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their faithfulness and zeal, their diligence of loving a man whom we cannot esteem; so, and great abilities in executing her com- on the other, though we are truly sensible of a mands; to such a height of military glory man's abilities, we can never raise ourselves to did her great general and her armies carry the warmth of friendship, without an affectionthe British nane abroad; such was the har- ate good-will towards his person, mony and concord betwixt her and her al- Friendship immediately banishes envy un. ties; and such was the blessing of God upon der all its disguises. A man who can once all her councils and undertakings, that I am doubt whether he should rejoice in his as sure as history can make me, no prince friend's being happier than himself, may deof ours ever was so prosperous and success-pend upon it that he is an utter stranger to ful, so beloved, esteemed, and honoured by this virtue. their subjects and their friends, nor near so There is something in friendship so very formidable to their enemies. We were, as great and noble, that in those fictitious stories all the world imagined then, just entering on wbich are invented to the honour of any parthe ways that promised to lead to such a ticular person, the authors have thought it as peace as would have answered all the pray- necessary to make their hero a friend as a ers of our religious queen, the care and vigi- lover. Achilles has his Patroclus, and Æneas lance of a most able ministry, the payments his Achates. In the first of these instances we of a willing and most obedient people, as well may observe, for the reputation of the subject as all the glorious toils and hazards of the sol. I am treating of, that Greece was almost ruindiery; when God, for our sins, permitted the ed by the hero's love, but was preserved by his spirit of discord to go forth, and by troubling friendship. sore the camp, the city, and the country, (and The character of Achates suggests to us an oh that it had altogether spared the places observation we may often make on the intimasacred to his worship !) to spoil, for a time, cies of great men who frequently choose their this beautiful and pleasing prospect, and give companions rather for the qualities of the heart us in its stead, I know not whal- Our than those of the head, and prefer fidelity in enemies will tell the rest with pleasure. It an easy, inoffensive, complying temper, to will become me better to pray to God to re- those endowments which make a much great. store us to the power of obtaining such a er figure amoog mankind. I do not remember peace as will be to his glory, the safety, ho- that Achates, who is represented as the first nour, and welfare of the queen and her do- favourite, either gives his advice, or strikes a minions, and the general satisfaction of all blow, through the wbole Æneid. her high and mighty allies. *
A frier.dship which makes the least noise is May 2, 1712.'
very often most useful: for which reason I should prefer a prudent friend to a zealous one.
Atticus, one of the best men of ancient No. 385.] Thursday, May 22, 1712. Rome, was a very remarkable instance of what --- Theseâ pectora juncta fide.
I am here speaking. This extraordinary perOvit. Trist. ii. Lib. 1. 66.
son, amidst the civil wars of his country, when
he saw the designs of all parties equally tended Breasts that with sympathizing ardour glow'd, And holy friendship, such as Theseus vow'd.
to the subversion of liberty, by constantly pre
serving the esteem and atiection of both the I INTEND the paper for this day as a loose competitors, found means to serve his friends essay on frieodship, in which I shall throw on either side : and, while he sent money to my observations together without any set young Marius, whose father was declared an form, that I may avoid repeating what has enemy to the commonwealth, he was himself beeo often said on this subject.
one of Sylla's chief favourites, and always near Friendship is a strong and habitual inclina- that general. tion in two persons to promote the good and During the war between Cæsar and Pomhappiness of one another. Though the plea-pey, he still maintained the same conduct. sures and advantages of friendship have been After the death of Cæsar, he sent money to largely celebrated by the best moral writers, Brutus in his troubles, and did a thousand and are considered by all as great ingredients good offices to Antony's wife and friends when of human happiness, we very rarely meet with that party seemed ruined. Lastly, even in the practice of this virtue in the world. that bloody war between Antony and Augus
Every man is ready to give in a long cata- tus, Atticus still hept his place in both their logue of those virtues and good qualities he friendships : insomuch that the first, says Cor. espects to find in the person of a friend, but nelius Nepos, whenever he was absent from very few of us are careful to cultivate them in Rome in any part of of the empire, writ puncourselves.
Itually to him what he was doing, what he read, Love and esteem are the first principles of and whither he intended to go; and the latter friendship, which always is imperfect where gave him constantly an exact account of all either of these two is wanting.
his affairs. As, on the one hand, we are soon ashamed A likeness of inclinations in every particular
is so far from being requisite to form a bene.
volence in two minds towards each other, as it *This Preface was seized on by the Tory ministry, lis generally imagined. that I believe we shall and condemned, by a motion of the House of Commons, to be burned by the common hangman.--See Biographia
find some of tbe firmest friendships to have Britannica, vol. ii. p. 1971.
been contracted between persons of different
bumours ; the mind being often pleased with despicable. A map must be sincerely pleased thosc perfections which are new to it, and which to become pleasure, or not to interrupt that of it does not find among its own accomplish- others; for this reason it is a most calamitous ments. Besides that a man in some measure circumstance, that many people who want to supplies his own defects, and fancies bimself at be alone, or should be so, will come into consecond-hand possessed of those good qualities versation. It is certain that all men, who are and endowments, which are in the possession the least given to reflection, are seized with an of him who in the eye of the world is looked inclination that way when, perhaps, they had upon as his other self.
rather be inclined to company ; but indeed The most difficult province in friendship is they had better go home and be tired with the letting a man see his faults and errors, themselves, than force themselves upon others which should, if possible, be so contrived, that to recover their good humour. In all this, the he may perceive our advice is given him not case of communicating to a friend a sad thougbs so much to please ourselves as for his own ad- or difficulty, in order to relieve a heavy heart, vantage. The reproaches therefore of a friend stands excepted; but what is bere meant is, should always be strictly just, and not too fre- that a man should always go with inclination quent.
to the turn of the company he is going iato, or The violent desire of pleasing in the person not pretend to be of the party. It is certainly reproved may otherwise change into a despair a very happy temper to be able to live with all of doing it, while he finds himself censured for kinds of dispositions, because it argues a mind faults he is not conscious of. A mind that is that lies open to receive what is pleasing to othsoftened and humanized by friendship cannot ers, and not obstinately bent on any particubear frequent reproaches; either it must quite larity of his own. sink under the oppression, or abate considera- This is it which makes me pleased with the bly of the value and esteem it had for him who character of my good acquaintance Acasto. bestows them.
You meet him at the tables and conversations The proper business of friendship is to in- of the wise, the impertinent, the grave, the frospire life and courage: and a soul thus suppor lic, and the witty ; and yet his own character ted outdoes itself: whereas, if it be unexpect. has nothing in it that can make him particularedly deprived of these succours, it droops and ly agreeable to any one sect of men; but Acaslanguishes.
to has natural good sense, good-nature, and We are in some measure more inexcusable if discretion, so that every mau enjoys himself in we violate our duties to a friend than to a re-his company; and though Acasto contributes lation ; since the former arises from a volunta- nothing to the entertainment, he never was at ry choice, the latter from a necessity to which a place where he was not welcome a second ve could not give our own consent.
time. Without the subordinate good qualities As it has been said on one side, that a man of Acasto, a man of wit and learning would be ought not to break with a faulty friend, that painful to the generality of mankind, instead of be may not expose the weakness of his choice; being pleasing. Witty men are apt to imagine it will doubtless hold much stronger with re- they are agreeable as such, and by that means spect to a worthy one, that he may never be grow the worst companions imaginable; they upbraided for having lost so valuable a treasure deride the absent or rally the present in a wrong which was once in his possession. X. manner, not knowing that if you pinch or tickle
a man till he is uneasy in his seat, or ungrace
fully distinguished from the rest of the compaNo. 386.] Friday, May 23, 1712.
ny, you equally hurt him. Cum tristibus severé, cum remissis jncundé, pum seni
I was going to say, the true art of being a. bus graviter, cum juventute comiter vivere.-Tull. Jgreeable in company (but there can be no such
thing as art in it) is to appear well pleased with THE piece of Latin on the bend of this paper those you are engaged with, and rather to seem is part of a character extremely vicious, but I well entertained, than to bring entertainment have set down no more than may fall in with to others. A man thus disposed is not indeed the rules of justice and honour. Cicero spoke what we ordinarily call a good companion, but it of Catiline, who, he said, “lived with the sad essentially is such, and in all the parts of his severely, with the cheerful agreeably, with the conversation has something friendly in his be old gravely, with the young pleasantly ;' he haviour, which conciliates men's minds more added, “with the wicked boldly, with the wan-than the highest sallies of wit or starts of huton lasciviously.' The two last instances of his mour can possibly do. The feebleness of age complaisance I forbear to consider, having it in a man of this turn has something which in my thoughts at present only to speak of ob- should be treated with respect even in a man sequiour behaviour as it sits upon a companion no otherwise venerable. The forwardness of in pleasure, not a man of design and intrigue. youth, when it proceeds from alacrity and not To vary with every humour in this manner insolence, has also its allowances. The com. cannot be agreeable, except it comes from a panion who is formed for such by nature, gives man's own temper and natural complexion; to to every character of life its due regards, and do it out of an ambition to excel that way, is is ready to account for their imperfections, and the most fruitless and unbecoming prostitution receive their accomplishments as if they were imaginable. To put on an artful part to ob- his own. It must appear that you receive law tain no other end but an unjust praise from from, and not give it to your company, to the undiscerning, is of all endeavours the most make you agreeable.
I remember Tully, speaking, I think, of An-cheerfulness mutually beget each other; with tony, says, that, In eo facetice erant, quæ nulla this difference, that we seldom meet with a arte tradi possunt : He had a witty mirth, great degree of health which is not attended which could be acquired by no art.' This qua- with a certain cheerfulness, but very often see lity must be of the kind of which I am now cheerfulness where there is no great degree of speaking; for all sorts of behaviour which de-health. pends upon observation and knowledge of life! Cheerfulness bears the same friendly regard are to be acquired; but that which no one can to the mind as to the body. It banishes all describe, and is apparently the act of nature, anxious care and discontent, soothes and commust be every where prevalent, because every poses the passions, and keeps the soul in a thing it meets is a fit occasion to exert it ; for perpetual calm. But having already touched he who follows nature can never be improper on this last consideration, I sball bere take or unseasonable.
notice, that the world in which we are placed How unaccountable then must their beha- is filled with innumerable objects that are proviour be, who, without any manner of consi- per to raise and keep alive this happy temper deration of what the company they have now of mind. entered are upon, give themselves the air of al If we consider this world in its subsermessenger, and make as distinct relations of viency to man, one would think it was made the occurrences they last met with, as if they for our use ; but if we consider it in its na. bad been despatched from those they talk to, tural beauty and harmony, one would be apt to be punctually exact in a report of those cir- to conclude it was made for our pleasure. cumstances! It is umpardonable to those who The sun, which is as the great soul of the are met to enjoy one another that a fresh man universe, and prroduces all the necessaries shall pop in, and give as only the last part of of life, has a particular influence in cheerhis own life, and put a stop to ours during the ing the mind of man, and making the heart history. If such a man comes from 'Change.Iglad. whether you will or not, you must hear how the Those several living creatures which are stocks go ; and, though you are never so in- made for our service or sustenance at the tently employed on a graver subject, a young same time either fill the woods with their mufellow of the other end of the town will take sic, furnish us with game, or raise pleasing his place, and tell you. Mrs. Such-a-one is ideas in us by the delightfulness of their apcharmingly handsome. because he just now pearance. Fountains, lakes and rivers, are as saw her. But I think I need not dwell on refreshing to the imagination, as to the soil this subject, since I have acknowledged there through which they pass. can be no rules made for excelling this way ;) | There are writers of great distinction, who and precepts of this kind fare like rules for have made it ad argument for Providence, that writing poetry, which, it is said, may have the whole earth is covered with green rather prevented ill poets, but never make good
than with any other colour, as being such a ones.
right mixture of light and shade, that it comforts and strengthens the eye, instead of weak
ening or grieving it. For this reson several No. 387.] Saturday, May 24, 1712. painters have a green cloth hanging near them Quid purè tranquillet
to ease the eye upon, after too great an appliHor. Ep. xviii. Lib. 1. 102.
Ication to their colouring. A famous modern What calms the breast, and makes the mind serene.
philosopher* accounts for it in the following
manner.. All colours that are more luminous, In my last Saturday's paper I spoke ofl overpower and dissipate the animal spirits cheerfulness as it is a moral habit of the which are employed in sight; on the contrary. miod. and accordingly mentioned such mor- those that are more obscure do not give the al motives as are apt to cherish and keep animal spirits a sufficient exercise ; whereas alive this happy temper in the soul of man the rays that produce in us the idea of green, I shall now consider cheerfulness in its na-l fall upon the eye in such a due proportion, tural state, and reflect on those motives to that they give the animal spirits their proper it which are indifferent either as to virtue or play, and, by keeping up the struggle in a just vice.
balance, excite a very pleasing and agreeable Cheerfulness is, in the first place, the best sensation. Let the cause be what it will, the promoter of health. Repinings, and secret effect is certain ; for which reason, the poets murmurs of heart, give imperceptible strokes ascribe to this particular colour the epithet of to those delicate fibres of which the vital cheerful. parts are composed, and wear out the machine! To consider further this double end in the insensibly ; not to mention those violent fer-works of nature, and how they are at the same ments which they stir up in the blood, and time both useful and entertaining, we find that those irregular disturbed motions which they (the most important parts in the vegetable raise in the animal spirits. I scarce remem-world are those which are the most beautiful. ber, in my own observation, to have met with
with These are the seeds by which the several races many old men, or with such, who (to use our of plants are propagated and continued, and English phrase) wear well, that had not at which are always lodged in flowers or blosleast a certain indolence in their humour, if soms. Nature seems to hide her principal de. not a more than ordinary gaiety and cheerfulness of heart. The truth of it is, health and
* Sir Isaac Newton
sign, and to be industrious in making the earth by a right improvement of them will progay and delightful, while she is carrying on duce a satiety of joy, and an uninterrupted her great work, and intent upon her own pre- happiness. servation. The husbandman, after the same At the same time that I would engage my manner, is employed in laying out the whole reader to consider the world in its most agreecountry into a kind of garden or landscape, able lights, I must own there are many evils and making every thing smile about him, which naturally spring up amidst the entertainwhilst in reality he thinks of nothing but of ments that are provided for us; but these, if the harvest, and the increase which is to arise rightly considered, should be far from overfrom it.
casting the mind with sorrow, or destroying We may further observe how Providence has that cheerfulness of temper which I have taken care to keep up this cheerfulness in the been recommending. This interspersion of mind of man, by having formed it after such evil with good, and pain with pleasure, in a manner, as to make it capable of conceiving the works of nature, is very truly ascribed delight from several objects which seem to by Mr. Locke, in his Essay on Human Unhave very little use in them ; as from the wild- derstanding, to a moral reason, in the followness of rocks and deserts, and the like gro-ing words. tesque parts of nature. Those who are versed . Beyond all this we may find another reason in philosophy may still carry this considera- why God hath scattered up and down several tion higher, by observing, that if matter had degrees of pleasure and pain, in all the things appeared to us endowed only with those real that environ and affect us, and blended them qualities which it actually possesses, it would together, in almost all that our thoughts and have made but a very joyless and uncomforta- senses have to do with ; that we, finding imble figure ; and why has Providence given it perfection, dissatisfaction, and want of coma power of producing in us such imaginary plete happiness, in all the enjoyments which qualities, and tastes and colours, sounds and the creatures can afford us, might be led to smells, heat and cold, but that man, while he seek it in the enjoyment of Him with whom is conversant in the lower stations of nature," there is fulness of joy, and at whose right might have bis mind cheered and delighted hand are pleasures for evermore." L. with agreeable sensations ? In short, the whole universe is a kind of theatre, filled with objects that either raise in us pleasure, amusement, or No. 388.] Monday, May 26, 1712. admiration.
- Tibi res antiquæ laudis et artis The reader's own thoughts will suggest to Ingredior: sanctos ausus recludere fontes. him the vicissitude of day and night, the change
Virg. Georg. ii. 174. of seasons, with all that variety of scenes For thee, I dare unlock the sacred spring, which diversify the face of nature, and fill the And arts disclos'd by ancient sages sing. mind with a perpetual succession of beautiful and pleasing images.
MR. SPECTATOR, I shall not here mention the several enter
It is my custom, when I read your papers, to tainments of art, with tbe pleasures of friend. read over the quotations in the authors from ship, books, conversation, and other accidentall whence you take them. As you mentioned a diversions of life, because I would only take passage lately out of the second chapter of potice of sueh inciteinents to a cheerful temper Solomon's Song, it occasioned my looking into as offer themselves to persons of all ranks and it; and, upon reading it, I thought the ideas conditions, and which may sufficiently show so exquisitely soft and tender, that I could not us that Providence did not design this world help making this paraphrase of it: which, should be filled with murmurs and repinings. now it is done, I can as little forbear sending or that the heart of man should be involved in to you. Some marks of your approbation, gloom and melancholy.
which I have already received, have given me I the more inculcate this cheerfulness of so sensible a taste of them, that I cannot fortemper, as it is a virtue in which our country-bear endeavouring after them as often as I can men are observed to be more deficient than with any appearance of success. any other nation. Melancholy is a kind of
“I am, Sir, demon that haunts our island, and often con • Your most obedient humble servant.' veys herself to us in an easterly wind. A celebrated French novelist, in opposition to those THE SECOND CHAPTER OF SOLOMON'S SONGwho begin their romances with the flowery season of the year, enters on his story thus, "As when in Sharon's field the blushing rose . In the gloomy month of November, when Does its chasto bosom to the morn disclose,
Whilst all around the Zephyrs bear the people of England hang and drown them
The fragrant odours through the air; selves, a disconsolate lover walked out into Or as tbe lily in the shady Vale the fields,' &c.
Does o'er each flow'r with beauteous pride prevail, Every one ought to fence against the temper
And stands with dews and kindest sunshine blest,
In fair pre-eminence, superior to the rest : of his climate or constitution, and frequently
So if my Love, with happy influence, shed to indulge in himself those considerations His eyes' bright sunshine on his lover's bead, which may give him a serenity of mind, and Then shall the rose of Sharon's field, enable him to bear up cheerfully against
And whitest lilies, to iny beauties yield.
Then fairest flow're with studious art combine, those those little evils and misfortunes which
The roses with the lilies join, are common to human nature, and which, And their united charms are less than mine.
" As all of me, my Love is thine,
Reprove the shades of night away;
Glad to behold the light again From Bether's mountains darting o'er the plain."
si As much as fairest lilies can surpass
T'is he alone can fix their wand'ring sight,
III. * Benrath his pleasing shade My wearied limbs at ease I laid, Aad on his fragrant boughs reclin'd my head. ) I pull'd the golden fruit with eager haste ; Sweet was the fruit, and pleasing to the tasto! With sparkling wine he crown'd the bowl, With gentle ecstacies he fill'd vry soul;
Joyous we sat beneath the shady grove, And o'or my head he hung the banners of his love.
I feel the fire possess my heart,
My feeble soul forsakes its place,
And paleness dwells upon my face:
"I charge you, nymphs of Sion, as you go
Be only gentle Zephyry there
To keep off each intruding sound.
VI. "But see! he comes! with what majestic gait . He onward bears his lovely state!
Now through the lattice he appears,
The dews, and soft-descending show'rs.
Where no intruding hateful noise
Shall damp the sound of thy melodious voice; Where I may gaze, and mark each beauteous grace: For sweet thy voice, and lovely is thy face.
No. 389.] Tuesday, May 27, 1712.
Meliora pii docucre parentes. Hor. Their pious sires a bettor lesson taught. Nothing has more surprised the learned in England, than the price which a small book, entitled Spaccio della Bestia triomfante, bore in a late auction.* This book was sold for thirty pounds. As it was written by one Jordanus Brunus, a professed atheist, with a design to depreciate religion, every one was apt to fancy, from the extravagant price it bore, that there must be something in it very for. midable.
I must confess that, happening to get a sight of one of them myself, I could not forbear persuing it with this apprehension; but found there was so very little danger in it, that I shall venture to give my reader, a fair account of the whole plan upon which this wonderful treatise is built.
The author pretends that Jupiter, once upon a time, resolved upon a reformation of the constellations : for which purpose, having summoned the stars together, he complains to them of the great decay of the worship of the gods, which he thought so much the harder, having called several of those celestial bodies by the names of the heathen deities, and hy that means made the beavens as it were a book of the pagan theology. Momus tells him that this is not to be wondered at, since there were so many scandalous stories of the deities. Upon which the author takes occasion to cast reflections upon all other religions, concluding that Jupiter, after a full hearing, discarded the dei. ties out of heaven, and called the stars by the names of the moral virtues.
* The book here mentioned was bought by Walter Clavel, esq. at the auction of the library of Charles Barnard, esq. in 1711, for 2 poun is. The same copy became successively the property of Mr. John Nichols, of Mr. Jo. seph Amex, of sir Peter Thompson, and of M. C. Tutet, esq. among wlose books it was lately sold by auction, at Mr. Gerrard's in Litchfield-strect. The author of this book, Giordano Bruno, was a native of Nola in the kingdom of Naples, and burnt at Rome by the order of the inquisition in 1600. Morhoff, speaking of atheists, says, Jordanum tamen Brunum huic classi non annumerarem, i manifcsto in illo atheismi restigia non deprchendo.' Polyhist. 1.1, 8, 92. Bruno published many other writings said to be atheistical. The book spoken ofhore was printed pot at Paris, as is said in the title-page, nor in 1544, but at London, and in 1584, 12wo.dedicated to sir Philip Sidney, It was for some time so little regarded, that it was sold with five other books of the same author, for 25 penco French, at the sale of Mr. Bigor's library in 1706; but it is now very scarce, and has been sold at the exhorbitant price of 502 Niceron. Homes illust. tom. xvii. p. 211. There was an edition of it in Eriglish in 1713.