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Pope.

cases, you allow a constable to insist upon the to advance me, by recommending me to a prerogative. From the highest to the lowest gentleman that is going beyond sea in a pub. officer in your dominions, something of their lic employment. I know the printing this letown carriage they would exempt from exami- ter would point me out to those I want confination, under the shelter of the word prero-dence to speak to, and I hope it is not in your gative. I would fain, inost noble Pharamond, power to refuse making any body happy. see one of your officers assert your preroga-) September 9, 1712.

Your's, &c. tive by good and gracious actions. When is T

M. D. it used to help the afflicted, to rescue the innocent, to comfort the stranger ? Uncoinmon No. 481.] Thursday, September 11, 1712. methods, apparently undertaken to attain worthy ends. would never make power invi

-Uti non

Compositus neliùs cum Bitho Bacchius, in jus dious. You see. sir. I talk to you with the

Acres procurruntfreedom of your noble nature approves in

Hor. Sat. vii. Lib. 1. 19. all whom you admit to your conversation.

Who shall decide when doctors disagree, * But, to return to your majesty's letter, 1 And soundest casuists doubt like you and me? humbly conceive that all distinctions are use. ful to men, only as they are to act in public;

It is sometimes pleasant enough to consider and it would be a romantic madness for a man the different notions which different persons to be lord in his closet. Nothing can be ho

bave of the same thing. If men of low condourable to a man apart from the world, but

dition very often set a value on things which reflection upon worthy actions; and he that

are not prized by those who are in a higher places honour in a consciousness of well doing station of life. there are many things these will have but little relish for any outward ho-esteem which are in no value among persons mage that is paid him, since what gives him

of an inferior rank. Common people are, in distinction to himself, cannot come within the

particular, very much astonished when they observation of his beholders. Thus all the

hear of those solemn contests and debates, words of lordship, honour, and grace, are, which are made among the great upon the only repetitions to a man that the king has

punctilios of a public ceremony; and wonder ordered him to be called so; but no evidences

ences to hear that any business of consequence that there is any thing in himself, that would

should be retarded by those little circumgive the man, who applies to him, those ideas,

stances, which th-y represent to themselves without the creation of his master.

as trifling and insignificant. I am mightily I have, most noble Pharamond, all honours pleased with a porter's decision in one of Mr. and all titles in your approbation: I tri.

Southern's plays, which is founded upon that umph in them as they are your gift, 1 refuse

fine distress of a virtuous woman's marrying a them as they are to give me the observation of second husband, while her first was yet living. others. Indulge me, my noble master, in this The

The first husband, who was supposed to have chastity of renown; let me know myself in

been dead, returning to his house, after a long the favour of Pharamond ; and look down up

absence, raises a noble perplexity for the on the applause of the people. I am,

tragic part of the play. In the mean while •In all duty and loyalty,

Ithe nurse and the porter conferring upon the · Pour majesty's most obedient

difficulties that would ensue in such a case, subject and servant,

honest Samson thinks the matter may be caJEAN CHEZLU

sily decided, and solves it very judiciously SJR,

by the old proverb, that, if his first master I need not tell with what disadvantages be still living, “the man must have his mare men of low fortunes and great modesty come again. There is nothing in my time which into the world; what wrong measures their has so much surprised and confounded the diffidence of themselves, and fear of offending, greatest part of my honest countrymen, as often oblige them to take; and what a pity it the present controversy between Count Rechis that their greatest virtues and qualities, that teren and Monsieur Mesnager, which employs should soonest recommend them, are the main the wise heads of so many nations, and holds obstacles in the way of their preferment. all the affairs of Europe in suspense.

*This sir, is my case; I was bred at a Upon my going into a coffee-house yestercountry-school, where I learned Latin and day, and lending an ear to the next table, Greek. The misfortunes of my family forced which was encompassed with a circle of infeIne up to town, where a profession of the po-rior politicians, one of them, after having liter sort has protected me against infamy read over the news very attentively, broke and want. I am now clerk to a lawyer, and, lout into the following remarks: I am afraid,' in times of vancy and recess from business, says he, 'this unhappy rupture between the have made myself master of Italian and footmen at Utrecht will retard the peace of French; and though the progress I have Christendom. I wish the pope may not be at made in my business has gained me reputa- the bottom of it. His lioliness has a very tion enough for one of my standing, yet my good hand in fomenting a division, as the mind suggests to me every day, that it is not poor Swiss cantons have lately experienced to upon that foundation I am to build my for their cost. Jf Monsieur What-d'ye-call-him's tune.

domestics will not come to an accommodation. • The person I have my present dependence I do not know how the quarrel can be endel upon has in his nature, as well as in his power, but by a religious war.'

*Why, truly,' says a wiseacre that sat by Count Rechteren,' says me, 'should have him, were I as the king of France, I would made affidavit that his servant had been afscorn to take part with the footmen of either fronted, and then Monsieur Mesnager would side: here's all the business of Europe stands have done him justice, by taking away their still, because Monsieur Mesnager's man has had liveries from them, or some other way that he his head broke. If Count Rectrum* had given might have thought the most proper; for, let them a pot of ale after it, all would have me tell you, if a man makes a mouth at me, I been well, without any of this bustle ; but they am not to knock the teeth out of it for his say he's a warm man, and does not care to be paids. Then again, as for Monsieur Mesnager, made mouths at.'

upon his servants being beaten, why, he might Upon this, one that had held his tongue hi-have had his action of assault and battery. But therto began to exert himself; declaring, that as the case now stands, if you will have my he was very well pleased the plenipotentiaries opinion, I think they ought to bring it to reof our Christian princes took this matter into ferees. their serious consideration; for that lackeys I heard a great deal more of this conference. were never so saucy and pragmatical as they but I must confess with little edification ; for are now-a-days, and that he should be glad to all I could learn at last from these honest gensee them taken down in the treaty of peace, tlemen was, that the matter in debate was of if it might be done without prejudice to the too high a nature for such heads as theirs, or public affairs.

mine, to comprehend.

0. One who sat at the other end of the table, and seemed to be in the interests of the French No 482.] Friday, Sepiember 12 1719 king, told them, that they did not take the

Floriferos ut in apes saltibus omnia libont. matter right, for that his most Christian ma

Lacr. Lib. iii. 11. jesty did not resent this matter because it! was an injury done to Monsieur Mesnager's

As from the sweetest flowers the lab'ring bee . Extracts her precious sweets.

Creeck footmen; for,' says he, . what are Monsieur Mesnager's tootmen to him ? but because it WHEN I have published any single paper was done to his subjects. Now,' says he, let that falls in with the popular taste, and pleases me tell you, it would look very odd for a sub-more than ordinary, it always brings me in a ject of France to have a bloody nose, and his great return of letters. My Tuesday's discourse. sovereign not to take notice of it. He is oblig- wherein I gave several admonitions to the fraed in honour to defend his people against hos- ternity of the hen-pecked, has already produced tilities; and if the Dutch will be so insolent to me very many correspondents; the reason I a crowned head, as in any wise to cuff or kick cannot guess, unless it be, that such a disthose who are under his protection, I think he course is of general use, and every married is in the right to call them to an account for man's money. An honest tradesman, who dates it.'

This letter from Cheapside, sends me thanks in This distinction set the controversy upon a the name of a club, who, he tells me, meet as new foot, and seemed to be very well approved often as their wives will give them leave, and by most that heard it, until a little. warm fel- stay together till they are sent for home. He low, who had declared himself a friend to the informs me, that my paper has administered house of Austria, fell most unmercifully upon great consolation to their whole club, and dehis Gallic majesty, as encouraging his sub- sires me to give some further account of Sojects to make mouths at their betters, and af- crates, and to acquaint them in whose reign he terwards screening them from the punishment iived, whether he was a citizen or a cor that was due to their insolence. To which he whether he buried Xantippe, with many other added, that the French nation was so addicted particulars : for that by his sayings, he appears to grimace, that, if there was not a stop put to to have been a very wise man, and a good it at the general congress, there would be no Christian. Another, who writes himself Benjawalking the streets for them in a time of peace, inin Bamboo, tells me that, being coupled with especially if they continued masters of the a shrew, he had endeavoured to tame her by West Indies. The little man proceeded with such lawful means as those which I mentioned a great deal of warmth, declaring that, if the in iny last Tuesday's paper, and that in his allies were of bis mind. he would oblige the wrath he had often gone further than Bracton French king to burn his galleys, and tolerate always allows in those cases : but that for the the protestant religion in his dominions, be- future he was resolved to bear it like a man of fore he would sheath his sword. He conclud-temper and learning, and consider ber only as ed with calling Monsieur Mésnager an insig- one who lives in his house to teach him philonificant prig.

Isophy. Tom Dapperwit says, that he agrees The dispute was now growing very warm, with me in that whole discourse, excepting only and one does not know where it would have the last sentence, where I affirm the married ended, had not a young man of about one-and-state to be either a heaven or a hell. Tom bas twenty, who seems to have been brought up been at the charge of a penny upon this occa. with an eye to the law, taken the debate into sion to tell me, that by his experience it is his band, and given it as his opinion, that neither one nor the other, but rather that neither Count Rechteren nor Monsieur Mesna- middle kind of state, commonly kpown by the ger had behaved themselves right in this affair. name of purgatory.

1 The fair-sex have likewise obliged me with * Count Rechferen.

their reflections upon the same discourse. A

lady, who calls herself Euterpe, and seems al Never presume to make a god appear,

But for a business worthy of a god. Roscommon. woman of letters, asks me whether I am for establishing the Salic law in every family, and we cannot be guilty of a greater act of unwhy it is not fit that a woman who has discre-!

3 discre- charitableness than to interpret the afflictions tion and learning should sit at the helm, when which befall our neighbours as pupishments the husband is weak and illiterate? Another, li

"and judgments. It aggravates the evil to him of a quite contrary character, subscribes her...

who suffers, when he looks upon himself as the self Xantippe, and tells me that she follows the mark of divine vengeance, and abates the comexample of her namesake ; for being married

passion of those towards him who regard him to a bookish man, who has no knowledge of

or in so dreadful a light. This humour, of turnthe world, she is forced to take their affairs

ing every misfortune into a judgment, proceeds into her own hands, and to spirit bim up now

from wrong notions of religion, which in its and then, that he may not grow musty, and

"own nature produces good-will towards men, unfit for conversation.

and puts the mildest construction upon every After this abridgment of some letters which

accident that befalls them. In this case, there. are come to my hands upon this occasion, ili

fore, it is not religion that sours a man's temshall publish one of them at large.

per, but it is his temper that sours his religion.

People of gloomy, uncheerful imaginations, or * MR. SPECTATOR, .

of envious malignant tempers, whatever kind * You have given us a lively picture of that lof life they are engaged in, will discover their kind of husband who comes under the denomi- natural tincture of mind in all their thoughts, nation of the hen-pecked; but I do not re-words, and actions. As the finest vines have member that you have ever touched upon one often the taste of the soil, so even the most rethat is quite of the different character, and ligious thoughts often draw something that is who, in several places of England, goes by the particular froin the constitution of the mind name of a cot-queen. I have the misfortune in which they arise. When solly or superstition to be joined for life with one of this character, strike in with this natural depravity of temper who in reality is more a woman than I am. it is not in the power, even of religion itself, to He was bred up under the tuition of a tender preserve the character of the person who is motber, till she had made him as good a house-possessed with it from appearing high!y'absurd wife as herself. He could preserve apricots, and ridiculous. and make jellies, before he had been two years An old maiden gentlewoman, whom I shall out of the nursery. He was never suffered to conceal under the name of Nemesis, is the go abroad, for fear of catching cold; when he greatest discoverer of judgments that I have should have been hunting down a buck, he was met with. She can tell you what sin it was by his mother's side learning how to season it, that set such a man's house on fire, or blew or put it in crust; and was making paper boats down his barns. Talk to her of an unfortunate with his sisters, at an age when other young young lady that lost her beauty by the smallgentlemen are crossing the seas, or travelling pox, she fetches a deep sigh, and tells you, into foreign countries. He has the whitest that when she had a fine face she was always band you ever saw in your life, and raises paste looking on it in her glass. Tell her of a piece better than any woman in England. These of good fortune that has befallen one of her qualifications make him a sad husband. He is acquaintance, and she wishes it may prosper perpetually in the kitchen, and has a thousand with her, but ber mother used one of her nieces squabbles with the cook-maid. He is better very barbarously. Her usual reinarksturn upon acquainted with the milk-score than his stew people who had great estates, but oever enjoyed ard's, accounts. I fret to death when I hear them by reason of some flaw in their own or him find fault with a dish that is not dressed their father's behaviour. She can give you the to his liking, and instructing his friends that reason why such an ove died childless; why dine with him in the best pickle for a walnut, such an one was cut off in the flower of his or sauce for an haunch of venison. With all youth ; why such an one was unbappy in her this he is a very good-natured husband, and marriage; why one broke his leg on such a never fell out with me in his life but once, pon particular spot of ground; and why another the over-roasting of a dish of wild-fowl. At the was killed with a back-sword, rather than with same time I must own, I would rather he was any other kind of weapon. She has a crime a man of a rough temper, and would treat me for every misfortune that can befall any of her barshly sometimes, than of such an effeminate acquaintance; and when she hears of a robbery busy nature, in a province that does not belong that has been made, or a murder that has been to him. Since you have given us the character committed, enlarges more on the guilt of the of a wife who wears the breeches, prav say Isuffering person, thau on that of the thief. or somewhat of a husband that wears the petti-lassassin. In short, she is so good a Christian, coat. Why should not a female character be that whatever happens to herself is a trial, and as ridiculous in a man, as a male character in whatever happens to her neighbours is a judg. one of our sex?

ment. 0.

'I am, &c. | The very description of this folly, iu ordi

nary life is sufficient to expose it: but, when No. 483.) Saturday, September 13, 1712.

it appears in a pomp and dignity of style,

it is very apt to amuse and terrify the mind Nec deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus

of the reader. Herodotus and Plutarch veInciderit

Hor. Ars Poek ver. 191. Try often apply their judgments as impertinently as the old woman I have before men- fleet. We are all involved in the same calationed, though their manner of relating them mities, and subject to the same accidents : and, makes the folly itself appear venerable. In- when we see any one of the species under deed most historians, as well Christian as any particular oppression, we should look uppagan, have fallen into this idle supersti- on it as arising from the common lot of human rion, and spoken of ill success, unforeseen nature, rather than from the guilt of the perdisasters, and terrible events, as if they had son who suffers. been let into the secrets of Providence, and Another consideration, that may check our made acquainted with that private conduct presumption in putting such a construction by which the world is governed. One would upon a misfortune, is this, that it is impossible think several of our own historians in par- for us to know what are calamities and what ricular bad many revelations of this kind are blessings. How many accidents have pas. made to them. Our old English monks sel. sed for misfortunes, which have turned to the dom let any of their kings depart in peace, welfare and prosperity of the persons to whose who had endeavoured to diminish the power lot they have fallen! How many disappointor wealth of which the ecclesiastics were in ments bave, in their consequences, saved a those times possessed. William the Conque- man from ruin! If we could look into the ef. ror's race generally found their judginents fects of every thing, we might be allowed to in the New Forest, where their father had pronounce boldly upon blessings and judgpulled down churches and monasteries. In ments ; but for a man to give his opinion of short, read one of the chronicles written by what he sees but in part, and in its beginnings, an author of this frame of mind, and you is an unjustifiable piece of rashness and folly. would think you were reading an history of the The story of Biton and Clitobus, which was in kings of Israel and Judah, where the historians great reputation among the heathens, (for we were actually inspired, and where, by a par- see it quoted by all the ancient authors, both ticular scheme of Providence, the kings were Greek and Latin, who have written upon the distinguished by judgments, or blessings, ac- immortality of the soul) may teach us a caucording as they promoted idolatry or the wor- tion in this matter. These two brothers, beship of the true God.

ing the sons of a lady who was priestess I cannot but look upon this manner of judg. to Juno, drew their mother's chariot to the ing upon misfortunes, not only to be very un- temple at the time of a great solemnity, the charitable in regard to the person on whom persons being absent who, by their office, they fall, but very presumptuous in regard to were to have drawn her chariot on that occahim who is supposed to inflict them. It is a sion. The mother was so transported with strong argument for a state of retribution here- this instance of filial duty, that she petitioned after. that in this world virtuous persons are her goddess to bestow upon them the greatest very often unfortunate, and vicious persons gift that could be given to men ; upon which prosperous; which is wholly repugnant to the they were both cast into a deep sleep, and the nature of a Being who appears infinitely wise next morning found dead in the temple. This and good in all his works, unless we may sup- was such an event, as would have been conpose that such a promiscuous and undistin.strued into a judgment, had it happened to the guished distribucion of good and evil, which two brothers after an act of disobedience, and was necessary for carrying on the designs of would doubtless have been represented as such Providence in this life, will be rectified, and by any ancient historian who had given us an made amends for, in another. We are not account of it.

0. therefore to expect that fire should fall from heaven in the ordinary course of Providence ;) nor, when we see triumphant guilt or depressed virtue in particular persons, that Omnipo-1"

No. 484.] Monday, September 15, 1712. tence will make bare his holy arm in the del Neque cuiquam tam statim clarum iugeuium est, uf fence of oue, or punishment of the other. It is possit emergere ; nisi illi materia, occasio, fautor etiam,

commendatorque continga".

Plin. Epist. sufficient that there is a day set apart for the hearing and requiting of both, according to

Nor has any one so bright a genius as to become illus

trious instantaneously, unless it fortunately meets with their respective merits.

occasion and employment, with patronage too, and com The folly of ascribing temporal judgments mendation. to any particular crimes, may appear from several considerations. I shall only mention

MR. SPECTATOR, two: First, that, generally speaking, there is Of all the young fellows who are in their no calainity or affliction, which is supposed to progress through any profession, none seen have happened as a judgment to a vicious man, to have so good a title to the protection of the which does not sometimes happen to men of men of eminence in it as the modest man; not approved religion and virtue. When Diagoras so much because his modesty is a certain indi. the atheist was on board one of the Athenian cation of his merit, as because it is a certain ships, there arose a very violent tempest: upon obstacle to the producing of it. Now, as of all which the mariners told him, that it was a just professions this virtue is thought to be more judgment upon them for having taken so im- particularly unnecessary in that of the law pious a man on board. Diagoras begged them than in any other, I shall only apply myself to to look upon the rest of the ships that were in the relief of such who follow this profession the same distress, and asked them whether or with this disadvantage. What aggravates the no Diagoras was on board every vessel in the matter is, that those persons who, the better to

prepare themselves for this study, have made desty otherwise would have suppressed it. It some progress in others, have, by addicting may seem very marvellous to a saucy modern, themselves to letters, increased their natural that multum sanguinis, multum rerecundia, modesty, and consequently heightened the ob- mutum sollicitudinis in ore, “ to have the face struction to this sort of preferment; so that first full of blood, then the countenance every one of these may emphatically be said dashed with modesty, and then the whole as. to be such a one as “laboureth and taketh |pect as of one dying with fear, when a man pains, and is still the more behind." It may begins to speak," should be esteemed by Pliny be a matter worth discussing, then, why that the necessary qualifications of a fine speaker. which made a youth so amiable to the ancients, Shakespeare also has expressed himself in the should make him appear so ridiculous to the same favourable strain of modesty, when he moderns? and why, in our days, there should says, be neglect, and even oppression of young beginners instead of that protection which was

In the modesty of fearful duty

I read as much as from the rattling tongue the pride of theirs? In the profession spoken

Of saucy and audacious eloquence- of, it is obvious to every one whose attendance is required at Westminster-hall, with what diffi- "Now, since these authors have professed culty a youth of any modesty has been per- themselves for the modest man, even in the utmitted to make an observation, that could in most confusions of speech and countenance, no wise detract from the merit of his elders, why should an intrepid utterance and a resoand is absolutely necessary for the advancing lute vociferation thunder so successfully in his own. I have often seen one of these not our courts of justice ! And why should that only molested in his utterance of something confidence of speech and behaviour, which very pertinent, but even plundered of his ques- seems to acknowledge no superior, and to defy tion, and by a strong sergeant shouldered out all contradiction, prevail over that deference of his rank, which he has recovered with much and resignation with which the modest man difficulty and confusion. Now, as great part implores that favourable opinion which the of the business of this profession might be de- other seems to command ? spatched by one that perhaps

• As the case at present stands, the best con

solation that I can administer to those who Abest virtnte diserti, Messale, nec scit quantum Causellius Aulus;

cannot get into that stroke of business (as the Hor. Ars Poet. v.370.

phrase is) which they deserve, is to reckon

every particular acquisition of knowledge in -wants Messala's powerful eloquence, this study as a real increase of their fortune ; And is less read than deep Causelius :

and fully to believe, that one day this imaginaRoscommon.

Try gain will certainly be made out by one more so I cannot conceive the injustice done to the substantial. I wish you would talk to us a litpublic, if the men of reputation in this calling tle on this head; you would oblige, Sir, would introduce such of the young ones into

Your humble servant,' business, whose application in this study will let them into the secrets of it, as much as their The author of this letter is certainly a mari modesty will hinder them from the practice : of good sense ; but I am perhaps particular in I say, it would be laying an everlasting obliga- my opinion on this occasion : for I have obtion upon a young man, to be introduced at served that, under the notion of modesty, men first only as a mute, till hy this countenance, have indulged themselves in spiritless sleepand a resolution to support the good opinion ishness, and been for ever lost to themse ves, conceived of him in his betters, his complex- their families, their friends, and their couutry. ion shall be so well settled, that the litigious of When a man has taken care to pretend to nothis island may be secure of this obstreperous thing but what he may justly aim at, and can aid. If I might be indulged to speak in the execute as well as any other, without injustice. style of a lawyer, I would say, that any one to any other, it is ever want of breeding or about thirty years of age might make a com-courage to be brow-beaten or elbowed out of mon motion to the court with as much elegance his honest ambition. I have said often, modes. and propriety as the most aged advocates in ty must be an act of the will, and yet it alvays the hall.

implies self-denial ; for, if a man has an arI cannot advance the merit of modesty by dent desire to do what is laudable for him to any argument of my own so powerfully as by perform, and, from an unmannerly bashfulinquiring into the sentiments the greatest ness, shrinks away, and lets his merit languish among the ancients of different ages entertain-I in silence, he ought not to be angry a the ed upon this virtue. If we go back to the days world that a more unskilful actor succeels in of Solomon, we shall find favour a necessary his part, because he has not confidence to consequence to a shame-faced man. Pliny the come upon the stage himself. The generosity greatest lawyer and most elegant writer of my correspondent mentions of Pliny canot the age, he lived in, in several of his epistles is be enough applauded. To cherish the dawn very solicitous in recommending to the pub- of merit, and hasten its maturity, was a vork lic some young men, of his own profession, I worthy a noble Roman and a liberal scholar. and very often undertakes to become an advo-That concern which is described in the letcate, upon condition that some one of these ter, is to all the world the greatest charm ima. iiis favourites might be joined with him, in or- ginable ; but then the modest man must pro der to produce the merit of such, whose moceed, and show a latent resolution in

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