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hedge, in a field, or in a meadow, as some of they have made a very pleasing contrast; for the greatest beauties of the place. The only as on one side of the walk you see this hollow method I observe in this particular, is to range basin, with its several little plantations, lying in the same quarter the products of the same so conveniently under the eye of the beholder, season, that they may make their appearance on the other side of it there appears a seeming together, and compose a picture of the great-mount, made up of trees rising one higher est variety. There is the same irregularity than another, in propoytion as they approach in my plantations, which run into as great a the centre. A spectator, who has not heard wildness as their natures will permit. I take this account of it, would think this circular in none that do not naturally rejoice in the mount was not only a real one, but that it had soil; and am pleased, when I am walking in been actually scooped out of that hollow space a labyrinth of my own raising, not to know which I have before mentioned. I never yet whether the next tree I shall meet with is an met with any one, who has walked in this garapple or an oak, an elm or a pear-tree. My den, who was not struck with that part of it kitchen has likewise its particular quarters which I have here mentioned. As for myassigned it; for, besides the wholesome luxu- self, you will find, by the account which I ry which that place abounds with, I have al. have already given you, that my composiways thought a kitchen-garden a more plea- tions in gardening are altogether after the sant sight than the finest orangery or artificial Pindaric manner, and run into the beautiful green-house. I love to see every thing in its wildness of nature, without affecting the niperfection ; and am more pleased to survey cer elegancies of art. What I am now going my rows of coleworts and cabbages, with a to mention will, perhaps, deserve your attenthousand nameless pot-herbs, springing up in tion more than any thing I have yet said. I their full fragrancy and verdure, than to see find that, in the discourse which I spoke of the tender plants of foreign countries kept at the beginning of my letter, you are against alive by artificial heats, or withering in an air filling an English garden with evergreens ; and soil that are not adapted to them. I must and indeed I am so far of your opinion, that I not omit, that there is a fountain rising in the can by no means think the verdure of an everupper part of my garden, wbich forms a little green comparable to that which shoots out anwandering rill, and administers to the pleasure nually, and clothes our trees in the summer as well as the plenty of the place. I have so searon. But I have often wondered that those conducted it, that it visits most of my planta- who are like myself, and love to live in gartions ; and have taken particular care to let it dens, have never thought of contriving a winter run in the same manner as it would do in an garden, which would consist of such trees only open field, so that it generally passes througb as never cast their leaves. We have very of banks of violets and primroses, plats of willow ten little snatches of sunshine and fair weather or other plants, that seem to be of its own in the most uncomfortable parts of the year, producing. There is another circumstance in and have frequently several days in November which I am very particular, or, as my neigh- and January that are as agreeable as any in the bours calls me, very whimsical: as my garden finest months. At such times therefore, I invites into it all the birds of the country, by think there could not be a greater pleasure offering them the conveniency of springs and than to walk in such a winter garden as I have shades, solitude and shelter, I do not suffer proposed. In the summer season the whole any one to destroy their nests in the spring, country blooms, and is a kind of garden; for or drive them from their usual haunts in fruit- which reason we are not so sensible of those time ; I value my garden more for being full beauties that at this time may be every where of blackbirds than cherries, and very frankly met with ; but when nature is in her desolagive them fruit for their songs. By this means tion, and presents us with nothing but bleak I have always the music of the season in its and barren prospects, there it something unperfection, and am highly delighted to see speakably cheerful in a spot of ground which the jay or the thrush hopping about my walks, is covered with trees that smile amidst all the and shooting before my eyes across the seve- rigour of winter, and give us a view of the most ral little glades and alleys that I pass through. gay season in the midst of that which is the I think there are as many kinds of gardening most dead and melancholy. I have so far inas of poetry : your makers of parterres and dulged myself in this thought, that I have set flower-gardens are epigrammatists and sonnet- apart a whole acre of ground for the executing teers in this art; contrivers of bowers and of it. The walls are covered with ivy instead grottos, treillages and cascades, are romance of vines. The laurel, the horn-beam, and the writers. Wise and London are our heroic holly, with many other trees and plants of the poets; and if, as a critic, I may single out any same nature, grow so thick in it, that you passage of their works to commend, I shall cannot imagine a more lievely scene. The take notice of that part in the upper garden at glowing redness of the berries, with which they Kensington, which was at first nothing but a are hung at this time, vies with the verdure of gravel-pit. It must have been a fine genius their leaves, and is apt to inspire the heart of for gardening that could have thought of the beholder with that vernal delight which forming such an unsightly hollow into so you have somewhere taken notice of in your beautiful an area, and to have hit the eye with former papers. It is very pleasant, at the same so uncommon and agreeable a scene as that time, to see the several kinds of birds retiring which it is now wrought into. To give this into this little green spot, and enjoying themparticular spot of ground the greater effect, selyes among the branches and foliage, when

my great garden, which I have before men- able manner, how much clothes contribute to tioned to you, does not afford a single leaf for make us agreeable objects, and how much we their shelter.

owe it to ourselves that we should appear so. You must know, sir, that I look upon the 'We considered man as belonging to sociepleasure which we take in a garden as one of ties; societies as formed of different ranks; and the most innocent delights in human life. A different ranks distinguished by habits, that all garden was the habitation of our first parents proper duty or respect might attend their apbefore the fall. It is naturally apt to fill the pearance. mind with calmnes and tranquillity, and to lay "We took notice of several advantages which all its turbulent passions at rest. It gives us a are met with in the occurrences of conversagreat insight into the contrivance and wisdom tion; how the bashful man has been sometimes of Providence, and suggests innumerable sub- so raised, as to express himself with an air of jects for meditation. I cannot but think the freedom when he imagines that his habit invery complacency and satisfaction which a man troduces him to company with a becoming takes in these works of nature to be a lauda- manner; and again, how a fool in fine clothes ble, if not a virtuous, babit of mind. For all shall be suddenly heard with attention, till he which reasons I hope you will pardon the has betrayed himself; whereas a man of sense length of my present letter.

appearing with a dress of negligence, shall be C. 'I am, Sir, &c.

but coldly received till he be proved by time, and established in a character. Such things as

these we could recollect to have happened to No. 478.] Monday, September 8, 1712. our own knowledge so very often, that we con

cluded the author had his reasons, who advises Usus,

his son to go ia dress rather above his fortune Quein penes arbitrium est, et jus et normaHor. Ars Poct. v. 72.

tbau under it.

"At last the subject seemed so considerable, - Fashion, sole arbitress of dress.

that it was proposed to have a repository built

for fashions, as there are chambers for medals MR. SPECTATOR,

and other rarities. The building may be shaped It happened lately that a friend of mine, as that which stands among the pyramids, in who had many things to buy for his family, the form of a woman's head. This may be raiswould oblige me to walk with him to the shops. ed upon pillars, whose ornaments shall bear He was very nice in his way, and fond of having a just relation to the design. Thus there may every thing shown; which at first made me very be an imitation of fringe carved in the base, a uneasy ; but, as his humour still continued, sort of appearance of lace in the frieze, and a the things which I had been staring at along representation of curling locks, with bows of with bim began to fill my head, and led me ribband sloping over them, may fill up the into a set of amusing thoughts concerning works of the cornice. The inside may be divided them.

into two apartments appropriated to each sex. "I fancied it must be very surprising to any The apartments may be filled with shelves, one who enters into a detail of fashions to con- on which boxes are to stand as regularly as sider how far the vanity of mankind has laid books in a library. These are to have folding itself out in dress, what a prodigious number doors, which, being opened, you are to behold of people it maintains, and what a circulation a baby dressed out in some fashion which has of money it occasions. Providence in this case flourished, and standing upon a pedestal, where makes use of the folly which we will not give the time of its reign is marked down. For its up, and it becomes instrumental to the support further regulation, let it be ordered, that every of those who are willing to labour. Hence it is one who invents a fashion shall bring in his that fringe-makers, lace-men, tire-women, and box, whose front he may at pleasure have a number of other trades, which would be use- either worked or painted with some amorous less in a simple state of nature, draw their sub- or gay device, that, like books with gilded sistence; though it is seldom seen that such leaves and covers, it may the sooner draw the as these are extremely rich, because their ori- eyes of the beholders. And to the end that ginal fault of being founded upon vanity keeps these may be preserved with all due care, let them poor by the light inconstancy of its na. there be a keeper appointed, who shall be a ture. The variableness of fashion turns the gentleman qualified with a competent knowstream of business, which flows from it, now ledge in clothes ; so that by this means the into one channel, and anon into another; so place will be a comfortable support for some that the different sets of people sink or flou- beau who has spent his estate in dressing. rish in their turns by it.

The reasons offered, by which we expected * From the shops we retired to the tavern, to gain the approbation of the public, were as where I found my friend express so much sa-follows:tisfaction for the bargains he had made, that “First, That every one who is considerable my moral reflections (if I had told them) might enough to be a mode, and has any imperfechave passed for a reproof; so I chose rather to tion of nature or cbance, which it is possible fall in with him, and let the discourse run upon to bide by the advantage of clothes, may, by the use of fashions.

coming to this repository, be furuished herself, · Here we remembered how much man is and furnish all who are under the same misgoverned by his senses, how lively he is struck fortune, with the most agreeable manner of by the objects which appear to him in an agree-concealing it; and that, on the other side,

every one, who has any beauty in face or shape, Darts, torcles, aud bands: may also be furnished with the most agreeable! Your weapons here choose, and your empire extend." manner of showing it.

I am, Sir, Secondly, That whereas some of our young . Your most humble servant, gentlemen who travel, give us great reason to

'A. B.' suspect that they only go abroad to make or im

The proposal of my correspondent I cannot prove a fancy for dress, a project of this nature may be a means to keep them at home; which but look upon as an ingenious method of

the placing persons (whose parts make them anis in effect the keeping of so much money in the

i bitious to exert themselves in frivolous things) kingdom. And perhaps the balance of fashion:

morlin a rank by themselves. In order to this, I in Europe, which now leans upon the side of

that would propose that there be a board of direcFrance, may be so altered for the future, that

intors of the fashionable society; and, because it it may become as common with Frenchmen to :

is a matter of too much

for a come 10 England for their finishing stroke of 's

man to determine alone, I should be highly breeding, as it has been for Englishmen to go

obliged to my correspondents if they would to France for it. Thirdly, Whereas several great scholars,

give in lists of persons qualified for this trust.

If the chief coffee-houses, the conversations of who might have been otherwise useful to the

3 which places are carried ou by persons, each world, have spent their time in studying to

of whom has his little number of followers and describe the dresses of the ancients from dark

admirers, would va'me from among themselves hints, which they are fain to interpret and sup

two or three to be inserted, they should be put port with much learuing; it will from bence

up with great faithfulness. Old beaus are to forth happen that they shall be freed from the

be represented in the first place; but as that trouble, and the world from useless volumes.

sect, with relation to dress, is almost extinct, it This project will be a registry, to which pos

will, i 'fear, be absolutely necessary to take in terity may have recourse, for the clearing such

all time-servers, properly so deemed ; that is, obscure passages as tend that way in authors; and therefore we shall not for the future sub

such as, without any conviction of conscience, mit ourselves to the learning of etymology,

or view of interest, change with the world, and

that merely from a terror of being out of fawhich might persuade the age to come that the farthingale was worn for cheapness, or the

shion. Such also, who from facility of temfurbelow for warmth.

per, and too much obsequiousness, are vicious Fourthly, Whereas they, who are old them

against their will, and follow leaders whom selves, have often a way of railing at the ex

they do not approve, for want of courage to travagance of youth, and the whole age in

go their own way, are capable persons for this I which their children live; it is hoped that

superintendency. Those who are loth to grow this ill-humour will be much suppressed; when

old, or would do any thing contrary to the we can have recourse to the fashions of their

course and order of things, out of fondoess to times, produce them in our vindication, and

be in fashion, are proper candidates. To conbe able to show, that it might have been as

clude, those who are in fashion without appaexpensive in queen Elizabeth's time only to

rent merit, must be supposed to bave latent wash and quill a ruff, as it is now to buy cra

qualities, which would appear in a post of di

rection; and therefore are to be regarded in vats or neck handkerchiefs.

Any who shall be pleased "We desire also to have it taken notice of forming these lists that because we would show a particular re.

according to these, or what further qualificaspect to foreigners, which may induce them tol)

tions inay occur to himself, to send a list, is perfect their breeding here in a knowledge

desired to do it within fourteen days from this

use date. which is very proper for pretty gentlemen, wel have conceived the motto for the house in the

1 N. B. The place of the physician to this solearned languages. There is to be a picture

ciety, according to the last mentioned qualikover the door, with a looking glass and a

cation, is already engaged.

T. dressing chair in the middle of it; then on one side are to be seen, above one another, No. 479.] Tuesday, September 9, 1712. patch-boxes, pin-cushions, and little bottles :

| --Dare jura maritis. Hor. Ars Puer. 395. on the other, powder-bags, puffs, combs, and brushes ; beyond these, swords with fine To regulate the matrimonial life. knots, whose points are hidden, and fans al-! Many are the epistles I cvery day receive most closed, with the handles downward, are from husbands who complain of vanity, pride, to stand out interchangeably from the sides, but, above all, ill-nature in their wives. i canuntil they meet at the top, and form a semi- not tell how it is, but I think I see in all their circle over the rest of the figures ; beneath all, letters that the cause of their uneasiness is in the writing is to run in this pretty sounding themselves; and indeed I have hardly ever obmanner:

served the married condition unhappy, but for

want of judgment or temper in the man. The * Adeste, O quotquot sunt, Veneres, Gratiæ, Cupidines, truth is, we generally make love in a style and

En vobis adsunt in promptu
Faces, vincula, spicula;

with sentiinents very unfit for ordinary life: Ilinc eligite, sunite, rogite."

they are half theatrical and half romantic. By

this means we raise our imaginations to what ! All ve Venusscs, Graces, and Cupids, attend:

is not to be expected in human life; and, beSee, prepared to your hands,

cause we did not beforehand think of the crca

tare we are enamoured of, as subject to dis- visit all sorts of people, I cannot indeed but honour, age, sickness, impatience, or sullen smile, when the good lady tells ber husband ness, but altogether considered her as the ob- what extraordinary things the child spoke since ject of joy; human nature itself is often im- he went out. No longer than yesterday I was puted to her as her particular imperfection, or prevailed with to go home with a fond husdefect.

band; and his wife told him, that his son, of I take it to be a rule, proper to be observed his own head, when the clock in the parlour in all occurrences of life, but more especially in struck two, said papa would come bome to the domestic, or matrimonial part of it, to pre- dinner presently. While the father has him in serve always a disposition to be pleased. This a rapture in his arms, and is drowning him with cannot be supported but by considering things kisses, the wife tells me he is but just four years in their right light, and as Nature bas formed old. Then they both struggle for him, and them, and not as our own fancies or appetites bring him up to me, and repeat his observation would have them. He then who took a young of two o'clock. I was called upon, by looks lady to his bed, with no other consideration upon the child, and then at me, to say somethan the expectation of scenes of dalliance, and thing; and told the father that this remark thought of her (as I said before) only as she of the infant of his coming home, and joining was to administer to the gratification of desire; the time with it, was a certain indication that as that desire flags, will, without her fault, he would be a great historian and chronologer. think her charms and her merit abated: from They are neither of them fools, yet received my hence must follow indifference, dislike, peevish- compliment with great acknowledgment of my ness, and rage. But the man who brings his prescience. I fared very well at dinner, and reason to support his passion, and beholds what heard many other potable sayings of their heir, he loves as liable to all the calamities of human which would have given very little entertainlife, both in body and mind, and even at the ment to one less turned to reflection than I best what must bring upon him new cares, was : but it was a pleasing speculation to reand new relations ; such a lover, I say, will mark on the happiness of a life, in which things form himself accordingly, and adapt his mind of po moment give occasion of hope, self-satis. to the nature of his circumstances. This lat. faction, and triumph. On the other hand, I ter person will be prepared to be a father, a have known an ill-natured coxcomb, who has friend, an advocate, a steward for people yet hardly improved in any thing but bulk, for unborn, and has proper affections ready for want of this disposition, silence the whole faevery incident in the marriage state. Such a mily as a set of silly women and children, for man can hear the cries of children with ity recounting things which were really above his instead of anger; and, when they run over his own capacity. head, he is not disturbed at their noise, but is When I say all this, I cannot deny but there glad of their mirth and health. Tom Trusty are perverse jades that fall to men's lots, with has told me, that he thinks it doubles his at- whom it requires more than common profitension to the most intricate affair he is about, ciency in philosophy to be able to live. When to hear his children, for wbom all his cares these are joined to men of warm spirits, withare applied, make a noise in the next room : Tout temper or learning, they are frequently on the other side, Will Sparkish cannot put corrected with stripes; but one of our famous on his periwig, or adjust bis cravat at the lawyers" is of opinion, that this ought to be glass, for the noise of those damned nurses and used sparirgly;' as I remember, those are his squalling brats; and then ends with a gallant very words: but as it is proper to draw some reflection upon the comforts of matrimony, spiritual use out of all affictions, I should raruns out of the hearing, and drives to the cho-ther recommend to those who are visited with colate house.

women of spirit, to form themselves for the According as the husband is disposed in world by patience at home. Socrates, who is bimself, every circumstance of his life is to by all accounts the undoubted head of the sect give him torment or pleasure. When the af- of the hen-pecked, owned and acknowledged fection is well placed, and supported by the that he owed great part of his virtue to the exconsiderations of duty, honour, and friend ercise which his useful wife constantly gave ship, which are in the highest degree engaged it. There are several good instructions may in this alliance there can nothing rise in the be drawn from his wise answers to the people common course of life, or from the blows or of less fortitude than himself on her subject. favours of fortune, in which a man will not A friend, with indignation, asked how so good find matters of some delight unknown to a sin- a man could live with so violent a creature ? gle condition.

He observed to him, that they who learn to He who sincerely loves bis wife and family, I keep a good seat on horse-back, mount the and studies to improve that affection in him-least manageable they can get ; and when self, conceives pleasure from the most indiffer- they have mastered them, they are sure never ent things ; while the married man, who has to be discomposed on the backs of steeds not bid adieu to the fashions and false gallan- less restive. At several times, to different tries of the town, is perplexed with every thing persons, on the same subject he has said, 'My around him. In both these cases men cannot, dear friend, you are beholden to Xantippe, indeed, make a sillier figure than in repeating that I hear so well your flying out in a dissuch pleasures and pains to the rest of the pute,' To another, My ben clacks very much, world ; but I speak of them only as they sit upon those who are involved in them. As I

* Bracton. VOL. II.

28

but she brings mic chickeus. They that live in rather than regard to our own service ; for a trading street are not disturbed at the pas- which reason I beg leave to lay before your sage of carts.' I would have, if possible, a majesty my reasons for declining to depart from wise man he contented with his lot, eren with home; and will not doubt but, as your motivo a shrew ; for, though he cannot make her bet. in desiring my attendance was to make me an ter, he may, you see, make himself better by happier man, when you think that will not be her means.

effected by iny remove, you will permit me to But, instead of pursuing my design of dis- stay where I am. Those who have an ambition playing conjugal love in its natural beauties to appear in courts, have either an opinion that and attractions, I am got into tales to the dis- their persons or their talents are particularly advantage of that state of life. I must say, formed for the service or ornament of that therefore, that I am verily persuaded, that place ; or else are hurried by downright desire whatever is delightful in human life is to be of gain, or what they call honour, to take upon enjoyed in greater perfection in the married themselves whatever the generosity of their than in the single condition. He that has this inaster can give them opportunities to grasp at. passion in perfection, in occasions of joy, can But your goodness shall not be thus imposed say to himself, besides his own satisfaction, upon by me : I will therefore confess to you, • How happy will this make my wife and child that frequent solitude, and long conversation dren !' Upon occurrences of distress or dan- with such who know no arts which polish life, ger, can comfort himself: 'But all this while have made me the plainest creature in your my wife and children are safe.' There is dominions. Those less capacities of moving something in it that doubles satisfactions, be- with a good grace, bearing a ready affability cause others participate them; and dispels to all around me, and acting with ease beaflictions, because others are exempt from fore many, have quite left me. I am come to them. All who are married without this re- that, with regard to my person, that I consider lish of their circumstance, are in either a taste- it only as a machine I am obliged to take care less indolence and negligence, which is hardly of, in order to enjoy my soul in its faculties to be attained, or else live in the hourly re- with alacrity ; well remembering that this hapetition of sharp answers, eager upbraidings, bitation of clay will in a few years be a meu. and distracting reproaches. In a word, the ner piece of earth than any utensil about my married state, with and without the affection house. When this is, as it really is, the most suitable to it, is the completest image of hea- frequent reflection I have, you will easily ven and hell we are capable of receiving in imagine how well I should become a drawingthis life.

T. room: add to this, what shall a man without

desires do about the generous Pharamond? No. 480.] Wednesday, September 10, 1712.

Monsieur Eucrate has hinted to me, that you

have thoughts of distinguishing me with titles. Responsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores, | As for myself, in the temper of my present l'ortis, et in scipso totus teres, atquo rotindus. Hor. Sat. vii. Lib. 2. 85. mind, appeilations of honour would but em

barrass discourse, and new behaviour towards He, sir, is proof to grandeur, pride, or pell, And, greater still, he's master of himself:

me perplex me in every habitude of life. I Not to and fro by fears and factions hurl'd,

am also to acknowledge to you, that my chilBut loose to all the interests of the world;

dren, of whom your majesty condescended to And while the world turns round, entire and whole, inquire, are all of them mean, both in their per Ho keeps the sacred tenor of his soul.

Pitt.

sons and genius. The estate my eldest son is The other day, looking over those old man heir to, is more than he can enjoy with a nuscripts of which I have formerly given soine Booge

good grace. My self-love will not carry me account, and which relate to the character, so far as to impose upon mankind the ad. of the mighty Pharamond of France, and the vancement of persons (merely for their being close friendship between him and his friend related to me) into high distinctions, who Eucrate, I found among the letters which ought for their own sakes, as well as that of had been in the custody of the latter. an the public, to affect obscurity. I wish, my epistle from a country gentleman to Phara generous prince, as it is in your power to mond, wherein he excuses himself from com.gr

give honours and offices, it were also to give ing to court. The gentleman. it seeins. was talents suitable to them: were it so, the noble contented with his condition, had formerly

Pharamond would reward the zeal of my been in the king's service: but at the wri youth with abilities to do him service in my ing the following letter, had, from leisure and age: reflection, quite another sense of things thanl Those who accept of favour without merit, that which he bad in the more active nart of support themselves in it at the expense of your his life.

majesty. Give me leave to tell you, sir, this

is the reason that we in the country hear so • Monsieur Checluy to Pharaniond. often repeated the word prerogative. That

part of your law which is reserved in yourDREAD SIR,

self, for the readier service and good of the “I have from your own hand (enclosed under public, slight men are eternally buzzing in our the cover of Mr. Eucrate, of your majesty's lears, to cover their own follies and miscarria. bed-chamber) a letter which invites me to ges. It would be an addition to the high lacourt. I understand this great honour to bevour you bave done me, if you would let Eudone me out of respect and inclination to me, crate send me word how often, and in what

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