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all those with whom a man of that talent con. "What power could make the deep divide ? verses. His faults are generally overlooked Make Jordan backward roll his tide ?

by all his acqnaintance ; and a certain careWhy did ye leap, ye little hills ?

lessness, that constantly attends all his actions, And whence the fright that Sinai feels?

carries him on with greater success than dili

gence and assiduity does others who have no "Let every mountainevery flood,

share in this endowment. Dacinthus breaks Retire, and know th' appreaching God,

his word upon all occasions, both trivial and The King of Israel. See him here : Tremble, thou earth, adore and fear.

important; and, when he is sufficiently railed

at for that abominable quality, they who talk VI.

of him end with, After all, he is a very plea* He thunders-and all nature mourns;

sant fellow.'. Dacinthus is an ill-natured husThe rock to standing pools he turns. Flints spring with fountains at his word,

band, and yet the very women end their free. And fires and seas confess their Lord.”

dom of discourse upon this subject, But, af

ter all, he is very pleasant company.' Dacin'MR. SPECTATOR, There are thosc who take the advantage.

thus is neither, in point of honour, civility, of your putting a halfpenny value upon your-15

good-breeding, nor good-nature, unexception

able; and yet all is answered, 'For he is a self, above the rest of our daily writers, to

very pleasant fellow. When this quality is defame you in public conversation and strive)

conspicuous in a man who has, to accompany to make you unpopular upon the account of this said halfpenny. But, if I were you, Icertainly be any thing which can give so plea

Hit, manly and virtuous sentiments, there cannot would insist upon that small acknowledgments for the superior merit of yours, as being a

"sing a gratification as the gaiety of such a work of invention. Give me leave, therefore,

person; but when it is alone, and serves only to do you justice, and say in your behalf,

?Ito gild a crowd of ill qualities, there is no man

" much to be avoided as your pleasant fellow. what you cannot yourself, which is, that your

You A very pleasant fellow shall turn your good writings have made learing a more necessary in. part of good-breeding than it was before you tible debauch your wife or daughter, and yet

saryname to a jest, make your character contempappeared : that modesty is become fashionable,

be received by the rest of the world with wel. and impudence stands in need of some wit, la

"come wherever be appears. It is very ordinary since you have put them both in their proper 1.

pe with those of this character to be attentive lights. Profaneness, lewdness, and debauchery, are not now qualifications; and a man

Jonly to their own satisfactions, and have very

"little bowels for the concerns or sorrows of may be a very fine gentleman, though he is neither a keeper nor an infidel.

other men ; nay, they are capable of pur• I would have you tell the town the story

chasing their own pleasures at the expense of the Sibyls, if they deny giving you two

of giving pain to others. But they who do pence. Let them know, that those sacred

not consider this sort of men thus carefully, papers were valued at the same rate after

are irresistibly exposed to their ipsinuations. two-thirds of them were destroyed, as when

| The author of the following letter carries there was the whole set. There are so many!

the matter so high, as to intimate that the li

my berties of England have been at the mercy of of us who will give you your own price, that you may acquaint your non-conformist rea

"Ta prince, merely as he was of this pleasant ders, that they shall not have it, except they

a character, come in within such a day, under three-pence. ! "MR. SPECTATOR, I do not know but you might bring in the Date Obolum Belisario with a good grace.

"There is no one passion which all mankind

The witlings come in clusters to two or three cof. so naturally give into as pride, or any other fee-houses which have left you off'; and I hope

passion which appears in such different dis.

pe guises: it is to be found in all habits and comyou will make us, who fine to your wit, merry with their characters who stand out against

Uplexions. It is not a question, whether it does it.

more harm or good in the world; and if there * I am your most humble servant.

be not such a thing as what we may call a vir.

tuous and laudable pride ? P.S. I have lately got the ingenious au- 'It is this passion alone, when misapplied, thors of blacking for sboes, powder for colour-that lays us so open to flatterers; and he who ing the hair, pomatum for the hands, cosmetic can agreeably condescend to sooth our humour for the face, to be your constant customers; or temper, find always an open avenue to our so that your advertisements will as much soul; especially if the fatterer happen to be adorn the outward man, as your paper does our superior. the inward.'

| One might give many instances of this in a

|late English monarch, under the title of · The No. 462.] Wednesday, August 20, 1712. gaieties of king Charles II.” This prince

was by nature extremely familiar, of very eaNil ego prætulerim jocunda sanus amico. sy access, and much delighted to see and be Hor. Sat. v. Lib. 1. 44.

seen; and this happy temper, which in the Nothing so grateful as a pleasant friend.

highest degree gratified his people's vanity,

did him more service with his loving subjects PEOPLE are not aware of the very great than all his other virtues, though it must be force which pleasantry in company has upon confessed he had many. He delighted, though

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a mighty king, to give and take a jest, as they exchequer of their pleasant sovereign. The say: and a prince of this fortunate disposition, many good-natured condescensions of this who were inclined to make an ill use of his prince are vulgarly known; and it is excelpower, may have any thing of his people, be lently said of him, by a great hand* which it never so much to their prejudice. But this writ his character, “ That he was not a king good king made generally a very innocent use," a quarter of an hour together in bis whole as to the public of this ensnaring temper; for, “reign." He would receive visits even from it is well known he pursued pleasure more fools and half mad-men, and at times I have than ambition. He seemed to glory in being met with people who have boxed, fought at the first man at cock-matches, horse-races, back-sword, and taken poison before king balls, and plays; he appeared highly delighted Charles II. In a word, he was so pleasant a on those occasions, and never failed to warm man, that no one could be sorrowful under and gladden the heart of every spectator. He his government. This made him capable of more than once dined with his good citizens of baming, with the greatest ease imaginable, all London on their lord-mayor's day, and did so suggestions of jealousy ; and the people could the vear that sir Robert Viner was inayor. Sir not entertain notions of any thing terrible Robert was a very loyal man, and, if you will sin him, whom they saw every way agrecaallow the expression, very fond of his sove- ble. This scrap of the familiar part of that reign ; but, what with the joy he felt at heart prince's history I thought fit to send you, for the honour done him by his prince, and in compliance to the request you lately made through the warmth he was in with continual to your correspondents. toasting healths to the royal family, his lord

Tam, Sir, ship grew a little fond of his majesty, and! T. “Your most humble servant." entered into a familiarity not altogether so graceful in so public a place. The king under. No. 463.) Thursday, August 21, 1712. stood very well how to extricate himself in all kinds of difficulties, and, with an hint to the

Omnia que sensu volvuntur vota diurno,

Pectore sopito reddit amica quies. company to avoid ceremony, stole off and made

Venator defessa toro cuin membra reponit, towards his coach, which stood ready for him Mens tamen ad sylvas et sua lustra rcdit: in Guildhall-yard. But the mayor liked his

Judicibus lites, aurige sompia currus,

Vanaquc nocturnis meta cuvetur equis. company so well, and was grown so intimate,

Me quoque Musarum studium sub nocte sileuti that he pursued him hastily, and catching him Artibus assuetis sollicitare solet.

Claud. fast by the hand, cried out with a vehement

In sleep when fancy is let loose to play, oath and accent, “ Sir, you shall stay and take

Our dreams repeat the wishes of the day. “t'other bottle.” The airy monarch looked Though farther toils his tired limbs refuse, kindly at him over his shoulder, and with a The dreaming bunter siill the chase pursues. smile and graceful air (for I saw him at the

The judge a-bed dispenses still the laws

And sleeps again o'er the unfinish'd cause. time, and do now) repeated this line of the old

The dozing racer hears his chariot roll, song ;

macks the tuin whip, and shuns the fancy'd goal.

Me too the Muscs, in the silent night, “ He that is drunk is as great as a king;"

With wonted cbimes of jingling verse delight. and immediately turned back and complied I was lately entertaining myself with comwith his landlord.

Paring Homer's balance, in which Jupiter is • I give you this story, Mr. Spectator, he represented as weighing the fates of Hector cause, as I said, I saw the passage ; and I and Achilles, with a passage of Virgil, wherein assure you it is very true, and yet no common that deity is introduced as weighing the lates one; and when I tell you the sequel, you will of Turnus and Æneas. I then considered how say I have a better reason for it. This very the same way of thinking prevailed in the easmayor, afterwards erected a statue of his tern parts of the word, as in those noble pasmerry monarch in Stocks-market, * and did the sages of Scripture, wherein we are told, that crown many and great services ; and it was the great king of Babylon, the day before owing to this bumour of the king that his fa- his death, had been weighed in the balance, mily had so great a fortune shut up in the and been found wanting. In other places

of the holy writings, the Almighty is des* “ The Mansion-house, and many adjacent buildings, cribed as weighing the mountains in scales, stand on the site of Stocks-Market; which took its name making the weight for the winds, knowing from a pair of stocks for the punishment of offenders, the balancings of the clouds ; and in others. erected in an open place near this spot, as carly as the Year 1291. This was the great market of the city during as weighing the actions of men, and laving many centuries. In it stood the famous equestrian statue their calamities together in a balance. Mil. erecied in honour of Charles II. by his most loyal ton, as I have observed in a former paper, had subject sir Robert Viner, lord-mayor. Fortunately, his

an eye to several of these foregoing instanlordship discovered one (inade at Leghorn) of John

haces in that beautiful description, wherein he Sobieski, King of Poland, trampling on a Turk. The good knight caused some alterations to be made, and represents the archangel and the evil spirit christened the Polish Monarch by the name of Charles, las addressing themselves for the combat, but and bestowed on the turbaned Turk that of Oliver Crom-\parted by the balance whieh appeared in the well; and thus, new-named, it arose on this spot in hoDohr of his convivial monarch. The statue was removed heavens, and weighed the consequences of such in 1738, to make room for the Mansion-housc. It re-la battle. mained many years afterward in an inn-yard; and in 1779 it was bestowed, by the common-council, on Robert Sheffield duke of Buckingham, who said, that, 'on R Viner, Esq. who removed it to grace his country-seat premeditation, Charles II. could not act tho part of a Ponnant's London, p. 368..

king for a noment.

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TH' Eternal, to provent such horrid fray,

and Poverty, Riches and Content, with some Hung forth in heav'n his golden scales, yet seen

others. Betwixt Astrea and the Scorpion sign: Wherein all things created first he weigh'd,

There were likewise several weights that The pendulous round earth, with balanc'd air, were of the same figure, and seemed to corIn counterpoise, now ponders all events,

respond with each other, but were entireBattles and realms; in these he put two weights, The sequel each of parting and of fight,

ly different when thrown into the scales ; The latter quick up tiew, and kick'd the beam; as Religion and Hypocrisy, Pedantry and Which Gabriel spying, thus bespake the tiend: Learning, Wit and Vivacity, Superstition and "Satan. I know thy strength, and thou know'st mine, 1 D. vnt

, | Devotion, Gravity and Wisdom, with many Neither our own, but giv'n. What fully then To boast what arms can do, since thine vo more

others Than heav'n permits ; nor mine.though doubled now I observed one particular weight lettered on To trainple thoc as mire! For proof look up, both sides ; and, upon applying myself to the And read thy lot in yon celestial sign, show weak,

: reading of it. I found on one side written, lo Where thou art weighs, and show how light If thou resist." "The fiend looked up, and knew the dialect of men,' and underneath it. ' Cala. His moanted wcale aloft; nor inore; but tled

nities:' on the other side was written, In the Murm'ring, and with him tied the shades of night.' language of the gods, and underneath · Bless

These several amusing thoughts having takings. I found the intrinsic value of this weight en possession of my mind some time before to be much greater than I imagined, for it I went to sleep, and mingling themselves with overpowered Health, Wealth, Good-fortune, my ordinary ideas, raised in my imagination and many other weights, which were much a very odd kind of vision. I was, methought, more ponderous in my head than the other. replaced in my study, and seated in my el. There is a saying among the Scotch, that bow-chair, where I had indulged the forego- an ounce of mother-wit is worth a pound of ing speculations with my lamp burning by clergy : I was sensible of the truth of this say. me as usual. Whilst I was here meditating ing, when I saw the difference between the on several subjects of morality, and consid-weight of Natural Parts and that of Learning. ering the nature of many virtues and vices, / The observations which I made upon these as materials for those discourses with which two weights opened to me a new field of disI daily entertain the public, I saw, methought, coveries ; for, notwithstanding the weight of a pair of golden scales hanging by a chain Natural Parts was much heavier than that of of the same metal, over the table that stood Learning, I observed that it weighed an hun. before me ; when, on a sudden, there were dred times heavier than it did before, when I great heaps of weights thrown down on each put Learning into the same scale with it. I side of them. I found, upon examining these made the same observations upon Faith and weights, they showed the value of every thing Morality ; for, notwithstanding the latter outthat is in esteem among men. I made an es. | weighed the former separately, it received a say of them. by putting the weight of wisdom thousand times more additional weight from in one scale, and that of riches in another; its conjunction with the former, than what it upon which the latter, to show its comparative had by itself. This odd phenomenon showed lightness, immediately few up and kicked the itself in other particulars, as in Wit and Judg. beam.

ment, Philosophy and Religion, Justice and But, before I proceed, I must inform my Humanity, Zeal and Charity, depth of Sense reader, that these weights did not exert their and perpicuity of Style, with innumerable natural gravity till they were laid in the gold- other particulars too long to be mentioned in : en balance, insomuch that I could not guess this paper. which was light or heavy whilst I held them As a dream seldom fails of dashing serious. in my hand. This I found by several in-ness with impertinence, mirth with gravity. stances ; for upon my laying a weight in one methought I made several other experiments of the scales, which was inscribed by the of a more ludicrous nature, by one of which I word · Eternity,' though I threw in that of found that an English octavo was very often Time. Prosperity, Affliction, Wealth, Poverty. I heavier than a French folio ; and, by another. Interest, Success, with many other weights, that an old Greek or Latin author weighed which in my hand seemed very ponderous, down a whole library of moderns. Seeing one they were not able to stir the opposite ba of my Spectators lying by me, I laid it into one lance; nor could they have prevailed, though of the scales, and flung a two-penny piece into assisted with the weight of the Sun, the Stars, the other. The reader will not inquire into and the Earth.

'the event, if he remembers the first trial which Upon emptving the scales, I laid several I have recorded in this paper. I afterwards titles and honours, with Pomp, Triumph, and threw both the sexes into the balance; but, as many weights of the like nature, in one of it is not for my interest to disoblige either of them; and seeing a little glittering weight them, I shall desire to be excused from telling lie by me, I threw it accidentally into the the result of this experiment. Having an opother scale, when, to my great surprise, it portunity of this nature in my hands, I could proved so exact a counterpoise, that it kept not forbear throwing into one scale the pripthe balance in an equilibrium. This little glit. ciples of a Tory, and into the other those of a tering weight was inscribed upon the edges Whig; but, as I have all along declared this of it with the word “Vanity.' I found there to be a neutral paper, I shall likewise desire to were several other weights which were e be silent under this bead also, though upon qually heavy, and exact counterpoises to one examining one of the weights, I saw the word another : a few of them I tried, as Avarice' TEKEL' engraven upon it in capital letters.

I made many other experiments; and though world. In short, the middle condition is the I have not room for them all in this day's mos eligible to the man who would improve speculation, I may perhaps reserve them for himself in virtue; as I have before shown it another, I shall only add, that upon my is the most advantageous for the gaining of awaking, I was sorry to find my golden scales knowledge. It was upon this consideration vanished; but resolved for the future to learn that Agur founded his prayer, which, for the this lesson from them, not to despise or value wisdom of it, is recorded in holy writ. 'Two any thing for their appearances, but to regu- things have I required of thee; deny me them late my esteem and passions towards them ac- not before I die. Remove far from me vanicording to their real and intrinsic value. C. ty and lies; give me neither poverty nor rich.

es ; feed me with food convenient for me : lest No. 464.) Friday, August 22, 1712.. I be full and deny thee, and say, Who is the

Lord ? or lest I be poor and steal, and take
Auream quisquis mediocritatem
Diligit, tutus (aret obsoleti

the name of my God in vain.'
Sordibus tecti, caret insidenda

I shall fill the remaining part of my paper Sobrius aula Hor. Od. x. Lib. 2.

with a very pretty allegory, which is wrought The golden mean, as she's too nice to dwell

into a play by Aristophanes the Greek comeAmong the ruins of a filthy cell,

dian. It seems originally designed as a satire So is her modesty withal as great,

upon the rich, though, in some parts of it, it is To balk the envy of a princely seat. Norris.

like the foregoing discourse, a kind of comI AM wonderfully pleased when I meet with parison between wealth and poverty. any passage in an old Greek or Latin Author Chremylus, who was an old and a good man, that is not blown upon, and which I have never and withal exceeding poor, being desirous to met with in a quotation. Of this kind is a leave some riches to his son, consults the orabeautiful saying in Theogpis: “Vice is cover-cle of Apollo upon the subject. The oracle ed by wealth, and virtue by poverty ;' or to bids him follow the first man he should see up. give it in the verbal translation, · Arnong men op his going out of the temple. The person there are some who have their vices concealed he chanced to see was to appearance an old by wealth, and others who have their virtues sordid blind man, but, upon his following him concealed by poverty.' Every man's obser- from place to place, he at last found, by his vation will supply him with instances of rich own confession, that he was Plutus the god of men, who have several faults and defects that are riches, and that he was just come out of the over-looked, if not entirely hidden, by means house of a miser. Plutus further told him, of their riches ; and, I think, we cannot find a shat when he was a boy, he used to declare, more natural description of a poor man, whose that as soon as he came to age he would dismerits are lost in his poverty, than that in the tribute wealth to none but virtuous and just words of the wise man: • There was a little men; upon which Jupiter, considering the city, and few men within it; and there came a pernicious consequences of such a resolution, great king against it, and besieged it, and built took his sight away from him, and left him to great bulwarks against it. Now there was stroll about the world in the blind condition found in it a poor wise man, and he, by his wherein Chremylus beheld him. With much wisdom, delivered the city ; yet no man re- ado Chremylus preveiled upon him to go to membered that same poor man. Then, said his house, where he met an old woman in a I, wisdom is better than strength; neverthe-tattered raiment, who had been his guest for less, the poor man's wisdom is despised, and many years, and whose pame was Poverty. his words are not heard.'

The old woman refusing to turn out so easily The middle condition seems to be the most as he would have her, he threatened to banish advantageously situated for the gaining of wis- her not only from his own house, but out of dom. Poverty turns our thoughts too much all Greece, if she made any more words upon upon the supplying of our wants, and riches, the matter. Poverty on this occasion pleads upon enjoying our superfluities; and, as Cow her cause very notably, and represents to her ly has said in another case, It is hard for a old landlord, that, should she be driven out of man to keep a steady eye upon truth, who is the country, all their trades, arts, and scienalways in a battle or a triumph.'

ces, would be driven out with her; and that, If we regard poverty and wealth, as they are if every one was rich, they would never be apt to produce virtues or vices in the mind of supplied with those pomps, ornaments, and man, one may observe that there is a set of conveniences of life which made riches desiraeach of these growing out of poverty, quite dif-ble. She likewise represented to bim the seferent from that which rises out of wealth. veral advantages which she bestowed upon her Humility and patience, industry and temper- votaries in regard to their shape, their health, ance, are very often the good qualities of a and their activity, by preserving them from ponr man. Humanity and good-nature, mag-gouts, dropsies, unwieldiness, and intemper. nanimity and a sense of honour, are as often the ance. But whatever she had to say for herqualifications of the rich. On the contrary, self, she was at last forced to troop off. Chrepoverty is apt to betray a man into envy, rich-mylus immediately considered how he might es into arrogance; poverty is too often attend-restore Plutus to bis sight; and, in order to it, ed with fraud, vicious compliance, repining, conveyed bim to the temple of Æsculapius, murmur, and discontent. Riches expose a who was famous for cures and miracles of this man to pride and luxury, a foolish elation of nature. By this means the deity recovered heart, and too great a fondness for the present his eyes, and began to make a right use of them, by enriching every one that was dis- never after suffer ourselves to call it in ques. tinguished by piety towards the gods, and jus- tion. We may perhaps forget the arguments tice towards men; and at the same time by ta- which occasioned our conviction, but we ought king away his gifts from the impious and un- to remember the strength they had with us. deserving. This produces several merry in- and therefore still to retain the conviction cidents, till in the last act Mercury descends which they once produced. This is no more with great complaints from the gods, that since than what we do in every common art or scithe good men were grown rich, they had re-ence ; nor is it possible to act otherwise, conceived no sacrifices; which is confirined by a sidering the weakness and limitation of our inpriest of Jupiter, who enters with a remon-stellectual faculties. It was thus that Latimer. strance, that since the late innovation he was one of the glorious army of martyrs, who inreduced to a starving condition, and could not stroduced the formation in England, behaved live upon his office. Chremylus, who in the himself in that great conference which was beginning of the play was religious in his pov- managed between the most learned among the erty, concludes it with a proposal, which was protestants and papists in the reign of Queen relished by all the good men who had now Mary. This venerable old man, knowing his grown rich as well as himself, that they should abilities were impaired by age, and that it was carry Plutus in solemn procession to the tem-limpossible for him to recollect all those rea. ple, and install him in the place of Jupiter. sons which had directed him in the choice of This allegory instructed the Athenians in two his religion, left his companions, who were in points: first, as it vindicated the conduct of the full possession of their parts and learning, Providence in its ordinary distributions of|to baffle and confound their antagonists by the wealth; and, in the next place, as it shows the force of reason. As for himself, he only regreat tendency of riches to corrupt the morals peated to his adversaries the articles in which of those possessed them.

C. The firmly believed, and in the profession of

which he was determined to die. It is in this No. 465.] Saturday, August 23, 1712. manner that the mathematician proceeds up

Quâ ratione qucas traducere leniter grvum : lon propositions which he has once demonNe te semper inops agitet vexetque cupido,

strated: and though the demonstration may Ne pavor ot rerum mediocriter utilium spes.

have slipped out of his memory, he builds uplor. Ep. xviii. Lib. 1. 97.

on the truth, because he knows it was demonHow you may glide with gentle ease

strated. This rule is absolutely necessary for Adown the current of your days; Nor vex'd by inean and low desires,

weaker minds, and in some measure for men Nor warı'd by wlid ambitious fires;

of the greatest abilities ; but to these last I By hope alarm'd, depress'd by frar,

would propose, in the second place, that they For things but little worth your care. Francis.

should lay up in their memories, and alHaving endeavoured in my last Saturday's ways keep by them in readiness, those argupaper to show the great excellency of faith, 1ments which appear to them of the greatest shall here consider what are the proper means strength, and which cannot be got over by all of strengthening and confirming it in the mind the doubts and cavils of infidelity. of man. Those who delight in reading books But, in the third place, there is nothing of controversy which are written on both sides which strengthens faith more than morality. of the question on points of faith, do very sel- Faith and morality naturally produce each dom arrive at a fixed and settled habit of it. other. A man is quickly convinced of the

They are one day entirely convinced of its im- truth of religion, who finds it is not against portant truths, and the next meet with some his interest that it should be true. The thing that shakes and disturbs them. The pleasure he receives at present, and the hapdoubt which was laid revives again, and shows piness which be promises himself from is hereitself in new difficulties, and that generally for after, will both dispose him very powerfully to this reason, because the mind, which is perpe- give credit to it, according to the ordinary obtually tost in controversies and disputes, is apt servation, that we are easy to believe what to forget the reasons which had once set it at we wish. It is very certain, that a man of rest, and to be disquieted with any former per- sound reason cannot forbear closing with plexity, when it appears in a new shape, or religion upon an impartial examination of is started by a different hand. As nothing is it ; but at the same time it is certain, that faith more laudable than an inquiry after truth, so is kept alive in us, and gathers strength from nothing is more irrational than to pass away practice more than from speculation. our whole lives, without determining ourselves There is still another method, which is more one way or other, in those points which are of persuasive than any of the former; and that the last importance to us. There are indeed is an habitual adoration of the Supreme Bemany things from which we may withold oursing, as well in constant acts of mental worassent; but in cases by which we are to reg-ship, as in outward forms. The devout man ulate our lives, it is the greatest absurdity to be does not only believe, but feels there is a deiwavering and unsettled, without closing with ty. He has actual sensations of him ; his exthat side which appears the most safe and the perience concurs with his reason ; he sees bim most probable. The first rule, therefore, which more and more in all his intercourses with I shall lay down is this; that when by reading him, and even in this life almost loses his faith or discourse we find ourselves thoroughly con- in conviction. vinced of the truth of any article, and of the The last method which I shall mention for reasonableness of our belief in it, we should the giving life to a mau's faith, is frequent

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