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jealousy, though placed so unjustly, waste my under no more restraint in their company than very being ; and, with the torment and sense if I were alone ; and I doubt not but in a small of a demon, I am ever cursing what I cannottime contempt and hatred will take place of but approve. I wish it were the beginning of the remains of affection to a rascal. repentance, that I sit down and describe my
“I am, Sir, present disposition with so hellish an aspect :
Your affectionate reader, but at present the destruction of these two
DORINDA.' excellent persons would be more welcome to me than their happiness. Mr. Spectator, pray
MR. SPECTATOR, let me have a paper on these terrible ground. "I had the misfortune to be an uncle before less sufferings, and do all you can to exor- I knew my nephews from my nieces : and now cise crowds who are in some degree possessed we are grown up to better acquaintance, they as I am.
deny me the respect they owe. One upbraids *CANIBAL.' me with being their familiar, another will hard
ly be persuaded that I am an uncle, a third *MR. SPEOTATOR,
calls me little uncle, and a fourth tells me I have no other means but this to express there is no duty at all due to an uncle. I have my thanks to one man, and my resentment a brother-in-law whose son will win all my afagainst another. My circumstances are as fection, unless you shall think this worthy of follow : I have been for five years last past your cognizance, and will be pleased to precourted by a gentleman of greater fortune scribe some rules for our future reciprocal bethan I ought to expect, as the market for wo-haviour. It will be worthy the particularity men goes. You must, to be sure, have ob- of your genius to lay down some rules for his served people who live in that sort of way, as conduct who was, as it were, born an old man ; all their friends reckon it will be a match, and in which you will much oblige, are marked out by all the world for each .
• Sir, other. In this view we have been regarded for
Your most obedient servant, some time, and I have above these three years T.
CORNELIUS NEPOS.' loved him tenderly. As he is very careful of his fortune, I always thought he lived in a near No. 403.) Thursday, June 12, 1712. manner, to lay up what he thought was wanting in my fortune to make up what he might
Qui mores homimum multorum vidit
Hor. Are. Poet. v. 142. expect in another. Within these few months I have observed his carriage very much altered, Of many men he saw the manners. and he has affected a certain air of getting me alone, and talking with a mighty profusion
When I consider this great city in its seven of passionate words, how I am not to be re- ral quarters and divisions, I look upon it as an sisted longer, how irresistible his wishes are, aggregate of various nations distinguished from and the like. As long as I have been acquaint- each other by their respective customs, maned with him, I could not on such occasions ners, and interests. The courts of two counsay down-right to him, “You know you may tries do not so much differ from one another, make me yours when you please." But the as the court and city, in their peculiar ways of other night he with great frankness and impu- life and conversation. In short, the inhabidence explained to me, that he thought of me tants of St. James's, notwithstanding they live only as a mistress. I answered this declara- under the same laws, and speak the same lantion as it deserved; upon which he only doubled guage, are a distinct people from those of the terms on which he proposed my yield. Cheapside, who are likewise, removed from ing. When my anger heightened upon him, I those of the Temple on the one side, and those he told me he was sorry he had made so little of Smithfield on the other, by several climates use of the unguarded hours we had been to and degrees in their way of thinking and congether so remote from company, “as indeed," versing together. continued he, “So we are at present." I flew For this reason, when any public affair is from him to a neighbouring gentlewoman's upon the anvil, I love to hear the reflections house, and though her husband was in the that arise upon it in the several districts and room, threw myself on a couch, and burst in-parishes of London and Westminster, and to to a passion of tears. My friend desired herramble up and down a whole day together, in husband to leave the room. “But," said he, order to make myself acquainted with the opin"there is something so extraordinary in this, lions of my ingenious countrymen. By this that I will partake in the affliction ; and, be means I know the faces of all the principal it what it will, she is so much your friend, politicians within the bills of mortality; and that she kuows she may command what ser- as every coffee-bouse has some particular vices I can do her." The man sat down by statesman belonging to it, who is the mouth of me, and spoke so like a brother, that I told him the street where he lives, I always take care to my whole affliction. He spoke of the injury place myself near him, in order to know his done me with so much indignation, and ani-judgment on the present posture of affairs. mated me against the love he said he saw I had The last progress that I made with this intenfor the wretch who would have betrayed me, tion was about three months ago, when we with so mucb reason and humanity to my weak-had a current report of the king of France's ness, that I doubt not of my perseverance. death. As I foresaw this would produce a His wife and he are my comforters, and I am new face of things in Europe, and many cu
rious speculations in our British coffee-houses, pilchards, and by several other remarks infusI was very desirous to learn the thoughts of ed a general joy into his wbole audience, our most eminent politicians on that occasion. I afterwards entered a by-coffee-house, that
That I might begin as near the fountain-stood at the upper end of a narrow lane, where head as possible, I first of all called in at St. I met with a ponjuror, engaged very warmly James's, where I found the whole outward with a lace-man who was the great support of room in a buzz of politics. The speculations a neighbouring conventicle. The matter in were but very indifferent towards the door, debate was, w bether the late French king was but grew fiper as you advanced to the upper most like Augustus Cæsar or Nero. The conend of the room, and were so very much im- troversy was carried on with great heat on proved by a knot of theorists, who sat in the both sides; and as each of them looked upon inner room. within the steams of the coffee- me very frequently during the course of their pot, that I there heard the whole Spanish mo- debate, I was under some apprehension that narchy disposed of, and all the line of Bour- they would appeal to me, and therefore laid bon provided for in less than a quarter of an down my penny at the bar, and made the best hour.
of my way to Cheapside. I afterwards called in at Giles's, where l I here gazed upon the signs for some time saw a board of French gentlemen sitting upon before I found one to my purpose. The first the life and death of their grand monarque.object I met in the coffee-room was a person Tbose among them who had espoused the whig who expressed a great grief for the death of interest, very positively affirmed, that he de- the French king: but, upon explaining himself, parted this life about a week since, and there. I found his sorrow did not arise from the loss fore proceeded without any further delay to of the monarch, but for his having sold out of the release of their friends in the galleys, and the bank about three days before he heard the to their own re-establishment; but, finding news of it. Upon which a haberdasher, who they could not agree among themselves, I pro- was the oracle of the coffee-house, and had his ceeded on my intended progress.
circle of admirers about him, called several to Upon my arrival at Jenny Man's I saw an witness that he had declared his opinion above alerle young fellow that cocked his hat upon a week before, that the French king was cera friend of his who entered just at the same tainly dead; to which he added, that, copsid. time with myself, and accosted him after the ering the late advices we have received from following manner: Well, Jack, the old prig France, it was impossible that it could be othis dead at last. Sharp's the word. Now or erwise. As he was laying these together, and never, boy. Up to the walls of Paris directly.' dictating to his bearers with great authority, With several other deep reflections of the same there came in a gentleman from Garraway's nature.
who told us that there were several letters · I met with very little variation in the poli- from France just come in, with advice that the tics between Charing-cross and Covent-gar- king was in good health, and was gone out aden. And upon my going into Will's, I found hunting the very morning the post came their discourse was gone off from the death of away : upon which the haberdasher stole off the French king to that of monsieur Boileau, his hat that hung upon a wooden peg by him, Racine, Corneille, and several other poets, and retired to his shop with great confusion. whom they regretted on this occasion, as per- This intelligence put a stop to my travels, sons who would have obliged the world with which I had prosecuted with so much satisfacvery noble clegies on the death of so great a tion; not being a little pleased to hear so maprince, and so eminent a patron of learning. ny different opinions upon so great an event,
At a coffee-house near the Temple, I found and to observe bow naturally upon such a a couple of young gentlemen engaged very piece of news every one is apt to consider it smartly in a dispute on the succession to the with regard to his particular interest and ad. Spanish monarchy. One of them seemed to vantage. have been retained as advocate for the duke of Anjou. the other for his imperial majesty:- No. 404.1 Friday, June 13, 1712. They were both for regulating the title to that kingdom by the statute laws of England; but -- Non omnia possumus omnes.-Virg. Ecl. vii. 63. finding them going out of my depth, I passed! With different talents formid, we variously excel. forward to St. Paul's church-yard, where 11 listened with great attention to a learned man, NATURE does nothing in vain : the Creator who gave the company an account of the del of the universe has appointed every thing to a plorable state of France during the minority certain use and purpose, and determined it to of the deceased king.
la seuled course and sphere of action, from I then turned on my right hand into Fish- which if it in the least deviates, it becomes unstreet, where the chief politician of that quar- fit to wswer those ends for which it was deter, upon hearing the news, (after having ta- signed. In like manner it is in the disposiken a pipe of tobacco, and ruminated for some tions of society, the civil economy is formed time) If,' says he, the king of France is cer- in a chain, as well as the natural: and in eith. tainly dead, we shall have plenty of mackarel er case the breach but of one link puts the this season: our fishery will not be disturbed whole in some disorder. It is, I think, pretty by privateers, as it has been for these ten plain, that most of the absurdity and ridicule years past.' He afterwards considered how we meet with in the world, is generally owing the death of this great man vould affect our to the impertinent affectation of exeelling in
characters men are not fit for, and for which ing a foundation upon a rock; every thing nature never designed them.
disposes itself into order as it were of course, Every man has one or more qualities which and the whole work is half done as soon as may make him useful both to himself and undertaken. Cicero's genius inclined him to others, Nature never fails of pointing them oratory, Virgil's to follow the train of the Mu. out; and while the infant continues under her ses ; they piously obeyed the admonition, and guardianship, she brings him on in his way, and were rewarded. Had Virgil attended the bar, then offers herself as a guide in what remains his modest and ingenious virtue would surely of the journey ; if he proceeds in that course have made but a very indifferent figure ; and he can hardly miscarry. Nature makes good Tully's declamatory inclination would have her engagements : for, as she never pro- been as useless in poetry. Nature, if left to mises what she is not able to perform, so herself, leads us on in the best course, but will she never fails of performing what she promi- do nothing by compulsion and constraint; and ses. But the misfortune is, men despise what if we are not always satisfied to go her way, they may be masters of, and affect what they we are always the greatest sufferers by it, are not fit for; they reckon themselves als Wherever nature designs a production, she ready possessed of what their genius inclined always disposes seeds proper for it, which are them to, and so bend all their arubition to ex-as absolutely necessary to the formation of any cel in what is out of their reach. Thus they moral or intellectual excellence, as they are to destroy the use of their natural talents, in the the being and growth of plants; and I know same manner as covetous men do their quiet not by what fate and folly it is, that men are and repose: they can enjoy no satisfaction in taught not to reckon him equally absurd that what they have, because of the absurd incli- will write verses in spite of Nature, with that nation they are possessed with for what they gardener that should undertake to raise a jonhave not.
Iquil or tulip without the help of their respect Cleanthes has good sense, a great memory, live seeds. and a coustitution capable of the closest ap- As there is no good or bad quality that does plication. In a word, there was no profession not affect both sexes, so it is not to be imagined in which Cleanthes might not have made a but the fair-sex must have suffered by an af. very good figure; but this won't satisfy him ; fectation of this nature, at least as much as he takes up an unaccountable fondness for the the other. The ill effect of it is in none so character of a fine gentleman; all his thoughts conspicuous as in the two opposite characters are bent upon this; instead of attending a dis- of Cælia and Iras; Cælia has all the charms section, frequenting the courts of justice, or of person, together with an abundant sweet. studying the fathers, Cleanthes reads plays, ness of nature, but wants wit, and has a very dances, dresses, and spends his time in draw-ill voice ; Iras is ugly and ungenteel, but has ing-rooms; instead of being a good lawyer, wit and good sense. If Cælia would be silent, divine, or physician, Cleanthes is a downright her beholders would adore ber; if Iras would coxcomb, and will remain to all that know him talk, her hearers would admire her ; but Cæ, a contemptible example of talents unisapplied. lia's tongue runs incessantly, while Iras gives It is to this affectation the world owes its whole herself silent airs and soft languors, so tbat it race of coxcombs. Nature in her whole drama is difficult to persuade oneself that Cælia bas never drew such a part; she has sometimes beauty, and Iras wit: each neglects her own made a fool, but a coxcomb is always of a excellence, and is ambitious of tbe other's man's own making, by applying his talents character; Iras would be thought to have as otherwise tban Nature designed, who ever much beauty as Cælia, and Cælia as much wit bears a high resentment for being put out of as Iras. her course, and never fails of taking her re- The great misfortune of this affectation is, venge on those that do so. Opposing her ten- that men not only lose a good quality, but also deney in the application of a man's parts has contract a bad one. They not only are uofit the same success as declining from her course for what they were designed, but they assign in the production of vegetables, by the assist themselves to what they are not fit for; and, ance of art and an hot bed. We may possibly instead of making a very good figure one way, extort an unwilling plant, or an untimely sa- make a very ridiculous one another. If Se. iad; but how weak, how tasteless and insipid ! manthe would have been satisfied with her Just as insipid as the poetry of Valerio. Vale- natural complexion, she might still have been rio had an universal character, was genteel, celebrated by the name of the olive beauty ; had learning, thought justly, spoke correctly; but Semanthe has taken up an affectation to it was believed there was nothing in which Va- white and red, and is now distinguished by lerio did not excel; and it was so far true, that the character of the lady that paints so well. there was but one; Valerio had no genius for In a word, could the world be reformed to the poetry, yet he is resolved to be a poet; he obedience of that famed dictate, . Follow Nawrites verses, and takes great pains to con- ture,' which the oracle of Delphos pronounced vince the town that Valerio is not that extra- to Cicero, when he consulted what course of ordinary person he was taken for.
studies he should pursue, we should see almost If men would be content to graft upon Na-every man as eminent in his proper sphere as ture, and assist her operations, what mighty Tally was in his, and should in a very short effects might we expect! Tully would not stand time find impertinence and affectation banso much alone in oratory, Virgil in poetry, or ished from among the women, and cozcombs Cæsar in war. To build upon Nature, is lay- and false characters from among the men. VOL IT:
For my part, I could never consider this pre-l of the ancients, that if the gods were to talk posterous repugnancy to Nature any otherwise, with men, they would certainly speak in Pla. than not only as the greatest folly, but also to's style ; but I think we may say with justice, one of the most heinous crimes, since it is a that when mortals converse with their Crea. direct opposition to the disposition of Provi- tor, they cannot do it in so proper a style as ja dence, and (as Tully expresses it) like the that of the holy scriptures. sin of the giants, an actual rebellion against If any one would judge of the beauties of beaven.
| poetry that are to be met with in the divine writings, and examine how kindly the Hebrew
mangers of speech mix and incorporate with No. 405.] Saturday, June 14, 1712. the English language ; after baring perused
the book of Psalms ; let him read a literal oidi annuépios uonti Osov indoxalu?
translation of Horace or Pindar. He will Kenor asidores Ilzesnosz zopo'Agarüb,
find in these two last such an absurdity and Μέλπινίες Εκάεργον ο δε φρένα τέρπετ ακέων.
confusion of style, with such a comparative Hom. Diad. i. 472.
poverty of imagination, as will make him With hymns divine the joyous banquet enda; very sensible of what I have been here adPhe paans lengthened till the sun descends; vancing. The Greeks restored the grateful notes prolong;
| Since we have therefore such a treasury of Spollo listens, and approves the song.
words, so beautiful in themselves, and so pro
per for the airs of music, I cannot but wonder I am very sorry to find, by the opera bills for that persons of distinction should give so little this day, that we are likely to lose the great attention and encouragement to that kind of est performer in dramatic music that is now music, which would have its foundation in realiving, or that perhaps ever appeared upon a son, and which would improve our virtue in stage. I need not acquaint my readers that I proportion as it raises our delight. The pasam speaking of signior Nicolini. The town sions that are excited by ordinary composiis highly obliged to that excellent artist, for tions generally flow from such silly and abhaving shown us the Italian music in its per- surd occasions, that a man is ashamed to refection, as well as for that generous approba-nect upon them seriously; but the fear, the tion he lately gave to an opera of our own love, the sorrow, the indignation, that are country, in which the composer endeavoured awakened in the mind by hymus and anthems, to do justice to the heauty of the words, by fol- make the heart better, and proceed from such lowing that noble example, which has been causes as are altogether reasonable and praiseset him by the greatest foreign masters in that worthy. Pleasure and duty go hand in hand, art.
and the greater our satisfaction is, the greater I could heartily wish there was the same is our religion application and endeavours to cultivate and Music among those who were styled the improve our church-music as have been lately chosen people was a religious art. The songs bestowed on that of the stage. Our compo- of Sion, which we have reason to believe were sers have one very great incitement to it.-- in high repute among the courts of the eastern They are sure to meet with excellent words, monarchs, were nothing else but psalms and and at the same time a wonderful variety of pices of poetry that adored or celebrated the them. There is no passion that is not finely Supreme Being. The greatest conqueror in expressed in those parts of the inspired wri- this holy nation, after the manner of the old tings, which are proper for divine songs and Grecian lyrics, did not only compose the words anthems. .
of his divine odes, but generally set them to There is a certain coldoess and indifference music himself: after which, his works, though in the phrases of our European languages, they were consecrated to the tabernacle, bewhen they are compared with the oriental came the national entertainment, as well as forms of speech ; and it happens very luckily, the devotion of the people. that the Hebrew idioms run into the English The first original of the drama was a relitongue with a particular grace and beauty. gious worship, consisting only of a chorus, Our language has received innumerable ele- which was nothing else but a hymn to a deity. gancies and improvements, from that infusion As luxury and voluptuousness prevailed over of Hebraisms, which are derived to it out of innocence and religion, this form of worship the poetical passages in holy writ. They give degenerated into tragedies; in which however a force and energy to our expression, warm the chorus so far remembered its first office, and animate our language, and convey our as to brand every thing that was vicious, and thoughts in more ardent and intense phrases, recommend every thing that was laudable, than any that are to be met with in our own to intercede with Heaven for the innocent, and tongue. There is something so pathetic in to implore its vengeance on the criminal. this kind of diction, that it often sets the mind Homer and Hesiod intimate to us how this in a flame, and makes our hearts burn within art should be applied, when they represent the us. - How cold and dead does a prayer appear, Muses as surrounding Jupiter, and warbling that is composed in the most elegant and po- their hymns about his throne. I might show, lite forms of speech, which are natural to onr from innumerable passages in ancient writers, tongue, when it is not heightened by that so- not only that vocal and instrumental music lemnity of phrase which may be drawn from were made use of in their religious worship, the sacred writings ! It has been said by some bot that their most favourite diversions were filled with sougs and hymns to their respec-says, “Tam umbratiles sunt, ut putent in turtive deities. Had we frequent entertainments bido esse quicquid in luce est. Some men, of this nature among us, they would not a little like pictures, are fitter for a corner than a full purify and exalt our passions, give our light; and I believe such as have a natural thoughts a proper turn, and cherish those di- bent to solitude are like waters, which may be vine impulses in the soul, which every one feels forced into fountains, and exalted to a great that has not stifled them by sensual and im- height, may make a much pobler figure, and moral pleasures.
a much louder noise, but after all run more Music, when thus applied, raises noble smoothly, equally, and plentifully in their own bints in the mind of the hearer, and fills it with patural course upon the ground. The congreat conceptions. It strengens devotion, and sideration of this would make me very well advances praise into rapture, lengthens out contented with the possession only of that quiet every act of worship, and produces more last- which Cowley calls the companion of obscuriing and permanent impressions in the mind, ty; but whoever has the muses too for his com. than those which accompany any transient panions can never be idle enough to be uneasy. form of words that are uttered in the ordinary Thus, sir, you see I would fatter myself into a method of religious worship.
good opinion of my own way of living: Plutarch just now told me, that it is in human life as in
a game at tables: one may wish he had the No. 406.] Monday, June 16, 1712. highest cast; but, if his chance be otherwise,
Haec studia adolescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, he is even to play it as well as he can, and seeundas res ornant, adversis solatium et perfugium præ- make the best bent; delectant domi, non impediunt foris; pernoctant
* I am, Sir,
Your most obliged
and most humble servant.'
• MR. SPECTATOR, some abroad; they gladden us at nights, and on our jour
The town being so well pleased with the aeys, and in the country.
fine picture of artless love, which Nature inTas following letters bear a pleasing image spired the Laplander to paint in the ode you of the joys and satisfactions of a private life. lately printed, we were in hopes that the inThe first is from a gentleman to a friend, for genious translator would have obliged it with whom he has a very great respect, and to whom the other also which Scheffer has given us: but he communicates the satisfaction he takes in since he has not, a much inferior hand has retirement; the other is a letter to me, occa- ventured to send you this. sioned by an ode written by my Lapland lover: 'It is a custom with the northern lovers to this correspondent is so kind as to translate divert themselves with a song, whilst they another of Scheffer's songs in a very agreeable journey through the fenný moors to pay a visit manner. I publish them together, that the to their mistresses. This is addressed by the young and old may find something in the same lover to his rein-deer, which is the creature paper which may be suitable to their respective that in that country supplies the want of horses. tastes in solitude; for I know no fault in the The circumstances which successively present description of ardent desires, provided they themselves to him in his way, are, I believe are honourable.
you will think, naturally interwoven. The
anxiety of absence, the gloominess of the roads, DEAR SIR,
and his resolution of frequenting only those, You have obliged me with a very kind since those only can carry him to the object of letter; by which I find you shift the scene of his desires; the dissatisfaction he expresses your life from the town to the country, and en- even at the greatest swiftness with which he is joy that mixt state, which wise men both de carried, and his joyful surprise at an unexlight in and are qualified for. Methinks most pected sight of his mistress as she is bathing, of the philosophers and moralists have run too scem beautifully described in the original. much into extremes in praising entirely either ‘If those pretty images of rural nature are solitude or public life; in the former, men ge- lost in the imitation, yet possibly you may nerally grow useless by too much rest; and, in think fit to let this supply the place of a long the latter, are destroyed by too much precipi-| letter, when want of leisure, or indisposition tation ; as waters lying still putrefy and are for writing, will not perinit our being entergood for nothing; and running violently on, tained by your own band. I propose such a do but the more mischief in their passage to time, because, though it is natural to have a others, and are swallowed up and lost the fondness for what one does oneself, yet, I assooner themselves. Those who, like you, can sure you, I would not have any thing of mine make themselves useful to all states, should be displace a single line of yours. like gentle streams, that not only glide through lonely vales and forests, amidst the flocks and
* Haste, my rein-deer, and let us nimbly go shepherds, but visit populous towns in their Our am'rous journey through this dreary waste: course, and are at once of ornament and service Haste, my rein-deer! stiil, still thou art too slow, to them. But there is another sort of people
Impetuous love demands the lightning's haste. who seem designed for solitude, those I mean who have more to hide than to show. As for
"Around us far the rushy moors are spread: my own part, I am one af those whom Seneca
Soon will the sun withdraw his cheerful ray: