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Odit uturque locus; quum solos credit habendos are exactly formed by nature for those ends to Esse deos, quos ipse colat.
which heaven seems to have sent them amongst Jud. Sat. xv. 34.
us. Both animated with a restless desire of A grudge, time out of mind, begun,
glory, but pursue it by different means, and And mutually bequeathed from sire to son:
with different motives. To one it consists in Religious spite and pious spleen bred first
an extensive undisputed empire over his sub The quarrel which so long the bigots nurst:
jects, to the other in their rational and volunEach calls the other's god a senseless stock; His own divine.
Tate. tary obedience. Ones happiness is founded
in their want of power, the others in their want Of all the monstrous passions and opinions of desire to oppose him. The one enjoys the which have crept into the world, there is none summit of fortune with the luxury of a Persian, so wonderful as that those who profess the the other with the moderation of a Spartan. common name of Christians, should pursue One is made to oppress, the other to relieve cach other with rancour and hatred for differ- the oppressed. The one is satisfied with the ences in their way of following the example pomp and ostentation of power to prefer and of their Saviour. It seems so natural that debase his inferiors; the other delighted only all who pursue the steps of any leader should with the cause and foundation of it to cherish form themselves after his manner, that it is and protect them. To one therefore religion is impossible to account for effects so different but a convenient disguise, to the other a vigorfrom what we might expect from those who lous motive of action. profess themselves followers of the highest For, without such ties of real and solid hopattern of meekness and charity, but by as-nour, there is no way of forming a monarch, cribing such effects to the ambition and cor- but after the Machiavelian scheme, by which a ruption of those who are so audacious, with prince must seem to have all virtues, but really souls full of fury, to serve at the altars of the be master of none; he is to be liberal, merciGod of Peace.
ful, and just, only as they serve his interests; The massacres to which the church of Rome while, with the noble art of hypocrisy, empire has animated the ordinary people, are dread- would be to be extended, and new conquests ful instances of the truth of this observation ; be made by new devices, by which prompt adand whoever reads the history of the Irish re- dress his creatures might insensibly give law in bellion, and the cruelties which ensued there- the business of life, by leading men in the en. upon, will be sufficiently convinced to what tertainment of it. rage poor ignorants may be worked up by •Thus, when words and show are apt to pass those who profess holiness, and become in- for the substantial things they are only to excendiaries, and, under the dispensation of pross, there would need no more to enslave a grace, promote evils abhorrent to nature.
country but to adorn a court ; for while every The subject and catastrophe, which deserve man's vanity makes him believe himself caso well to be remacked by the protestantpable of becoming luxury, enjoyments are a world, will, I doubt not, be considered by ready bait for sufferings, and the hopes of the reverend and learned prelate that preaches preferinent invitations to servitude ; which to-morrow before many of the descendants slavery would be coloured with all the agreeof those who perished on that lamentable day, ments, as they call it, imaginable. The noin a manner suitable to the occasion, and blest arts and artists, the finest pens and worthy his own great virtue and eloquence. most elegant minds, jointly employed to set
I shall not dwell upon it any further, but it off with the various embellishments of sumponly transcribe out of a little tract, called the tuous entertainments, charming assemblies, Christian Hero,* published in 1701, what 1 and polished discourses, and those apostate find there in honour of the renowned hero, Wil-abilities of men, the adored monarch might liam III. who rescued that nation from the profusely and skilfully encourage, while they repetition of the same disasters. His late fatter his virtue, and gild his vice at so bigh majesty, of glorious memory, and the most a rate. that he, without scorp of the one, or Christian king, are considered at the conclu- love of the other, would alternately and ocsion of that treatise as heads of the protestant casionally use both : so that his bounty should and Roman-catholic world in the following support him in his rapines, bis mercy in his manner.
cruelties. “There were not ever, before the entrance Nor is it to give things a more severe look, of the Christian name into the world, men than is natural, to suppose such must be the who have maintained a more renowned car- consequences of a prince's having no other riage, than the two great rivals who possess the pursuit than that of his own glory; for if we full fame of the present age, and will be the consider an infant born into the world, and betheme and examination of the future. They holding itself the mightiest thing in it, itself
the present admiration and future prospect of a
fawning people, who profess themselves great Steele, who was never insensible to his own faults or mean, according to the figure he is to make and follies, but who never had courage to correct them, is said to have written this little tract, while plunged in amongst them, what fancy would not be de all the dissipation of a soldier's life, to serve the pur- bauched to believe they were but what they poses of a private manual, and to have published it under the hope that it would compel him to something like an ice them as such by purchasing with their imitation of the character he had drawn; unfortunately for him, it failed of its effect, and served but to make lives a boundless renown, which he, for want his errors more conspicuous.
of a more just prospect, would place in the
number of his slaves, and the extent of his which depends not on event ever know disapterritories ? Such undoubtedly would be the pointment. tragical effects of a prince's living with no reli- With the undoubted character of a glorious gion, which are not to be surpassed but by his captain, and (what he much more values than having a false one.
the most splendid titles) that of a sincere and 'Ifa nbition were spirited with zeal, what honest man, he is the hope and stay of Euwould follow, but that his people should be rope, an universal good ; not to be engrossed converted into an army, whose swords can by us only, for distant potentates implore his make right in power, and solve controversy in friendship, and injured empires court his asbelief? And if men should be stiff-necked to sistance. He rules the world, not by an inthe doctrine of that visible church. let themvasion of the people of the earth, but the ad. be contented with an oar and a chain, in the dress of its princes; and, if that world should midst of stripes and anguish, to contemplate be again roused from the repose which his on Him whose yoke is easy and whose bur- prevailing arms had given it, why ghould den is light."
we not hope that there is an Almighty, by With a tyranny begun on his own subjects, whose influence the terrible enemy that and indignation that others draw their breath thinks himself prepared for battle may find independent of his frown or smile, why should be is but ripe for destruction ?--and that there he not proceed to the seizure of the world ? may be in the womb of time great incidents, And if nothing but the thirst of sway were the which may make the catastrophe of a prosmotive of his actions, why should treaties be perous life as unfortunate as the particular other than mere words, or solemn national scenes of it were successful ?-for there does compacts be any thing but an halt in the not want a skilful eye aud resolute arm to obmarch of that army, who are never to lay serve and grasp the occasion. A prince, who down their arms until all men are reduced to from the necessity of hanging their lives on bis way. ward will; who inight supinely, and at leisure,
--Fuit Ulium et ingent Gloria
Virg. £o. ii. 325. expiate his own sins by other men's sufferings, while he daily meditates new slaughter and Troy is no more, and Ilium was a town. conquests ?
Dryden. For mere man, when giddy with unbridled
T. power, is an insatiate idol, not to be appeased with myriads offered to his pride, which may No. 517) Thursday, October 23. 1712. be puffed up by the adulation of a base and prostrate world into an opinion that he is Heu pietas! heu prisca fides! something more than human, by being some
Virg. Æn. vi. 878. thing less : and, alas, what is there that mor
Mirror of ancient faith! tal man will not believe of himself, when com
Undaunted worth! Inviolable truth! Dryden, plimented with the attributes of God ? He can then conceive thoughts of a power as om. We last night received a piece of ill news nipresent as his. But, should there be such at our club, which very sensibly afflicted evea foe of mankind now upon earth, have our ry one of us. I question not but my reasins so far provoked Heaven, that we are left ders themselves will be troubled at the hearutterly naked to his fury? Is there no power, ing of it. To keep them no longer in susno leader, no genius, that can conduct and ani- pense, Sir Roger de Coverley is dead. He mate us to our death, or to our defence? Yes : departed this life at his house in the counour great God never gave one to reign by his try, after a few weeks' sickness. Sir Anpermission, but he gave to another also to reigo drew Freeport has a letter from one of his by his grace.
correspondents in those parts, that informis * All the circumstances of the illustrious life him the old man caught a cold at the counof our prince seem to have conspired to make ty-sessions, as he was very warmly promotbim the check and bridle of tyranny ; for his ing an address of his own penning, in which mind has been strengthened and confirmed by he succeeded according to his wishes. But one continued struggle, and Heaven has edu- this particular comes from a whig justice of cated him by adversity to a quick sense of the peace, who was always Sir Roger's enemy distresses and miseries of mankind, which he and antagonist. I have letters both from the was born to redress. In just scorn of the chaplain and captain Sentry, which mention trivial glories and light ostentations of pow. nothing of it, but are filled with many parer, that glorious instrument of Providence ticulars to the honour of the good old man. moves, like that, in a steady, calm, and si. I have likewise a letter from the butler, who lent course, independent either of applause took so much care of me last summer when or calumny; which renders him, if not in a I was at the knight's house. As my friend political, yet in a moral, a philosophic, an the butler mentions, in the simplicity of his heroic, and a Christian sense, and absolute heart, several circumstances the others have monarch: who, satisfied with this unchangea-passed over in silence, I shall give my reader ble, just, and ample glory, must needs turn a copy of his letter, without any alteration or all his regards from himself to the service diminution. of others; for he begins his enterprises with his own share in the success of them ; for in
'HONOURED SIR, tegrity bears in itself its reward, nor can that! Knowing that you was my old master's VOL. II.
good friend, I could not forbear sending you those whom my master loved, and shows great the melancholy news of his death, which has kindness to the old house-dog, that you know afflicted the whole country, as well as his poor my poor master was so fond of. It would have servants, who loved him, I may say, better than gone to your heart to have heard the moans we did our lives. I am afraid he caught his the dumb creature made on the day of my death the last county-sessions, where he would master's death. He has never joyed himself go to see justice done to a poor widow woman, since; no more has any of us. It was the me. and her fatherless children, that bad been lancholiest day for the poor people that ever wronged by a neighbouring gentleman; for happened in Worcestershire. This being all you know, sir, my good master was always the from,
Honoured Sir. poor man's friend. Upon his coming home,
Your most sorrowful servant, the first complaint he made was, that he had
* EDWARD BISCUIT.' lost his roast-beer stomach, not being able to touch a sirloin, which was served up according ‘P. S. My master desired, some weeks beto custom; and you know he used to take great fore he died, that a book, which comes up to delight in it. From that time forward he grew you by the carrier, should be given to Sir Anworse and worse, but still hept a good heart to drew Freeport in his name.' the last. Indeed we were once in great hope
I This letter, notwithstanding the poor butler's of his recovery, upon a kind message that was sent him from the widow lady whom he had ma
manner of writing it, gave us such an idea of made love to the forty last vears of his life : our good old friend, that upon the reading of but this only proved a lightning before death.".
th'lit there was not a dry eye in the club. Sir He has bequcathed to this lady, as a token of AF
Andrew, opening the book, found it to be a his love, a great pearl necklace, and a couple
collection of aets of parliament. There was of silver bracelets set with jewels, which be-in
in particular the Act of Uniformity, with some longed to my good old ladý his mother. He passages in it marked by Sir Roger's own hand. has bequeathed the fine white gelding that he
Sir Andrew found that they related to two or used to ride a hunting upon to his chaplain,
chanlain three points which he had disputed with Sir because he thought he would be kind to bim: Roger the last time he appeared at the club. and bas left you all his books. He has, more
'Sir Andrew, who would have been merry at over, bequeathed to the chaplain a very pretty
such an incident on another occasion, at the tenement with good lands about it. It being sight of the old man's writing burst into tears. a very cold day when he made his will. he left and put the book in his pocket. Captain Senfor mourning to every man in the parish, a try, iforms
n the parish a try informs me that the knight has left rings great fricze-coat, and to every woman a black and mourning for every one in the club. 0. riding-hood. It was a moving sight to see him take leave of his poor servants, commending No. 518.7 Friday, October 24, 1712. us all for our fidelity, whilst we were not able to speak a word for weeping. As we most of us - Miserum est alienae incumbere famæ, are grown gray-headed in our dear master's Ne collapsa ruant subductis æcta columnis. service, he has left us pensions and legacies,
Jud. Sat. viii. 76.* which we may live very comfortably upon the
Pris poor relying on another's fame: remaining part of our days. He has bequeath For, take the pillars but away, aud all ed a great deal more in charity, which is not The superstructure must in ruins fall.-Stepne. vet come to my knowledge, and it is peremp-| torily said in the parish, that he has left money Tuis beiag a day of business with me, I must to build a steeple to the church; for he was make the present entertainment like a treat heard to say some time ago, that, if he lived at an house-warming, out of such presents as two years longer, Coverly church should have have been sent me by my guests. The first dish a steeple to it. The chaplain tells every body which I serve up is a letter come fresh to my that he made a very good end, and never speaks hand. of him without tears. He was buried, according to his own directions, among the family oft 'MR. SPECTATOR, the Coverleys, on the left hand of his father It is with inexpressible sorrow tbat I hear Sir Arthur. The co:fin was carried by six of of the death of good Sir Roger, and do heartily his tenants, and the pall held up by six of the condole with you upon so melancholy an ocquorum. The whole parish followed the corpse casion. I think you ought to have blackened with heavy hearts and in their mourning suits; the edges of a paper which brought us so ill the men in frieze, and the women in riding- news, and to have had it stamped likewise in hoods. Captain Sentry, my master's nephew, black. It is expected of you that you should has taken possession of the Hall-louse, and write his epitaph, and, if possible, fill his place the whole estate. When my old master saw in the club with as worthy and diverting a him, a little before his death, he shook him by member. I question not but you will receive the hand, and wished him joy of the estate many recomwendations from the public of which was falling to him, desiring him only to such as will appear candidates for that post. make a good nse of it, and to pay the several “Since I am talking of death, and bave men. legacies, and the gifts of charity, which he told tioned an epitaph, I must tell you, sir, that I him he had left as quit-rents upon the estate. have inade a discovery of a church-yard in which The captain truly seems a courteous man, I believe you might spend an afternoon with though he says but little. He makes much of great pleasure to yourself and to the public
It belongs to the church of Stebon-Heath, world, give their limbs and features their full commonly called Stepney. Whether or no play. it be that the people of that parish have a par-•As you have considered human nature in ticular genius for an epitaph, or that there be all its lights, you must be extremely well apsome poet among them who undertakes that prized, that there is a very close corresponwork by the great, I cannot tell; but theredence between the outward and the inward are more remarkable inscriptions in that place man; that scarce the least dawning, the least than in any other I have met with ; and I may parturiency towards a thought can be stirring say, without vanity, that there is not a gentle in the mind of man, without producing a suit. man in England better read in tomb-stones able revolution in his exteriors, which will easily than myself, my studies having laid very much discover itself to an adept in the theory of the in church-yards. 1 sball beg leave to send you phiz. Hence it is that the intrinsic worth and a couple of epitaphs, for a sample of those Imerit of a son of Alma Mater is ordinarily calhave just now mentioned. They are written culated from the cast of his visage, the contour in a different manner; the first being in the of his person, the mechanism of his dress, the diffused and luxuriant, the second in the close disposition of his limbs, the manner of his gait contracted slyle. The first has much of the and air, with a number of circumstances of simple and pathetic; the second is something equal consequence and information. The praclight, but nervous. The first is thus :
titioners in this art often make use of a gentle
man's eyes to give them light into the posture “ Here Thomas Sapper lies interr'd. Ah why!
of his brains; take a handle from his nose to Born in New England, did in London die; Was the third son of eight, begot upon
judge of the size of his intellects; and interHis mother Martha, by his father John.
pret the overmuch visibility and pertness of Much favour'd by his prince he 'gan to be,
one ear as an infallible mark of reprobation, But nipt by death at th' age of twenty-three.
and a sign the owner of so saucy a member Fatal to him was that we small-pox name, By which his mother and two brethren came
fears neither God nor man. In conformity to Also to breathe their last, nine yoars before,
this scheme, a corttracted brow, a lumpish And now have left their father to deplore
downcast look, a sober sedate pace, with both The loss of all his children, with his wife, Who was the joy and comfort of his life."
hands dangling quiet and steady in lines exactly
parallel to each lateral pocket of his galligas* The second is as follows: 1
kins, is logic, metaphysics, and mathematics, “Here lies the body of Daniel Saul,
in perfection. So likewise the belles-lettres, Spittlefields weaver, and that's all."
are typified by a saunter in the gait, a fall of
one wing of the peruke backward, an insertion I will not dismiss you, whilst I am upon of one hand in the fob, and a negligent swing this subject, without sending a short epitaph of the other, with a pinch of right fine Barcewhich I once met with, though I cannot pos-blona between finger and thumb, a due quantity sibly recollect the place. The thought of it is
of it is of the same upon the upper lip, and a noduleserious, and in my opinion the finest that I
case loaden with pulvil. Again, a grave solemn ever met with upon this occasion. You know
. You know stalking pace is heroic poetry, and politics; an sir, it is usual, after having told us the name
unequal one, a genius for the ode, and the moof the person who lies interred, to launch out dern' ballad; and an open breast, with an auinto his praises. This epitaph takes a quite dacious display of the Holland shirt, is concontrary turn, having been made by the person strued a fatal tendency to the art military. himself some time before his death.
I might be much larger upon these hints, "Hic jacet R. C. in erpectatione diei ru
| but I know whom I write to. If you can graft
"Jany speculation upon them, or turn them to premi. Qualis erat dies iste indicabit."
the advantage of the persons concerned in "Here lieth R. C. in expectation of the last them, you will do a work very becoming the day. What sort of a man he was that day British Spectator, and oblige, will discover."
Your very humble servant,
Inde hominùm pecudûmque genus, vita que volantum,
Virg. Æn. vi. 728. 'Having lately read among your speculations an essay upon physiognomy, I cannot but
Hence men and beast the breath of life obtain,
And birls of air, and monsters of the main. think, that, if you made a visit to this ancient
Dryden, university, you might receive very considerable lights upon that subject, there being scarce a Though there is a great deal of pleasure in young fellow in it who does not give certain contemplating the material world, by which I indications of his particular humour and dis-mean that system of bodies into which nature position, conformable to the rules of that art. has so curiously wrought the mass of dead matIn courts and cities every body lays a constraint ter, with the several relations which those boupon his countenance and endeavours to look dies bear to one another; there is still, melike the rest of the world; but the youth of thinks, something more wonderful and surpristhis place, having not yet formed themselves ing in contemplations on the world of life, by by conversation, and the knowledge of the which I mean all those animals with which
every part of the universe is furnished. The Others have still an additional one of hearing; material world is only the shell of the Universe, others of smell, and others of sight. It is won. the world of life are its inhabitants.
derful to observe by what a gradual progress If we consider those parts of the material the world of life advances through a prodiworld which lie the nearest to us, and are there-gious variety of species, before a creature is fore subject to our observations and inquiries, it formed that is complete in all its senses ; and is amazing to consider the infinity of animals even among these there is such a different with which it is stocked. Every part of matter degree of perfection in the senses which one is peopled; every green leaf swarms with inha-animal enjoys beyond what appears in anbitants. There is scarce a single humour in other, that, though the sense in different anithe body of a man, or of any other animal, in mals be distinguished by the same common which our glasses do not discover myriads of denomination, it seems almost of a different living creatures. The surface of animals is nature. If after this we look into the several also covered with other animals, which are inward perfections of cunning and sagacity, in the same inanner the basis of other animals for what we generally call instinct, we find that live upon it ; nay, we find in the most them rising after the same manner impercepsolid bodies, as in marble itself, innumerable tibly one above another, and receiving addicells and cavities that are crowded with such tional improvements, according to the spe. imperceptible inhabitants as are too little for cies in which they are implanted. This pro the naked eye to discover. On the other gress in nature is so very gradual, that the hand, if we look into the more bulky parts most perfect of an inferior species comes very of nature, we see the seas, lakes, and rivers, near to the most imperfect of that which is teeming with numberless kinds of living crea immediately above it. tures. We find every mountain and marsh, The exuberant and overflowing goodness of wilderness, and wood, plentifully stocked the Supreme Being, whose mercy extends to with birds and beasts; and every part of mat. all his works, is plainly seen, as I have before ter affording proper necessaries and conve- binted, from his having made so very little niencies for the livelihood of multitudes which matter, at least what falls within our know. inhabit it.
ledge, that does not swarın with life. Nor is The author* of the Plurality of Worlds his goodness less seen in the diversity than in draws a very good argument from this con- the multitude of living creatures. Had he sideration for the peopling of every planet; only made one species of animals, none of the as indeed it seems very probable, from the an- rest would have enjoyed the happiness of eralogy of reason, that if no part of matter, listence: he bas, therefore, specified in his which we are acquainted with, lies waste and creation every degree of life, every capacity useless, those great bodies, which are at such of being. The whole chasm in nature, from a a distance from us, should not be desert and plant to a man, is filled up with diverse kinds unpeopled, but rather that they should be fur- of creatures, rising one over another, by such nished with beings adapted to their respective a gentle and easy assent, that the little transi. . situations.
tions and deviations from one species to adExistence is a blessing to those beings only other are almost insensible. This intermediwhich are endowed with perception ; and is late space is so well husbanded and managed, in a manner thrown away upon dead matter, that there is scarce a degree of perception any further than as it is subservient to be- which does not appear in soine one part of the ings which are conscious of their existence. world of life. Is the goodness or the wisdom Accordingly we find, from the bodies which of the Divine Being more manifested in this lie under our observation, that matter is only lis proceeding? made as the basis and support of animals, and There is a consequence, besides those I hare that there is no more of the one than what is already mentioned, which seems very patural. necessary for the existence of the other. Ty dedncible from the foregoing considera.
Infinite goodness is of so communicative a tions. If the scale of being rises by such a nature, that it seems to delight in the con- regular progress so high as man, we may, by ferring of existence upon every degree of a parity of reason, suppose that it still properceptive being. As this is a speculation ceeds gradually through those beings which which I have often pursued with great plea- are of a superior nature to him ; since there is sure to myself I shall enlarge further up- an infinitely greater space and room for difon it, by considering that part of the scale ferent degrees of perfection between the Suof beings which comes within our knowledge.preme Being and man, than between man and
There are some living creatures which are the most despicable insect. This consequence raised just above dead matter. To mention of so great a variety of beings which are supe. only that species of shell-fish, which are form- rior to us, from that variety which is inferior ed in the fashion of a cone, that grow to the to us, is made by Mr. Locke, in a passage surface of several rocks, and immediately die which I shall here set down, after having preupon their being severed from the place mised, that, notwithstanding there is such inwhere they grow. There are many other finite room between man and his Maker for creatures but one remove from these, which the creative power to exert itself in, it is imhave no other sense but that of feeling and taste. possible that it should ever be filled up, since
there will be still an infinite gap or distance * Fontenelle.--This book was published in 1686, and between the highest created being and the obtained for the nuthor great reputation.
Power which produced him.