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for the admiration of modesty arises from the that as the man of sagacity bestirs himself to manifestation of his merit. I must confess distress his enemy by methods probable and we live in an age wherein a few empty blus- reducible to reason, so the same reason will terers carry away the praise of speaking, fortify his enemy to elude these his regular while a crowd of fellows over-stocked with efforts ; but your fool projects, acts, and conknowledge are run down by them: I say, cludes, with such notable inconsistency, that over-stocked, because they certainly are so, no regular course of thought can evade or as to their service of mankind, if from their counterplot his prodigious machinations. My very store they raise to themselves ideas of frootispiece, I believe, may be extended to respect, and greatness of the occasion, and imply, that several of our misfortunes arise I know not what, to disable themselves from from things, as well as persons, that seem of explaining their thoughts. I must confess, very little consequence. Into what tragical when I have seen Charles Frankair rise up extravagancies does Shakspeare hurry Othelwith a commanding mein, and torrent of lo, upon the loss of a handkerchief only ! bandsome words, talk a mile off the purpose, And what barbarities does Desdemona suffer, and drive down twenty bashful boobies of ten from a slight inadvertency in regard to this times his sense, who at the same time were fatal trifle ! If the schemes of all enterprising envying his impudence, and despising his un- spirits were to be carefully examined, some derstanding, it has been matter of great mirth intervening accident, not considerable enough to me; but it soon ended in a secret lamenta- to occasion any debate upon, or give them any tion, that the fountains of every thing praise- apprehension of ill consequence from it, will worthy in these realms, the universities, should be found to be the occasion of their ill success, be so muddled with a false sense of this vir- rather than any error in points of moment tue as to produce men capable of being so and difficulty, which naturally engaged their abused. I will be bold to say, that it is a ri- maturest daliberations. If you go to the levee diculous education which does not qualify a of any great man, you will observe him exman to make his best appearance before the ceeding gracious to sereral very insignificant greatest man, and the finest woman, to fellows; and upon this maxim, that the negwhom he can address himself. Were this lect of any person must arise from the mean judiciously corrected in the nurseries of opinion you have of his capacity to do you learning, pert coxcombs would know their dis. any service or prejudice; and that this calling tance : but we must bear with this false mo- his sufficiency in question must give him indesty in our young nobility and gentry, till clination, and where this is there never wants they cease at Oxford and Cambridge to grow strength, or opportunity, to annoy you. There dumb in the study of eloquence.
T. Jis nobody so weak of invention that cannot
aggravate, or make some little stories to
vilify his enemy; there are very few but have No 485.] Tuesday, September 16, 1712.
good inclinations to hear them ; and it is inNihil tam firmum est, cui periculum non sit, ctiam ab finite pleasure to the majority of mankind to inval.do.
Quint. Curt. I. vii. c. 8. level a person superior to his neighbours. The strongest things are not so well established as to Besides, in all matter of controversy, that be out of danger from the weakest.
party which has the greatest abilities labours
under this prejudice, that he will certainly 'MR. SPECTATOR,
be supposed, upon account of his abilities, My Lord Clarendon has observed, that to have done an injury, when perhaps he has few men have done more harm than those received one. - It would be tedious to enuwho have been thought to be able to do least; merate the strokes that nations and partiand there cannot be a greater error, than to cular friends have suffered from persons very believe a man, whom we see qualified with too contemptible. mcan parts to do good, to be therefore inca. “I think Henry IV. of France, so formidapable of doing hurt. There is a supply of ble to his neighbours, could no more be semalice, of pride, of industry, and even of cured against the resolute villainy of Ravillac, folly, in the weakest, when he sets his heart than Villiers duke of Buckingham could be upon it, that makes a strange progress in against that of Felton. And there is no inmischief. What may seem to the reader the censed person so destitute, but can provide grea est paradox in the reflection of the his- himself with a knife or a pistol, if he finds toria i is, I suppose, that folly, which is ge- stomach to apply them. That things and perneraly thought incapable of contriving or sons of no moment should give such powerful executing any design, should be so formidable revolutions to the progress of those of the to those whom it exerts itself to molest. But greatest, seems a providential disposition to this will appear very plain, if we remember baffle and abate the pride of human sufficithat Solomon says, “It is a sport to a fool to ency; as also to engage the humanity and do nischief;" and that he might the more benevolence of superiors to all below them, empratically express the calamitous circum- by letting them into this secret, that the stronstances of him who falls under the displeasure ger depends upon the weaker. of this wanton person, the same author adus
I am, Sir, further, that “ A stone is heavy, and the sand
* Your very humble servant.' weigity, but a fool's wrath is beavier than them both." It is impossible to suppress my! 'DEAR sir, Temple, Paper-buildings. own illustration upon this matter, which is, I received a letter from you some time ago, which I should have answered sooner, had favour of the handsome black man against you informed me in yours to what part of this the handsome fair one. island I might have directed my impertinence;
I am, Sir, but, having been let into the knowledge of C.
Your most humble servant.' that matter, this handsome excuse is no lon
N. B. He who writ this is a black man, two ger' serviceable. My neighbour Pretty man shall be the subject of this letter; who, falling pa!
helling pair of stairs; the gentleman of whom he in with the Spectator's doctrine concerning writes is fair and one pair of stairs. the month of May, began from that season to "MR. SPECTATOR, dedicate himself to the service of the fair, in “I only say, that it is impossible for me to the following manner. I observed at the be- say how much I am ginning of the month he bought him a new
Yours, night-gown, either side to be worn outwards,
· ROBIN SHORTER.' both equally gorgeous and attractive ; but
P.S. I shall think it is a little hard, if you till the eud of the month I did not enter so fully into the knowledge of his contrivance as do not take as much notice of this epistle as the use of that garment has since suggested you have of the ingenious Mr. Short's. I am to me. Now you must know, that all new not of letting the world see which is the deepclothes raise and warm the wearer's imagina-er man of the two.' tion into a conceit of his being a much finer
ADVERTISEMENT. gentleman than he was before, banishing all sobriety and reflection, and giving him up to
London, September 15.
Whereas a young woman on horseback, in gallantry and amour. Inflamed therefore
an equestrian habit, on the 13th instant in the with this way of thinking, and full of the spi
evening, met the Spectator within a mile and rit of the month of May, did this merciless
a half of this town, and, flying in the face youth resolve upon the business of captivating. At first he confined himself to his
of justice, pulled off her hat, in which there room, only now and then appearing at his
was a feather, with the mein and air of a window, in his night-gown, and practising
"young officer, saying at the same time, · Your that easy posture which expresses the very
servant, Mr. Spec,' or words to that purpose :
this is to give notice, thai if any person can top and dignity of languishment. It was pleasant to see him diversify his loveliness, some
discover the name and place of abode of the
said offender, so as she can be brought to justimes obliging the passengers only with a sideface, with a book in his hand; sometimes be
tice, the informer shall have all fitting ening so generous as to expose the whole in the
couragement. fulness of its beauty ; at other times, by a judicious throwing back his periwig, he would No 486.7 Wednesday, September 17, 1712. throw in his ears. You know he is that sort Audire est operæ pretium, procedere recte
Qui machis non vultis of person which the mob call a handsome
Hor. Sat. ii. Lib. 1. 38: jolly man ; which appearance cannot miss of captives in this part of the town. Being em
All you who think the city ne'er can thrive boldened by daily success, he leaves his room
Till ev'ry cuckold maker's tiead alive, with a resolution to extend his conquests ; [.
Attend and I have apprehended him in his nightgown smiting in all parts of this neighbour-| 'MR. SPECTATOR, hood.
• There are very many of my acquaintance • This I, being of an amorous complexion, followers of Socrates, with more particular saw with indignation, and had thoughts of regard to that part of his philosophy which purchasing a wig in these parts; into which, we among ourselves call his domestics; under being at a greater distance from the earth, 1 which denomination, or title, we include all might have thrown a very liberal mixture of the conjugal joys and sufferings. We have white horse-hair, which would make a fairer, indeed, with very great pleasure, observed the and consequently a handsomer, appearance, honour you do the wbole fraternity of the henwhile my situation would secure me against pecked in placing that illustrious man at our any discoveries. But the passion of the hand-head, and it does in a very great measure bafsome gentleman seems to be so fixed to that fle the railery of pert rogues, who have no adpart of the building, that it must be extreme- vantage above us, but in that they are single. ly difficult to divert it to mine; so that I am But, when you look about into the crowd of resolved to stand boldly to the complexion of mankind, you will find the fair-sex reigns with my own eyebrow, and prepare me an im- greater tyranny over lovers than husbands. mense black wig of the same sort of structure You shall hardly meet one in a thousand who with that of my rival. Now, though by this is wholly exempt from their dominion, and I shall not, perhaps, lessen the number of those that are so are capable of no taste of life, the admirers of his complexion, I shall have and breathe and walk about the earth as in a fair chance to divide the passengers by the significants. But I am going to desire your irresistible force of mine,
further favour of our harmless brotherhood, I expect sudden despatches from you, with and hope you will show in a true light the unadvice of the family you are in now, how to married hen-pecked, as well as you have done deport myself upon this so delicate a conjunc-justice to us, who submit to the conduct of our ture; with some comfortable resolutions in wives. I am very particularly acquainted with
one who is under entire submission to a kind nution of the wealth and happiness of their girl, as he calls her; and though he knows 1 families, in bar of those honourably near te have been witness both to the ill usage he has them, have left immense wealth to their parereceived from her, and his inability to resist mours. What is this but being a cully in the her tyranny, he still pretends to make a jest grave! Sure this is being hen-pecked with a of me for a little more than ordinary obsequi- vengeance! But, without dwelling upon these ousness to my spouse. No longer than Tues- less frequent instances of eminent cullyistn, day last he took me with him to visit his mis- what is there so common as to hear a fellow tress; and having, it seems, been a little in curse his fate that he cannot get rid of a pasdisgrace before, thought by bringing me with sion to a jilt, and quote a half line out of a mis him she would constrain herself, and insensi-cellany poem to prove his weakness is natural ? bly fall into general discourse with him; and if they will go on thus, I have nothing to say so he might break the ice, and save himself to it; but then let them not pretend to be free all the ordinary compunctions and mortifica- all this while, and laugh at us poor married pations she used to make him suffer before shetients. would be reconciled, after any act of rebellion I have known one wench in this town carry on his part. When we came into the room, a haughty dominion over her lovers so well, we were received with the utmost coldness; that she has at the same time been kept by a and when he presented me as Mr. Such-a-one, sea-captain in the Straits, a merchant in the his very good friend, she just had patience city, a country gentleman in Hampshire, and to suffer my salutation ; but when he himself, had all her correspondences managed by one with a very gay air, offered to follow me, she whom she kept for her own uses. This happy gave him a thundering box on the ear, called man (as the phrase is used to write very punchim a pitiful poor spirited wretch-how dursttually, every post letters for the mistress to he see her face? His wig and hat fell on dif- transcribe. He would sit in his night-gown and ferent parts of the floor. She seized the wig slippers, and be as grave giving an account, too soon for him to recover it, and, kicking it only changing names, that there was nothing down stairs, threw herself into an opposite in those idle reports they had heard of such a room, pulling the door after her by force, that scoundrel as one of the other lovers was; and you would have thought the hinges would have how could he think she could condescend so given way. We went down you must think, with low, after such a fine gentleman as each of no very good countenances; and, as we were them! For the same epistle said the same driving home together, he confessed to me, thing to, and of, every one of them. And so that her anger was thus highly raised, because Mr. Secretary and his lady went to bed with he did not think fit to fight a gentleman who great order. bad said she was what she was: " but," says he, «To be short, Mr. Spectator, we husbands " a kind letter or two, or fifty pieces, will put shall never make the figure we ought in the her in humour again." I asked him why he imaginations of young men growing up in the did not part with her: he answered, he loved world, except you can bring it about that a her with all the tenderness imaginable, and man of the town shall be as infamous a chashe had too many charms to be abandoned for racter as a woman of the town. But, of all a little quickness of spirit. Thus does this il- that I have met with in my time, commend me legitimate hen-pecked overlook the hussy's to Betty Duall : she is the wife of a sailor, and having no regard to his very life and fame, the kept mistress of a man of quality ; she in putting him upon an infamous dispute about dwells with the latter during the seafaring of her reputation : yet has he the confidence to the former. The husband asks 'no questions, laugh at me, because I obey my poor dear in sees his apartments furnished with riches not keeping out of harm's way, and not staying bis, when he comes into port, and the lover is too late from my own family, to pass through as joyful as a man arrived at his haven, when the hazards of a town full of ranters and de- the other puts to sea. Betty is the most cmibauchees. You that are a philosopher, should
nently victorious of any of her sex, and ought urge in our behalf, that, when we bear with a to stand recorded the only woman of the age froward woman, our patience is preserved, in in which she lives, who has possessed at the consideration that a breach with her might be same time two abused, and two contenteda dishonour to children who are descended T. from us, and whose concern makes us tolerate a thousand frailties, for fear they should redound dishonour upon the innocent. This and/No 487.] Thursday, September 18, 1712.
-- Củm prostrata sopore the like circumstances, which carry with them
Urget membra quies, et mens sine pondere ludit. the most valuable regards of human life, may
Petr. be mentioned for our long suffering; but in the case of gallants, they swallow ill usage
While sleep oppresses the tir'd limbs, the mind
Plays without weight, and wantons unconfin'd. from one to whom they have no obligation, but from a base passion, which it is mean to Though there are many authors who have indulge, and which it would be glorious to written on dreams, they have generally conovercome.
sidered them only as revelations of what has • These sort of fellows are very numerous, I already happened in distant parts of the world, and some have been conspicuously such, with or as presages of what is to happen in future ont shame; nay, they bave carried on tbe jest periods of time. in the very article of death, and, to the dimi-1" I shall consider this subject in another light, as dreams may give us some idea of the great have then so little hold of our abstracted up. excellency of a human soul, and some intima- derstandings, that they forget the story, and tions of its indepency on matter.
can only relate to our awaked souls a confused In the first place, our drams are great in- and broken tale of that that has passed. Thus stances of that activity which is natural to the it is observed that men sometimes, upon the human soul, and which is not in the power of hour of their departure, do speak and reason sleep to deaden or abate. When the man above themselves ; for then the soul, begin. appears to be tired and worn out with the la- ning to be freed from the ligaments of the bours of the day, this active part in his compo- body, begins to reason like herself, and to dissition is still busied and unwearied. When course in a strain above mortality. the organs of sense want their due repose and We may likewise, observe, in the third place. necessary reparations, and the hody is no lon- that the passions affect the mind with greater ger able to keep pace with that spiritual sub- strength when we are asleep than when we are stance to which it is united, the soul exerts her- awake. Joy and sorrow give us more vigorous self in her several faculties, and continues in sensations of pain or pleasure at this time than action until her partner is again qualified to any other. Devotion likewise, as the excellent bear her company. In this case dreams look author above mentioned has hinted, is in a like the relaxations and amusements of the very particular manner heightened and insoul, when she is disencumbered of ber ma. flamed, when it rises in the soul at a time chine, her sports, and recreations, when she that the body is thus laid at rest. Every man's has laid her charge asleep.
experience will inform him in this matter, In the second place, dreams are an instance though it is very probable that this may hapof that agility and perfection which is natural pen indifferently in different constitutions. I to the faculties of the mind, when they are shall conclude this head with the two follow. disengaged from the body. The soul is clog-Jing problems, which I shall leave to the soged and retarded in her operations, when she lution of my reader. Supposing a man always acts in conjunction with a companion that is happy in his dreams, and miserable in his so heavy and unwieldy in its motion. But in waking thoughts, and that this life was equal. dreams it is wonderful to observe with what ly divided between them ; whether would he a spriglitliness and alacrity she exerts her be more happy or miserable ? Were a man a self. The slow of speech make unpremeditat- king in his dreams, and a beggar awake, and ed harangues, or converse readily in langua- dreampt as consequentially, and in as continuges that they are but little acquainted with. ed unbroken schemes, as he thinks when The grave abound in pleasantries, the dull awake; whether would he be in reality a in repartees and points of wit. There is not a king or a beggar; or, rather, whether he would more painful action of the mind than inven- not be both ? tion ; yet in dreams it works with that ease There is another circumstance, which meand activity that we are not sensible of, wben thinks gives us a very bigh idea of the nature the faculty is employed. For instance, I be- of the soul, in regard to what passes in dreams. lieve every one some time or other, dreams I mean that innumerable multitude and va. ' that he is reading papers, books, or letters; riety of ideas which then arise in her. Were in which case the invention prompts so are- that active and watchful being only conscious dily, that the mind is imposed upon, and mis- of her own existence at such a time, what a takes its own suggestions for the compositions painful solitude would our hours of sleep be? of another.
Were the soul sepsible of her being alone in I shall, under this head, quote a passage her sleeping moments, after the same manner out of the Religio Medici,* in which the in- that she is sensible of it while awake, the time genious author gives an account of himself would hang very heavy on her, as it often actuin his dreaming and his waking thoughts. “We ally does when she dreams that she is in such are somewhat more than ourselves in our a solitude. sleeps, and the slumber of the body seems to be but the waking of the soul. It is the li
Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur gation of sense, but the liberty of reason ; lre viam and our waking conceptions do not match the
Virg. En. iv. 466. fancies of our sleeps. At my nativity my as
She seems alone cendant was the watery sign of Scorpius: 1
To wander in her sleep through ways unknown was born in the planetary hour of Saturn, and Guideless and dark.
Dryden. I think I have a piece of that leaden planet in me. I am no way facetious, nor disposed for But this observation I only make by the the mirth and galliardise of company ; vet in way. What I would here remark, is that one dream I can compose a whole comedy, wonderful power in the soul, of producing her behold the action, apprehend the jests, and own company on these occasions. She conlaugh myself awake at the conceits thereof. verses with numberless beings of her own Where my memory as faithful as my reason creation, and is transported into ten thousand is then fruitful. I would never study but in scenes of her owp raising. She is herself the my dreams ; and this time also would I choose theatre, the actor, and the beholder. This for my devotions; but our grosser memorie puts me in mind of a saying which I am inti
Sinitely pleased with, and which Plutarch as* By Sir T. Brown, M. D. author of the curious book cribes to Heraclitus, that all men whilst they op Vulgar Errors,' which appeared in folio, in 1646. are awake are in one common world ; but
that each of them, when he is asleep, is in which he could heartily wish left out, viz. a world of his own. The waking man is · Price Two-Pence. I have a letter froin a conversant in the world of nature: when he soap-boiler, who condoles with me very af. sleeps he retires to a private world that is fectionately upon the necessity we both lie particular to himself. There seems some- under of setting an high price on our comthing in this consideration that intimates to modities since the late tax has been laid upus natural grandeur and perfection in the on them, and desiring me, when I write next soul, which is rather to be admired than ex- on that subject, to speak a word or two upplained.
on the present duties on Castile soap. But I must not omit that argument for the ex- there is none of these my correspondents, cellency of the soul which I have seen quoted who writes with a greater turn of good sense, out of Tertullian, namely its power of divining and elegance of expression, than the gener. in dreams. That several such divinations have ous Philomedes, who advises me to value been made, none can question, who believes every Spectator at sixpence, and promises the holy writings, or who has but the least de- that he himself will engage for above a hund. gree of a common historical faith ; there being red of his acquaintance, who shall take it in at innumerable instances of this nature iu seve that price. ral authors both ancient and modern, sacred Letters from the female world are likewise and profane Whether such dark presages, come to me, in great quantities upon the such visions of the night, proceed from any same occasion ; and, as I naturally bear a latent power in the soul, during this her state great deference to this part of our species, I of abstraction, or from any communication am very glad to find that those who approve with the Supreme Being, or from any opera- iny conduct in this particular are much more tion of subordinate spirits, has been a great numerous than those who condemn it. A large dispute among the learned; the matter of fact family of daughters have diawn me up a very is, I think, incontestable, and has been looked handsome remonstrance, in which they set upon as such by the greatest writers, who have forth that their father having refused to take been never suspected either of superstition or in the Spectator, since the additional price enthusiasm.
was set upon it, they offered him unanimously I do not suppose that the soul in these into bate him the article of bread and butter in stances is entirely loose and unfettered from the tea-table account, provided the Spectator the body ; it is sufficient if she is not so far might be served up to them every niorning as sunk and immersed in matter, nor entangled usual. Upon this the old gentleman, being and perplexed in her operations with such ino-pleased, it seems, with their desire of improve tions of blood and spirits, as when she actuates ing themselves, has granted them the contithe machine in its waking hours. The corpo- nuance both of the Spectator and their bread real union is slackened enough to give the mind and butter, having given particular orders that more play. The soul seems gathered within the tea-table shall be set forth every mornherself, and recovers that spring which is broke ing with its customary bill of fare, and with• and weakened when she operates more in con-out any manner of defalcation. I thought cert with the body.
· myself obliged to mention this particular, as The speculations I have here made, if they lit does honour to this worthy gentleman; are not arguments, they are at least strong and if the young lady Lætitia, who sent me intimations, not only of the excellency of the this account, will acquaint me with his name, I human soul, but of its independence on that bo- will insert it at length in one of my papers, if he dy; and, if they do not prove, do at least con- desires it. firm these two great points, which are estab- I should be very glad to find out any expelished by many other reasons that are altoge- dient that might alleviate the expense which ther unanswerable.
0. this my paper brings to any of my readers ;
and in order to it, must propose two points to No 488.) Friday, September 19, 1712. their consideration First, that if they retrench
any the smallest particular in their ordinary Qnanti emptæ ? parvo. Quanti ergo? octo assibus. Eheu
"expense, it will easily make up the half-penny Hor. Sat. iii. Lib. 2 156.
a day which we have now under considera. What doth it cost? Not much upon iny word.
tion. Let a lady sacrifice but a single riband How much, pray? Why, Two-pence. Two-pence! O
"to her inorning studies, and it will be suffiLord !
cient : let a family burn but a candle a night I Find, by several letters which I receive dai- less than their usual number, and they may ly, that many of my readers would be better take in the Spectator without detriment to their pleased to pay three-halfpence for my paper private affairs. than two-pence. The ingenious T. W. tells me in the next place, if my readers will not go that I have deprived him of the best part of to the price of buying my paper by retail, let his breakfast ; for that, since the rise of my them have patier.ce, and they may buy them paper, he is forced every morning to drink his in the lump without the burden of a tas upon dish of coffee by itself, without the addition of them. My speculations, when they are sold the Spectator, that used to be better than lace single, like cherries upon the stick, are de. to it. Eugenius informs me, very obligingly, lights for the rich and wealthy : after some that he never thought he should have disliked time they come to market in greater quantities, any passage in my paper, but that of late there and are every ordinary man's money. The truth have been two words in every one of them of it is, they have a certain flavour at their first