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the coquettes are too powerful a party for us. / any defective recommendation, by informing To look into the merit of a regular and well bow such and such a man is to be attacked. behaved woman is a slow thing. A loose They will tell you, get the least scrap from trivial song gains the affections, when a wise Mr. Such-a-one, and leave the rest to them. homily is not attended to. There is no other/ When one of these undertakers has your busiway but to make war upon them, or we must ness in hand you may be sick, absent in town go over to them. As for my part, I will show or country, and the patron shall be worried, or all the world it is not for want of charms that you prevail. I remember to have been shown I stand so long unasked; and if you do not a gentleman some years ago, who punished a take measures for the immediate redress of whole people for their facility in giving their us rigids, as the fellows calls us, I can move credentials. This person had belonged to a with a speaking mien, can look significantly, regiment which did duty in the West Indies, can lisp, can trip, can loll, can start, can and, by the mortality of the place, happened blush, can rage, can weep, if I must do it, and to be commanding officer in the colony. He can be frighted as agreeably as any she in oppressed his subjects with great frankness, England. All which is humbly submitted to till lie became sensible that he was heartily your spectatorial consideration, with all hu- hated by every man under his command. mility, by
When he had carried his point to be thus deYour most humble servant, testable, in a pretended fit of dishumour, and * MATILDA MOHAIR.' feigned uneasiness of living where he found he
was so universally unacceptable, he communiŅo. 493.] Thursday, September 25, 1712.
cated to the chief inhabitants a design he had
to return for England, provided they would Qualem commendes etiam atque etiam adspice, de mox give him ample testimonials of their approbaIncutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorein. Hor. Lib. 1. E viti 26. tion. The planter's came into it to a man, and
in proportion to his deserving the quite contra. Commend not, till a man is thoroughly known:
ry, the words justice, generosity, and courage, A rascal praiz'd, you make his faults your own.
were inserted in his commission, not omiiting
the general good liking of people of all condiIt is no unpleasant matter of speculation to tions in the colony. The gentleman returns consider the recommendatory epistles that for England, and within a few months after pass round this town from hand to hand, and came back to then their governor, on the the abuse people put upon one another in that strength of their own testimonials. kind. It is indeed come to that pass, that, in- Such a rebuke as this cannot indeed happen stead of being the testimony of merit in the to easy recommenders, in the ordinary course person recommended, the true reading of a of things from one hand to another; but how letter of this sort is, ' The bearer hereof is so would a man bear to have it said to him, “The uneasy to me, that it will be an act of charity person I took into confidence on the credit you in you to take him off my bands; whether you gave him, has proved false, unjust, and has prefer him or not, it is all one ; for I have no not answered any way the character you gave manner of kindness for him, or obligation to me of him ?' him or his; and do what you please as to that.'! I cannot but conceive very good hopes of As negligent as men are in this respect, a point that rake Jack Toner of the Temple, for an of honour is concerned in it; and there is no- honest scrupulousness in this point. A friend thing a man should be more ashamed of, than of his meeting with a servant that had formerpassing a worthless creature into the service ly lived with Jack, and having a mind to take or interests of a man who has never injured him, sent to him to know what faults the fellow you. The women indeed are a little too keep had, since he could not please such a careless in their resentments to trespass often this way: fellow a
: fellow as he was. His answer was as follows: but you shall sometimes know, that the mistress and the maid shall quarrel, and give each other very free language, and at last the lady • Thomas, that lived with me, was turned shall be pacified to turn her out of doors, and away because he was too good for me. You give her a very good word to any body else. know I live in taverns: he is an orderly sober Hence it is that you see, in a year and hall's rascal, and thinks much to sleep in an entry time, the same face a domestic in all parts of until two in the morning. He told me noe the town. Good-breeding and good-nature day, when he was dressing me, that he wondelead people in a great measure to this injus- red I was not dead before now, since I went to tice: when suitors of no consideration will dinner in the evening, and went to supper at have confidence enough to press upon their su-two in the morning. We were coming down periors, those in power are tender of speak- Essex-street one night a little flustered, and I ing the exceptions they have against them, and was giving him the word to alarm the watch; are mortgaged into promises out of their im- he had the impudence to tell me it was against patience of importunity. In this latter case, the law. You that are married, and live one it would be a very useful inquiry to know the day after another the same way, and so on the history of recommendations. There are, you whole week, I dare say will like him, and be must know, certain abettors of this way of tor- will be glad to have his meat in due season. ment, who make it a profession to manage the The fellow is certainly very honest. My seraffairs of candidates. These gentlemen let out vice to your lady, Deir impudence to their clients, and supply
Now this was very fair dealing. Jack knew verted me more than once with an account of very well, that though the love of order made the reception which he met with from a very a man very awkward in his equipage, it was a famous independent minister, who was head of valuable quality among the queer people who a college* in those times. This gentleman was live by rule; and had too much good-sense then a young adventurer in the republic of letand good-nature to let the fellow starve, be- ters, and just fitted out for the university with cause he was not fit to attend his vivacities. a good cargo of Latin and Greek. His friends
I shall end this discourse with a letter of re- were resolved that he should try his fortune commendation from H race to Claudius Nero. at an election which was drawing vear in the You will see in that letter a slowness to ask a college, of which the independent minister favour, a strong reason for being unable to deny whom I have before mentioned was governor. bis good word any longer, and that it is a ser- The youth, according to custom, waited on vice to the person to whom he recommends, to him in order to be examined. He was received comply with what is asked: all which are ne at the door by a servant who was one of that cessary circumstances, both in justice and good- gloomy generation that were then in fashion. breeding, if a man would ask so as to have He conducted him with great silence and sereason to complain of a denial; and indeed a riousness, to a long gallery, which was darkman should not in strictness ask otherwise. ened at noon-day, and had only a single candle In hopes the authority of Horace, who per- burning in it. After a short stay in this mefectly understood how to live with great men, lancholy apartment, he was led into a chamber onay have a good effect towards amending this hung with black, where he entertained himself facility in people of condition, and the confi- for some time by the glimmering of a taper, dence of those who apply to them without me- until at length the head of the college came rit, I have translated the epistle.
out to him from an inner room, with half a
dozen night-caps upon his head, and religious • To Claudius Nero..
horror in his countenance. The young man trembled: but his fears increased, when in.
stead of being asked what progress he had Septimus, who waits upon you with this, made in learning, he was examined how he is very well acquainted with the place you are abounded in grace. His Latin and Greek pleased to allow me in your friendship. For stood him in little stead; he was to give an when he beseeches me to recommend him to account only of the state of his soul ; whether your notice in such a manner as to be received he was of the number of the elect; what was by you, who are delicate in the choice of your the occasion of the conversion; upon what friends and domestics, he knows our intimacy, day of the month, and hour of the day it hap. and understands my ability to serve him better pened; how it was carried on, and when than I do myself. I have detended myself completed. The whole examination was sumagainst his ambition to be yours, as long as I med up with one short question, namely, whepossibly could ; but fearing the imputation of ther he was prepared for death? The boy, hiding my power in you out of mean and self- who had been bred up by honest parents, ish considerations, I am at last prevailed upon was frighted out of his wits at the solemnity to give you this trouble. Thus, to avoid the of the proceeding, and by the last dreadful in. appearance of a greater fault, I have put on this terrogatory ; so that, upon making his es. confidence. If you can forgive this transgres-cape out of this house of mourning, he could sion of modesty in behalf of a friend, receive never be brought a second time to the examithis gentleman into your interests and friend- nation, as not being able to go through the tership, and take it from me that he is an honest rors of it. and a brave man.'
Notwithstanding this general form and out
side of religion is pretty well worn out among No. 494.] Friday, September 26, 1712.
fus, there are many persons who, by a natural
uncheerfulness of heart, mistaken notions of Agritudinem laudare, unan rem maximè detestabilem, quorum est tandem philosophorum ?
Cicero. What kind of philosophy is it to extol melancholy, the
tributor to the Tatler. Dr. Garth entertained so high an
opinion of him, that he dedicated his Dispensary to hin most detestable thing in nature ?
"in terms which must lead the reader to form a very exABOUT an age ago it was the fashion in Henley died in August, 1711.
alted idea of his virtues and accomplishments." Mr. England for every one that would be thought * This was Dr. Thomas Goodwin, S. T. P. President religious, to throw as much sanctity as possible of Magdalen College, Oxford, and one of the assembly into his face, and in particular to abstain from
of divines that sat at Westminster. Wood styles him
and Dr. Owen “the two Atlasses and Patriarchs of Inde. all appearances of mirth and pleasantry, which pendency." In the character prefixed to his works, he were looked upon as the marks of a carnal | is described as a man “much addicted to retirement and mind. The saint was of a sorrowful counte
deep contemplation; that he had been much exercised in
the controversies agitated in the age in which he lived, nance, and generally eaten up with spleen and
and had a deep insight into the grace of God, and the melancholy. A gentleman, who was lately a covenant of grace." He attended Cromwell, his friend great ornament* to the learned world, has di and patron, upon his death-bed, and was very confident
he would not die, from a supposed revelation communi
cated to him in prayer, but a few minutes before his * The gentleman alluded to was Anthony Henley, Esg.death. When he found himself mistaken, in a subsequent son of Sir Robert Henley, of the Grange, in Hampshire. I address to God, he exclaimed, “Thou hast deceived us, He was the intimate friend of the most considerable wits, and we were deceived." He died in Feb. 1679, In the of the time, and is believed to have been an ample con- eightieth year of his age-Seo Granger, vol. 11.
piety, or weakness of understanding, love to who owns his being ; but at the same time indulge this uncomfortable way of life, and believes him to be cruel, hard to please, and give up themselves a prey to grief and me- terrible to human nature. For my own part,' lancholy. Superstitious fears and ground-says he, 'I would rather it should he said of les scruples cut them off from the pleasures me, that there was never such a man as Plu. of conversation, and all those social enter- tarch, than that Plutarch was ill-natured, ca. tainments, which are not only innocent, but pricious, or inbuman. laudable: as if mirth was made for repro- If we may believe our logicians, man is dis. bates, and cheerfulness of heart denied those tinguished from all other creatures by the who are the only persons that have a proper faculty of laughter. He has a heart capable title to it.
of mirth, and naturally disposed to it. It is Sombrius is one of these sons of sorrow. He not the business of virtue to extirpate the arthinks himself obliged in duty to be sad and fections of the mind, but to regulate them. It disconsolate He looks on a sudden fit of may moderate and restrain, but was not delaughter as a breach of his baptismal vow. An signed to banish gladness from the heart of inpocent jest startles him like blasphemy. Tell map. Religion contracts the circle of our him of one who is advanced to a title of ho- pleasures, but leaves it wide enough for her nour, he lifts up his hands and eyes : describe votaries to expatiate in. The contemplation a public ceremony, he shakes his head ; show of the divine Being, and the exercise of virhim a gay equipage, he blesses himself. All the stue, are, in their own nature, as far from exlittle ornaments of life are pomps and vacities. cluding all gladness of heart, that they are Mirth is wanton, and wit profane. He is scan-perpetually sources of it. In a word, the true dalized at youth for being lively, and at child-spirit of religion cheers, as well as composes, hood for being playful. He sits at a christen the soul ; it banishes indeed all levity of being, or marriage-feast, as at a funeral; sighs at haviour, all vicious and dissolute mirth; but in the conclusion of a merry story, and grows de-exchange fills the mind with a perpetual serevout when the rest of the company grow plea- nity, uninterrupted cheerfulness, and an habitsant. After all, Sombrius is a religious man, ual inclination to please others, as well as to and would have behaved himself very properly, be be pleased in itself. had he lived when Christianity was under a general persecution. I would by no means presume to tax such
No. 495.] Saturday, September 27, 1712. characters with hypocrisy, as is done too fre
Duris ut ilex tonsa bipeunibus quently ; that being a vice which I think
Nigra feraci frondis in Algido, none but He who knows the secrets of men's
Per damna, per caedes, ab ipso
Ducit opes animumque ferro. hcarts should pretend to discover in another,
Hor. Od. iv. Lib. 4. 57. where the proofs of it do not amount to a demonstration. On the contrary, as there
Like an oak on some cold mountain's brow, are many excellent persons who are weighed
At ev'ry wound they sprout and grow : down by this habitual sorrow of heart, they
The axo and sword new vigour give,
AROR. rather deserve our compassion than our reproaches. I think, however, they would do As I am one who, by my profession, am obwell to consider whether such a behaviour liged to look into all kinds of men, there are does not deter men from a religious lite, by none whom I consider with so much pleasure, representing it as an unsociable state, that as those who have any thing new or extraorextinguishes all joy and gladness, darkens the dinary in their characters or ways of living. face of nature, and destroys the relish of be- For this reason I have often amused myself ing itself.
with speculations on the race of people called I have, in former papers, shown how great Jews, many of whom I have met with in most a tendency there is to cheerfulness in religion, of the considerable towns which I have passed and how such a frame of mind is not only the through in the course of my travels. They are, most lovely, but the most commendable in a indeed, so disseminated through all the trading virtuous person. In short, those who represent parts of the world, that' they are become the religion in so unamiable a light, are like the instruments by which the most distant naspies sent by Moses to make a discovery of the tions converse with one another, and by which Land of Promise, when by their reports they mankind are knit together in a general cor. discouraged the people from entering upon respondence. They are like the pegs and it. Those who show us the joy, the cheerful. nails in a great building, which, though they ness, the good humour, that naturally spring are but little valued in themselves, are ab up in this happy state, are like the spies bring solutely necessary to keep the whole frame toing along with them the clusters of grapes, and gether. delicious fruits, that might invite their compa- That I may not fall into any common beaten nions into the pleasant country which produced tracks of observation, I shall consider this them.
people in three views : First, with regard to An eminent pagan writer* has made a dis- their number; secondly, their dispersion; and course to show that the atheist, who denies a thirdly, their adherence to their religion: and God, does him less dishonour than the man afterwards endeavour to show, first, what na
tural reasons, and secondly, what providential • Plut. Ilepi Attrad Muoviss. Plut. Opera, tom. i. p. reasons, may be assigned for these three re296. II. Steph. 1572, 12mo.
The Jews are looked upon by many to be as table-conversation, and the most agreeable innumerous at present, as they were formerly in tercourses of life; and, by consequence, exthe land of Canaan.
cludes them from the most probable means of This is wonderful, considering the dreadful conversion slaughter made of them under some of the If, in the last place, we consider what pro. Roman emperors, which historians describe by vidential reasons may be assigned for these the death of many hundred thousands in a war; three particulars, we shall find that their numand the innumerable massacres and persecu- bers, dispersion, and adherence to their relitions they have undergone in Turkey, as well gion, have furnished every age, and every as in all Christian nations of the world. The nation of the world, with the strongest argurabbins, to express the great havoc which has ments for the Christian faith, not only as been sometimes made of them, tell us, after these very particulars are foretold of them. their usual manner of hyperbole, that there but as they themselves are the depositaries of were such torrents of holy blood shed, as car- these, and all the other prophecies, which tend ried rocks of an hundred yards in circumfe- to their own confusion. Their number furnishes rence above three miles into the sea.
us with a sufficient cloud of witnesses that at Their dispersion is the second remarkable test the truth of the old Bible. Their dispersion particular in this people. They swarm over spreads these witnesses through all parts of all the East, and are settled in the remotest the world. The adherence to their religion parts of China. They are spread through makes their testimony unquestionable. Had most of the nations in Europe and Africa, and the whole body of the Jews been converted to many families of them are established in the Christianity, we should certainly have thought West Indies: not to mention whole nations all the prophecies of the Old Testament, that bordering on Prester-John's country, and some relate to the coming and history of our blessed discovered in the inner parts of America, if we Saviour, forged by Christians, and have looked may give any credit to their own writers. upon them with the prophecies of the Sybils.
Their firm adherence to their religion is no as made many years after the events they preless remarkable than their numbers and dis-tended to foretell.
0. persion, especially considering it as persecuted or contemned over the face of the whole earth. This is likewise the more remarkable, if we No. 496.] Monday, September 29, 1712. consider the frequent apostacies of this people,
Guatum pariter uti his decuit aut etiam amplius, when they lived under their kings in the land Quod illa ætas magis ad hæc utenda idonea est. of promise, and within sight of the temple.
Terent. Heaut. Act i. Sc. 1. If in the next place we examine what may be the natural reasons of these three particulars Your son ought to have shared in these things, because which we find in the Jews, and which are not youth is best suited to the enjoyment of them. to be found in any other religion or people, I
'MR. SPECTATOR, can, in the first place, attribute their numbers to nothing but their constant employment, 'Those ancients who were the most accurate their abstinence, their exemption from wars, in their remarks on the genius and temper of and, above all, their frequent marriages; for mankind, by considering the various bent and they look on celibacy as an accursed state, and scope of our actions throughout the progress of generally are married before twenty, as hoping life, have with great exactness allotted inclithe Messiah may descend from them.
Inations and objects of desire particular to The dispersion of the Jews into all the na- every stage, according to the different cirtions of the earth, is the second remarkable cumstances of our conversation and fortune, particular of that people, though not so hard through the several periods of it. Hence they to be accounted for. They were always in re- were disposed easily to excuse those excesses bellions and tumults while they had the temple which might possibly arise from a too eager and holy city in view, for which reason they pursuit of the affections more immediately have often been driven out of their old habita-proper to each state. They indulged the levity tions in the land of promise. They have as often of childhood with tenderness, overlooked the been banished out of most other places where gayety of youth with good-nature, tempered they have settled, which must very much dis- the forward ambition and impatience of ripened perse and scatter a people, and oblige them to manhood with discretion, and kindly imputed seek a livelihood where they can find it. Be- the tenacious avarice of old men to their want sides, the whole people is now a race of such of relish for any other enjoyment. Such allowmerchants as are wanderers by profession, and, ances as these were no less advantageous to at the same time, are in most, if not all places, common society than obliging to particular incapable of either lands or offices, that might persons; for, by maintaining a decency and engage them to make any part of the world regularity in the course of life, they supported their hoine.
the dignity of human nature, which then sufThis dispersion would probably have lost fers the greatest violence when the order of their religion, had it not been secured by the things is inverted; and in nothing is it more strength of its constitution : for they are to live remarkably vilified and r diculous, than when all in a body, and generally within the same feebleness preposterously attempts to adorn enclosure; to marry among themselves, and itself with that outward pomp and lustre, which to eat no meats that are not killed or prepared serve only to set off the bloom of youth with their own way. This shuts them out from all better advantage. I was insensibly carried into
reflections of this nature, by just now meeting herself has been swung there, and she invents Paulino (who is in his climacteric) bedecked all this malice, because it was observed she with the utmost splendour of dress and equi- had crooked legs, of which I was an eye witpage, and giving an unbounded loose to all ness. manner of pleasure, whilst his only son is de
- Your humble servant, barred all innocent diversion, and may be seen
“RACHEL SHOESTRING.' frequently sola ·ing himself in the Mall with
'MR. SPECTator, Tunbridge, Sept. 26. 1712. no other attendance than one antiquated servant of his father's for a companion and di
• We have just now read your paper, conrector.
taining Mrs. Mohairs letter. It is an invenIt is a monstrous want of reflection, that tion of her own from one end to the other; a man cannot consider, that when he cannot and I desire you would print the enclosed letter resign the pleasures of life in his decay of ap-by itselt, and shorten it so as to come within petite and inclination to them, his son must the compass of your half sheet. She is the have a much uneasier task to resist the im- most malicious mins in the world, for all she petuosity of growing desires. The skill there- looks so innocent. Do not leave out that part fore should metbinks be, to let a son want no about her being in love with her father's butlawful diversion, in proportion to his future ler, which makes her shun men ; for that is fortune, and the Ggure he is to make in the the truest of it all. world. The first step towards virtue that I
• Your humble servant, have observed, in young men of condition that
“SARAH TRICE.' have run into excesses, bas been, that they had P. S. She has crooked legs.' a regard to their quality and reputation in the
*MR. SPECTATOR, Tunbridge Sept. 26, 1712. management of their vices. Narrowness in their circumstances has made many youths, to
* All that Mrs. Mohair is so vexed at against supply themselves as debauchees, commence the good company of this place is, that we all cheats and rascals. The father who allows his know sbe has crooked legs. This is certainly son to the utmost ability avoids this latter true. I do not care for putting my name, beevil, which as to the world is much greater than cause one would not be in the power of the the former. But the contrary practice has
creature, prevailed so much among some men, that I
Your humble servant, unknown.' have knowo them deny them what was merely necessary for education suitable to their qua
'MR. SPECTATor, Tunbridge, Sept. 26, 1712. lity. Poor young Antonio is a lamentable in-! «That insufferable prude, Mrs. Mohair, who stance of ill conduct in this kind. The young has told such stories of the company here, is man did not want natural talents; but the with child, for all her nice airs and her crooked father of him was a coxcomb, who affected legs. Pray be sure to put her in for both ibose being a fine ge tleman so unmercifully, that two things, and you will oblige every body he could not endure in his sight, or the fre-here, especially, quent mention of one, who was his son, grow
• Your humble servant, ing into manhood, and thrusting him out of
· ALICE BLUEGARTER.' the gay world. I have often thought the father took a secret pleasure in reflecting that, wben that fine house and seat came into the No. 497.] Tuesday, September 30, 1712. next hands, it would revive his memory, as a person who knew how to enjoy them, from
Outós és ti gan situs gépen Menander. observation of the rusticity and ignorance of
A cunning old fox this! his successor. Certain it is, that a man may, if he will, let his heart close to the having no A FAVOUR well bestowed is almost as great regard to any thing but his dear self, even an honour to him who confers it as to him who with exclusion of his very childrenI recom- receives it. What indeed makes for the supe mend this subject to your consideration, and perior reputation of the patron in this case is,
that he is always surrounded with specious Your most humble servant, pretences of unworthy candidates, and is often
"T. B. alone in the kind inclination he has towards
the well deserving. Justice is the first quality * MR. SPECTATOR, London, Sept. 26, 1712. in the man who is in a post of direction; and
I am just come from Tunbridge, and have I remember to have heard an old gentleman since my return read Mrs. Matilda Mobair's talk of the civil wars, and in his relation give letter to you. She pretends to make a mighty an account of a general officer, who with this story about the diversion of swinging in that one quality, without any shining endowments, place. What was done was only among rela became so popularly beloved and honoured, tions; and no man swung any woman who that all decisions between man and man were was not second cousin at furthest. She is laid before him by the parties concerned, in a pleased to say, care was taken that the gallants private way; and they would lay by their anitied the ladies' legs before they were wafted mosities implicitly, if he bid them be friends, into the air. Since she is so spiteful, I will or submit theinselves in the wrong without tell you the plain truth. There was no such reluctance, if he said it, without waiting thc nicety observed, since we were all, as I just judgment of courts-martial. His manner was now told you, near relations; but Mrs. Mohair to keep the dates of all commissions in his