which we may now suppose are up- is the last dream which I intend to publish on the anvil, I do also prohibit his appear- this season. ance, unless it be done in metaphor, simile, or any very short allusion ; and that even here he be not permitted to enter but with “I was last Sunday in the evening led into great caution and circumspection. I desire a serious reflection on the reasonableness of that the same rule may be extended to his virtue, and great folly of vice, from an exwhole fraternity of heathen gods ; it being cellent sermon I had heard that afternoon my design to condemn every poem to the in my parish church. Among other observaflames in which Jupiter thunders, or exer- tions, the preacher showed us that the tempcises any other act of authority which does tations which the tempter proposed are all not belong to him : in short, I expect that no on a supposition, that we are either madpagan agent shall be introduced, or any fact men or fools, or with an intention to render related, which a man cannot give credit to us such ; that in no other affair we would sufwith a good conscience. Provided always, fer ourselves to be thus imposed upon, in a that nothing herein contained shall extend, or case so plainly and clearly against our visible be construed to extend, to several of the fe- interest. His illustrations and arguments car. male poets in this nation who shall be still left ried so much persuasion and conviction with in full possession of their gods and goddesses, them, that they remained a considerable while in the same manner as if this paper had never fresh, and working in my memory ; until at been written.
last the mind, fatigued with thought, gave
way to the forcible oppressions of slumber No. 524.] Friday, October 31, 1712.
and sleep ; whilst fancy, unwilling yet to drop
the subject, presented me with the following Nos populo damus —
• Methought I was just awoke out of a sleep
that I could never remember the beginning of; When I first of all took it into my head to the place where I found myself to be was a write dreams and visions, I determined to print wide and spacious plain, full of people that nothing of that nature which was not of my wandered up and down through sevtral beaten own invention. But several laborious dream-paths, whereof some few were straight, and in ers have of late communicated to me works of direct lines, but most of them winding and this nature, which, for their reputations and turning like a labyrinth ; but yet it appeared my own, I have hitherto suppressed. Had I to me afterwards that these last all met in one printed every one that caine to my hands, my issue, so that many that seemed to steer quite book of speculations would have beco little contrary courses, did at length meet and face else but a book of visions. Some of my cor. one another, to the no little amazement of ina. respondents bave indeed been so very modest ny of them. as to offer at an excuse for their not being in In the inidst of the plain there was a great a capacity to dream better. I have by me, for fountain; they called it the spring of Self-love ; example, the dream of a young gentleman out of it issued two rivulets to the eastward and not passed fifteen : I have likewise by me westward : The name of the first was Heaven. the dream of a person of quality, and another ly-Wisdom ; its water was wonderfully clear, called The Lady's Dream. In these, and oth- but of a yet more wonderful effect: the other's er pieces of the same nature, it is supposed the name was Worldly-Wisdom ; its water was usual allowances will be made to the age, con- thick, and yet far from being dormant or dition, and sex of the dreamer. To prevent stagnating, for it was in a continual violent this inundation of dreams, which daily flows agitation; which kept the travellers, whom I in non me, I shall apply to all dreamers of shall mention by and by, from being sensible
of the foulness and thickness of the water ; with them, and presently fell to singing and which had this effect, that it intoxicated those dancing: they took me by the hand, and sa who drank it, and made them mistake eve- carried me away long with them. After I ry object that lay before them. Both rivulets had followed them a considerable while, I perwere parted near their springs into so many ceived I had lost the black tower of light, at others, as there were straight and crooked which I greatly wondered; but as I looked paths, which attended all along to their respec- and gazed round about me and saw nothing, tive issues.
I began to fancy my first vision had been but I observed from the several paths many a dream, and there was no such thing in now and then diverting, to refresh and other-reality; but then I considered that if I could wise qualify themselves for their journey, to fancy to see what was not, I might as well the respective rivulets that ran near them : have an allusion wrought on me at present, they contracted a very observable courage and and not see what was really before me. I was steadiness in what they were about, by drink- very much confirmed in this thought, by the ing these waters. At the end of the perspec- effect I then just observed the water of Worldlytive of every straight path, all which did end Wisdom had upon me; for as I had drank a in one issue and po nt, appeared a high pillar, little of it again, I felt a very sensible effect all of diamond, casting rays as bright as those in my head; methought it distracted and disof the sun into the paths; which rays had also ordered all there; this made me stop of a sudcertain sympathizing and alluring virtues in den, suspecting some charm or enchantment. them, so that whosoever had made some con- As I was casting about within myself what I siderable progress in his journey onwards to- should do, and whom to apply to in this case, wards the pillar, by the repeated impression of I spied at some distance off me a man beckon. these rays upon him, was wrought into an ha-ling, and making signs to me to coine over to bitual inclination and conversion of his sight him. I cried to him, I did not know the way. towards it, so that it grew at last in a manner He then called to me, audibly, to step at least natural to him to look and gaze upon it, where out of the path I was in ; for if I stayed there by he was kept steady in the straight paths, any longer I was in danger to be catched in a which alone led to that radiant body, the be- great net that was just hanging over me, and holding of which was now grown a gratifica- ready to catch me up; that he wondered I was tion to his nature.
so blind, or so distracted, as not to see so im• At the issue of the crooked paths there minent and visible a danger; assuring me, that was a great black tower, out of the centre of as soon as I was out of that way, he would which streamed a long succession of flames, come to me to lead me into a more secure path. which did rise even above the clouds ; it gave This I did, and he brought me his palm-full a very great light to the whole plain, which of the water of Heavenly-Wisdom, which was did sometimes outshine the light, and oppress- of very great use to me, for my eyes were ed the beams of the adamantine pillar ; though straight cleared, and I saw the great black by the observation I made afterwards, it ap-tower just before me: but the great pet which peared that it was not from any diminution of I spied so near me cast me in such a terror, light, but that this lay in the travellers, who that I ran back as far as I could in one breath, would sometimes step out of straight paths, without looking behind me. Then my bene. where they lost the full prospect of the radiant factor thus bespoke me: “You have made the pillar, and saw it but sideways: but the great wonderfullest escape in the world ; the water ligbt from the black tower, which was some- you used to drink is of a bewitching nature, what particularly scorching to them, would you would else have been mightily shocked at generally light and hasten them to their pro- the deformities and meanness of the place; per climate again.
for beside the set of blind fools, in whose comRound about tbe black tower there were, pany you was, you may now behold many others methought, many thousands of huge mis-sha- who are only bewitched after another no less pen ugly monsters; these had great nets, which dangerous mapper. Look a little that way, they were perpetually plying and casting to there goes a crowd of passengers; they have wards the crooked paths, and they would now indeed so good a head as not to suffer themand then catch up those that were nearest to selves to be blinded by this bewitching water; them: these they took up straight, and whirled the black tower is not vanished out of their over the walls into the flaming tower, and they sight, they see it whenever they look up to it: were no more seen nor heard of.
but see how they go sideways and with their • They would sometimes cast their pets to-leyes downwards, as if they were mad, that they wards the right paths to catch the stragglers, thus may rush into the net, without being bewhose eyes, for want of drinking at the brook fore-hand troubled at the thought of so miserathat run by them, grew dim, whereby they lost ble a destruction. Their wills are so perverse, their way: these would sometimes very nar- and their hearts so fond of the pleasures of the lowly iniss being catchel away, but I could place, that rather than forego them they will not hear whether any of these had ever been run all hazards, and venture upon all the miso unfortunate, that had been before very hearty series and woes before them. in the straight paths.
“ See there that other company; though I considered all these strange sights with they should drink none of the bewitching water, great attention, until at last I was interrupted yet they take a course bewitching and deludby a cluster of the travellers in the crooked ing. See how they choose the crookedest paths, paths, who came up to me, bid me go along whereby they have often the bleck tower behind them, and sometimes see the radiant co- at; and nothing was a more standing jest, in lumn sideways, which gives them some weak all clubs of fashionable mirth and gay converglimpse of it! These fools content themselves sation. It was determined among those airy with that, not knowing whethhr any other critics, that the appellation of a sober man have any more of its influence and light than should signify a spiritless fellow. And I am themselves : this road is called that of Super-lapt to think it was about the same time that stition or Human Invention: they grossly over-good-nature, a word so peculiarly elegant in look that which the rules and laws of the place our language, that some have affirmed it can prescribe to them, and contrive some other not well be expressed in any other, came first scheme, and set off directions and prescriptions to be rendered suspicious, and in danger of for themselves, which they hope will serve their being transferred from its original sense to so turn." He showed me many other kinds of distant an idea as that of folly. fools, which put me quite out of humour with I must confess it has been my ambition, in the place. At last he carried me to the right the course of my writings, to restore, as well paths, where I found true and solid pleasure, as I was able, the proper ideas of things. And which enteratined me all the way, until we as I have attempted this already on the subcame in closer sight of the pillar, where theject of marriage in several papers, I shall bere satisfaction increased to that measure that my add some further observations which occur to faculties were not able to contain it: in the me on the same head. straining of them I was violently waked, not Nothing seems to be thought, by our fine a little grieved at the vanishing of so pleasing gentlemen, so indispensable an ornament in a dream.'
fashionable life, as love. “A knight-errant,' "Glasgow, Sept. 29.
says Don Quixote, without a mistress, is like a tree without leaves ;' and a man of mode
among us who has not some fair one to sigh No 525.] Saturday Norember 1, 1712.
for, might as well pretend to appear dressed Ofts To oppov in apetin a aq wv épces, without his periwig. We have lovers to prose Znaates urputulon.
Eurip. lipnumerable. All our pretenders to rhyme are
professed inamoratos; and there is scarce a That love alone, which virtue's laws controul, Deserves reception in the human soul.
poet good or bad, to be heard of, who has not
some real or supposed Saccharissa to improve It is my custom to take frequent opportu-Ibis vein. nities of inquiring, from time to time, what If love be any refinement, conjugal love must success my speculations meet with in the town. be certainly so in a much higher degree. There I am glad to find, in particular, that my dis-is no comparison between the frivolous affeccourses on marriage have been well received. tations of attracting the eyes of women with A friend of mine gives me to understand, from whom you are only captivated by way of amuseDoctor's-commons, that more licenses have ment, and of whom perhaps you know nothing been taken out there of late than usual. I am more than their features, and a regular and likewise informed of several pretty fellows, who uniform endeavour to make yourself valuable, have resolved to commence heads of families both as a friend and lover, to one whom you by the first favourable opportunity. One of have chosen to be the companion of your life. them writes me word that he is ready to enter the first is the spring of a thousand fopperies, into the bonds of matrimony, provided I will silly artifices, falsehoods, and perhaps barbagive it him under my hand (as I now do) that rities; or at best rises no higher than to a kind a man may show his face in good company of dancing-school breeding, to give the person after he is married, and that he need not be a more sparkling air. The latter is the parent ashamed to treat a woman with kindness who of substantial virtues and agreeable qualities, puts herself in his power for life.
and cultivates the mind while it improves the I have other letters on this subject, which behaviour. The passion of love to a mistress, say that I am attempting to make a revolution even where it is most sincere, resembles too in the world of gallantry, and that the conse- much the flame of a fever : that to a wife is quence of it will be that a great deal of the like the vital beat. sprightliest wit and satire of the last age will I have often thought, if the letters written be lost; that a bashful fellow, upon ehanging by men of good-nature to their wives were to his condition, will be no longer puzzled how be compared with those written by men of to stand the raillery of his facetious compa- gallantry to their mistresses, the former, notnions; that he need not own he married only to withstanding any inequality of style, would applunder an heiress of her fortune, nor pretend pear to have the advantage. Friendship, tenthat he uses her ill, to avoid the ridiculous derness, and constancy, dressed in a simpliciname of a fond husband..
ty of expression, recommend themselves by a Indeed, if may speak my opinion of great more native elegance, than passionate rappart of the writings which once prevailed among tures, extravagant encomiums, and slavish us under the notion of humour, they are such adoration. If we were admitted to search the as would tempt one to think there had been cabinet of the beautiful Narcissa, among beaps an association among the wits of those times of epistles from several admirers, which are to rally legitimacy out of our island. A state there preserved with equal care, how few of wedlock was the common mark of all the should we find but would make any one sick adventurers in farce and comedy, as well as in the reading, except her who is flattered by the essayers in lampoon and satire, to shoot them? But in how different a style must the
wise Benevolus, who converses with that good putation. Nor indeed could less be expected sense and good humour among all his friends, from one who had the happiness to receive write to a wife who is the worthy object of his her education from you, who in your house utmost affection ? Benevolus, both in public was accustomed to every thing that was virand private, and all occasions of life, appears tuous and decent, and even began to love me, to have every good quality and desirable or- by your recommendation. For, as you had nament. Abroad he is reverenced and es. always the greatest respect for my mother, teemed ; at home beloved and happy The you were pleased from my infancy to form me, satisfaction he enjoys there settles into an to commend me, and kindly to presage I should habitual complacency, which shines in his he one day what my wife fancies I am. Accountenance, enlivens his wit, and seasons his cept therefore our united thanks ; mine, that conversation. Even those of his acquaint- you have bestowed her on me ; and hers, that ance, who have seen bim in his retirement, you have given me to her, as a mutual grant of are sharers in the happiness of it; and it is joy and felicity. very much owing to his being the best and best beloved of husbands, that he is the mostly
No. 526.] Monday November 3, 1712. steadfast of friends, and the most agreeable of companions
— Fortius utere loris. Ovid, Met. Lib. ii. 127. There is a sensible pleasure in contemplating
Keep a stiff rein.
Addison. such beautiful instances of domestic life. The happiness of the conjugal state appears height. Iam very loth to come to extremities with ened to the highest degree is capable of when the young gentlemen mentioned in the followwe see two persous of accomplished minds not ing letter and do not care to chastise them only united in the same interests and affec- with my own hand, until I am forced by protions, but in their taste of the same improve- vocation too great to be suffered without the ments and diversions Pliny one of the finest absolute destruction of my spectatorial dig. gentlemen and politest writers of the age iunity. The crimes of these offenders are plawhich he lived, has left us, in his letter to His Iced under the observation of one of my chief pulla, bis wire's aunt, one of the most agreea-officers, who is posted just at the entrance of ble family pieces of this kind I have ever met the pass between London and Westminster. with. I shall end this discourse with a trans. As I have great confidence in the capacity. lation of it ; and I believe the reader will be resolution, and integrity of the person deof my opinion, that conjugal love is drawn in puted by me to give an account of enormities. it with a delicacy which makes it appear to be, i doubt not but I shall soon have before me as I have represented it, an ornament as well all proper notices which are requisite for the as a virtue.
amendment of manners in public, and the in
struction of each individual of the human spe• Pliny lo Hispulla.
cies in what is due from him in respect to the * As I remember the great affection which whole body of mankind. The present paper was between you and your excellent brother, shall consist only of the above-mentioned letand know you love his daughter as your own, ter, and the copy of a deputation which I have so as not only to express the tenderness of the given to my trusty friend, Mr. John Sly ; best of aunts, but even to supply that of the wherein he is charged to notify to me all that best of fathers ; I am sure it will be a pleasure is necessary for my animadversion upon the to you to hear that she proves worthy of her delinquents mentioned by my correspondent, father, worthy of you, and of your and her an- as well as all others described in the said depcestors. Her ingenuity is admirable ; her utation. frugality extraordinary. She loves me; the surest pledge of her virtue; and adds to this a" To the Spectator General of Great Britain. wonderful disposition to learning, wbich she has acquired from her affection to me. She I grant it does look a little familiar, but I reads my writings, studies them, and even gets
must call you them by heart. You would smile to see the concern she is in when I have a cause to plead, 'DEAR DUMB, and the joy she shows when it is over. She Being got again to the further end of the finds means to have the first news brought Widow's coffee-house, I shall from hence give her of the success I meet with in court, how I you some account of the behaviour of our hack. am heard, and what decree is made. If I re-ney-coachman since my last. These inderateite any thing in public, she cannot refrain igable gentlemen, without the least design. I from placing berself privately in some corner dare say, of self-interest or advantage to themto hear, where, with the utmost delight, she selves, do still ply as volunteers day and night feasts upon my applauses. Sometimes she for the good of their country. I will not trousings my verses, and accompanies them with ble you with enumerating many particulars, the lute, without any master except love, the but I must by no means omit to inform you of best of instructors. From these instances I an infant about six feet high, and between take the most certain omens of our perpetual twenty and thirty years of age, who was seen and increasing happiness ; since her affection in the arms of a hackney-coachman, driving is not founded on my youth and person, which by Will's coffee-house in Covent-garden, bemust gradually decay, but she is in love with tweep the hours of four and five in the alterthe immortal part of me, my glory and re-noon of that very day wherein you published a memorial against them. This impudent young with a note of his name, and despatch them to cur, though he could not sit in a coach-box you, that you may chastise him at your own without holding, yet would venture his neck to discretion. bid defiance to your spectatorial authority, or
*I am, Dear Spec, to any thing that you counienanced. Who he
For ever your's, was I know pot, but I heard this relation this
MOSES GREENBAG. morning from a genteman who was an eye
• Esq. if you please.' witness of this his impudence; and I was wil. ling to take the fest oppo tunity to inform you •P. S. Tom Hammercloih, one of our coachof him as holding it extremely requisite that men, is now pleading at the bar at the other you should nip him in the bud. But I am my- end of the room, but has a little too much veself most concerned for my fellow-teipplers, heinence, and throws out his arms too much fellow-students, and fellow-labourers in the to take his audience, with a good grace.' law, I mean such of them as are dignified and distinguished 'under the denomination of To my loving and well-beloved John Sly, hahackney.coachmen. Such aspiring minds have ber lasher of hals, and tobacconist, between these ambitious young inen, that they cannot end the cities of London and Westminster. joy themselves outofa coach-box. It is, however, an unspeakable comfort to me that I can now Whereas frequent disorders, affronts, indig. tell you that some of them are grown so bash- nities, omissions, and trespasses, for which ful as to study only in the night-time, or in the there are no remedies by any form of law, but country. The other night I spied one of our which apparently disturb and disquiet the young gentlemen very diligent at his lucubra minds of men, happen near the place of your tions in Fleet-Street; and, by the way, I should residence; and that you are, as well by "your be under some concern, lest this hard student commodious situation, as the good parts with should one time or other crack his brain with which you are endowed, properly qualified for studying, but that I am in hopes nature has the observation of the said offences ; I do taken car to fortify him in proportion to the hereby authorize and depute you. from the great undertakings he was designed for. An- hours of nine in the morning until four in the other of my fellow-templars on thursday last afternoon, to keep a strict eye upon all perwas getting up into his study at the bottom of sons and things that are conveyed in coaches, Gray's-Inn-Lane, in order, I suppose to con- carried in carts, or walk on foot, from the city template in the fresh air. Now, sir, my re-of Lor
from quest is, that the great modesty of these two the city of Westminster to the city of London, gentlemen may be recorded as a pattern to the within the said hours. You are therefore not rest; and if you would but give them two or to depart from your observatory at the end of three touches with your own pen, though yon Devereaux-court during the said space of each might not perhaps prevail with them to desist day, but to observe the behaviour of all perentirely from their meditations, yet I doubt noc sons who are suddenly transported from
on would at least pieserve them from be- stamping on pebbles to sit at ease in chariots, ing public spectacles of folly in our streets what notice they take of their foot acquainI say two or three touches with your own pen;/tance, and send me the speediest advice, wben tor I have already observed Mr. Spec. that they are guilty of overlooking, turning from. those Spectators which are so prettily laced or appearing grave and distant to, their old down the sides with little c's, how instructive friends. When man and wife are in the same soever they may be, do not carry with them coach, you are to see whether they appear that authority as the others. I do again there-pleased or tired with each other, and whether fore desire, that for the sake of their dear they carry the due mean in the eye of the necks, you would bestow one penful of your world, between fonduess and coldoess. You own ink upon them. I know you are loath toare carefully to behold all such as shall have expose them; and it is, I must ronfess, a thou- addition of honour or riches, and report whesand pities that any young gentleman who is ther they prescrve the countenance they had come of honest parents should be brought to before such addition, As to persons on foot, public shame. And indeed I should be glad you are to be attentive whether they are pleasto have them handled a little tenderly at the ed with their condition, and are dressed suit. first, but if fair mears will not prevail, there able to it; but especially to distinguish such as is then no other way to reclaim them but by appear discreet, by a low- heel shoe, with the making use of some wholesome severities ; decent ornament of a leather garter: to write and I think it is better that a dozen or two of down the names of such country gentlemen as, such good-for-nothing fellows should he made upon the approach of peace, have left the huntexamples of, than that the reputation of some ing for the military cock of the hat; of all who hundreds of as hopeful young gentlemen as strut, make a noise, and swear at the drivers myself should suffer through their folly. It is of coaches to make haste. when they see it is not however, for me to direct you what to do; impossible they should pass; of all young genbut, in short if our coachmen will drive on tlemen in coach-boxes, who labour at a perthis trade. the very first of them that I do find section in what they are sure to be excelled by meditating in the strcet, I shall make bold !o the meanest of the people. You are to do all “ take the number of his chambers,''* together that in you lies that coaches and passengers
give way according to the course of business, * An allusion to the number of a hackney-coach. all the morning in term-time towards West