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ish habitual custom of swearing. In order to that I was tolling in to prayers at eleven in show them the absurdity of the practice, he the morning, crowds of people of quality hashad recourse to the invention above-mention-tened to assemble at a puppet-show on the ed, having placed an amanuensis in a private other side of the garden. I had at the same part of the room. After the second bottle, when time a very great disesteem for Mr. Powell men open their minds without reserve, my and his little thoughtless commonwealth, as if honest friend began to take notice of the many they had enticed the gentry into those wansonorous but unnecessary words that had pas- derings : but let that be as it will, I am consed in his house since their sitting down at ta-vinced of the honest intentions of the said ble, and how much good conversation they Mr. Powell and company, and send this to had lost by giving way to such superfluous acquaint you, that he has given all the profits phrases. “What a tax," says he," would which shall arise to-morrow night by his play they have raised for the poor, had we put to the use of the poor charity-children of this the laws in execution upon one another!" parish. I have been informed, Sir, that in Every one of them took this gentle reproof Holland all persons who set up any show, or in good part; upon which he told them, that, act any stage-play, be the actors either of knowing their conversation would have no se- wood and wire, or flesh and blood, are oblig. crets in it, he ordered it to be taken down in ed to pay out of their gains such a proportion writing, and, for the humour-sake would read to the honest and industrious poor in the it to them, if they pleased. There were ten neighbourhood: by this means they make sheets of it, which might have been reduced diversion and pleasure pay a tax to labour to two, had there not been those abominable and industry. I have been told also, that all interpolations I have before mentioned. Upon the time of Lent, in Roman-catholic countries, the reading of it in cold blood, it looked the persons of condition administer to the rather like a conference of fiends than of necessities of the poor, and attend the beds of men. In short, every one trembled at him-lazars and diseased persons. Our protestant self upon hearing calmly what he had pro- ladies and gentlemen are so much to seek for nounced amidst the heat and inadvertency of proper ways of passing time, that they are discourse.
obliged to punchinello for knowing what to I shall only mention' another occasion io with themselves. Since the case is so, I wherein he made use of the same invention desire only you would entreat our people of to cure a different kind of men, who are the quality, who are not to be interrupted in their pests of all polite conversation, and murder pleasure to think of the practice of any moral time as much as either of the two former, duty, that they would at least fine for their though they do it more innocently-I mean, sins, and give something to these poor chil. that dull generation of story-tellers. My dren: a little out of their luxury and superfluifriend got together about half a dozen of his ty would atone, in some measure, for the wanacquaintance, wbo were infected with this ton use of the rest of their fortunes. It would strange malady. The first day one of them, not, methinks, be amiss, if the ladies who haunt sitting down, entered upon the siege of Na-the cloisters and passages of the play-house mur, which lasted till four o'clock, their time were upon every offence, obliged to pay to of partivg. The second day a North Britain this excellent institution of schools of charity took possession of the discourse, which it was This method would make offenders themselves impossible to get out of his hands so long as do service to the public. But in the mean time the company stayed together. The third day I desire you would publish this voluntary rewas engrossed after the same manner by a paration which Mr Powell does our parish, story of the same length. They at last be- for the poise he has made in it by the constant gan to reflect upon this barbarous way of rattling of coaches, drums, trumpets, triumphs, treating one another, and by this means and battles. The destruction of Troy, adornawakened out of that lethargy with which led with Highland dances, are to make up the each of them had been seized for several years. Jentertainment of all who are so well disposed
As you have somewhere declared, that ex- as not to forbear a light entertainment, for no traordinary and uncommon characters of other reason but that it is to do a good action. mankind are the game which you delight in,
I am, Sir, and as I look upon you to be the greatest
Your most humble servant, sportsman, or, if you please, the Nimrod
"RALPH BELLFRY. among this species of writers, I thought this discovery would not be unacceptable to you. I am credibly informed, that all the in
I am, Sir, &c.' sinuations which a certain writer made a.
gainst Mr. Powell at the Bath, are false and No. 372.] Wednesday, May 7, 1712.
groundless." Pudet hæc opprobria nobis
"MR. SPECTATOR, Et dici potuisse, et non potuisse refelli.
Ovid. Met. i. 759. My employment, which is that of a broker, To hear an open slander, is a curse ;
leading me often into taverns about the ExBut not to find an answer, is a worse. Dryden. change, has given me occasion to observe a
certain enormity, which I shall here submit to MR SPECTATOR, May 6, 1712. Ivour animadversion. In three or four of these Tam sexton of the parish of Covent-gar- taverns, I have, at different times, taken notice den, and complained to you some time ago,!of a precise set of people, with grave counte
nances, short wigs, black clothes, or dark cam-| No. 373.] Thursday, May 8, 1712.
Fallit enim vitium specie virtutis et umbra.
Jud. Sat. xiv. 109. each tavern successively, and keep a sort of moving club. Having often met with their
Vice oft is hid in Virtue's fair disguise, faces, and observed a certain slinking way in
And in her borrow'd form escapes inquiring eyes, their dropping in one after another, I had the MR. Locke, in his treatise of Human Uncuriosity to inquire into their characters, being derstanding, bas spent two chapters upon the the rather moved to it by their agreeing in the abuse of words. The first and most palpable singularity of their dress; and I find, upon due abuse of words, he says, is when they are used examination, they are a knot of parish clerks, without clear and distinct ideas; the second, who have taken a fancy to one another, and when we are so unconstant and unsteady in perhaps settle the bills of mortality over their the application of them, that we sometimes use half-pints. I have so great a value and vene-them to signify one idea, sometimes another. ration for any who have but even an assenting He adds, that the result of our contemplations Amen in the service of religion, that I am and reasonings, while we have no precise ideas afraid lest these persons should incur some fixed to our words, must needs be very confusscandal by this practice ; and would there-led and absurd. To avoid this inconvenience, fore have them, without raillery, advised to more especially in moral discourses, where the send the Florence and pullets home to their same word should be constantly used in the own houses, and not pretend to live as well same sense, he earnestly recommends the use as the overseers of the poor.
of definitions. 'A definition,' says he is the 'I am, Sir,
only way whereby the precise meaning of mo* Your most humble servant,
ral words can be known.' He therefore ac
cuses those of great negligence who discourse · HUMPHRY TRANSFER.
of moral things with the least obscurity in
the terms they make use of'; since, upon UR. SPECTATOR,
the 'forementioned ground, he does not scrųI was last Wednesday night at a tavern in |ple to say that he thinks 'morality is capathe city, amnng a set of men who call them- ble of demonstration as well as the matheselves “the lawyers' club.” You must know.matics. Sir. this club consists only of attorneys : and I know no two words to have been more aat this meeting every one proposes the cause
e bused by the different and wrong interpretahe has then in band to the board upon which tions which are put upon them, than those each member gives his judgment according to two, modesty and assurance. To say such a the experience he has met with. If it happens one is a modest man, sometimes indeed passes that any one puts a case of which they have for a good character ; but at present is very had no precedent, it is noted down by their often used to signify a sheepish, awkward felclerk, Will Goosequill (who registers all their low, who has neither good breeding, polite. proceedings), that one of them may go the ness, nor any knowledge of the world. next day with it to a counsel. This indeed is!. Again, a man of assurance, though at first commendable, and ought to be the principall it only denoted a person of a free and open end of their meeting; but had you been there carriage, is now very usually applied to a to have heard them relate their methods of profligate wretch, whu can break through all managing a cause, their manner of drawing the rules of decency and morality without a out their bills, and, in short, their arguments
blush. upon the several ways of abusing their clients,
I shall endeavour therefore in this essay to
I shall endeavour th with the applause that is given to him who has restore these words to their true meaning, done it most artfully, you would before now
to prevent the idea of modesty from being bave given your remarks on them. They are
confounded with that of sheepishness, and so conscious that their discourses ought to be to hinder impudence from passing for as. kept a secret, that they are very cautious of
vious of surance. admitting any person who is not of their pro-! If I was put to define modesty, I would fession. When any who are not of the law are!
recall it 'the reflection of an ingenious mind, let in, the person who introduces him says he either when a man has committed an acis a very honest gentleman, and he is taken in tion for which he censures himself, or fanas their cantis. io pay costs Lamadmitted'cies that he is exposed to the censure of upon the recommendation of one of their prin-lon
others.' cipals, as a very honest good-natured fellow,
atured collow For this reason a man truly modest is as that will never be in a plot. and only desires much so when he is alone as in company, and to drink his bottle and smoke his pide. Yon as subject to a blush in the closet as when the have formerly remarked upon several sorts eyes of multitudes are upon him. of clubs; and as the tendency of this is only
I do not remember to have met with any into increase fraud and deceit, I hope you will
u will stance of modesty with which I am so well please to take notice of it.
pleased as that celebrated one of the young I am, with respect,
prince whose father being a tributary king to
the Romans, had several complaints laid a. Your humble servant, gainst him before the senate, as a tyrant and
H. Roppressor of bis subjects. The prince went to
* Rome to defend his father ; but coming into the sepate, and hearing a multitude of crimes No. 374.] Friday, May 9, 1712. proved upon him, was so oppressed when it
| Nil actum reputans si quid superesset agendum came to his turn to speak that he was unable
Lucen, Lib. i. 57. to utter a word. The story tells us, that the
Ile reckon'd not the past, while aught remain'd fathers were more moved at this instance of
Great to be done, or mighty to be gain d. Rowe. modesty and ingenuity than they could have been by the most pathetic oration, and, in
THERE is a fault, which, though common short, pardoned the guilty father for this early wants a name. It is the very contrary to pro promise of virtue in the son.
cra tination. As we lose the present bour by I take 'assurance to be the faculty of pos- delaying from day to day to execute what we sessing a man's self, or of saying and doing ought to do immediately, so most of us make indifferent things without any uneasiness or occasion to sit still and throw away the time omotion in the mind.' That which generally in our possession, by retrospect on what is past, gives a man assurance is a moderate kuowledge imagining we have already acquitted ourselves, of the world, but above all, a mind fixed and and established our characters in the sight of determined in itself to do nothing against the mankind. But when we thus put a value rules of honour and decency. An open and upon ourselves for what we have already done. assured behaviour is the natural consequence any farther than to explain ourselves in order of such a resolution. A man thus armed, if to assist our future conduct, that will give as his words or actions are at any time misrepre- an over-weening opinion of our merit, to the sented, retires within himself, and, from a con- prejudice of our present industry. The great sciousness of his own integrity, assumes force rule, methinks, should be, to manage the inenough to despise the little censures of igno- stant in which we stand, with fortitude, equarance and malice.
nimity, and moderation, according to men's Every one ought to cherish and encourage respective circumstances. If our past actions in himself the modesty and assurance I have reproach us, they cannot be atoned for by our bere mentioned.
own severe reflections so effectually as by a A man without assurance is liable to be contrary behaviour. If they are praise-worthy. made uneasy by the folly or ill-nature of every the memory of them is of no use but to act one he converses with. A man without modes. suitably to them. . Thus a good present behaty is lost to all sense of honour and virtue. viour is an implicit repentance for any miscar.
It is more than probable that the prince a-riage in what is past; but present slackness bove-mentioned possessed both these qualif. will not make up for past activity. Time has catious in a very eminent degree. Without as. swallowed up all that we contemporaries did surance he would never have undertaken to yesterday, as irrevocably as it has the actions speak before the most august assembly in the of the antediluvians. But we are again awake. world: without modesty, he would have plead. and what shall we do to-day-to-day, which ed the cause he had taken upon him, though passes while we are yet speaking? Shall we it had appeared ever so scandalous.
remember the folly of last night, or resolve From what has been said, it is plain that upon the exercise of virtue to morrow? Last modesty and assurance are both amiable, and night is certainly gone, and to-morrow may may very well meet in the same person. When never arrive. This instant make use of. Can they are thus mixed and blended together, they you oblige any man of honour and virtue ? compose what we endeavour to express when Do it immediately. Can you assist & sick wa saya modest assurance' by which we friend? Will it revive him to see you enter. understand the just mean between bashfulness and suspend your own ease and pleasure to and impudence
comfort his weakness, and hear the imperti. I shall conclude with observing, that as the nences of a wretch in pain? Do not stay to same man may be both modest and assured, so take coach, but be gone. your mistress will it is also possible for the same to be both im- bring sorrow, and your bottle madness. Go pudent and bashful.
to neither- Such virtues and diversions as We have frequent instances of this odd these are mentioned because they occur to all kind of mixture in people of depraved minds me. But every man is sufficiently convinced and mean education, who, though they are that to suspend the use of the present moment, not able to meet a man's eyes, or pronounce and resolve better for the future only, is an a sentence without confusion, can voluntarily unpardonable folly. What I attempted to concommit the greatest villanies or most indecent sider, was the mischief of setting such a value actions.
upon what is past, as to think we have done Such a person seems to have made a reso-enough. Let a man have filled all the offices lution to do ill even in spite of himself, and in of life with the highest dignity till yesterday, defiance of all those checks and restraints his and begin to live only to himself to-day, he temper and complexion seem to bave laid in must expect he will, in the effects upon his rehis way.
putation, be considered as the man who died Upon the whole, I would endeavour to es. yesterday. The man who distinguishes him. tablish this maxim, that the practice of virtue self from the rest, stands in a press of people: is the most proper method to give a man a be- those before him intercept his progress; and coming assurance in his words and actions. those behind him, if he does not urge on, will Guilt always seeks to shelter itself in one of tread bim down. Cæsar, of whom it was said the extremes, and is sometimes attended with that he thought nothing done while there was both.
X. left any thing for him to do, went on in per
forming the greatest exploits, without assum- much honour as ancient heroes? Cæsar has not ing to himself a privilege of taking rest upon yet died! Cæsar is prepared to die. T. the foundation of the merit of his former actions. It was the manner of that glorious captain to write down what scenes he had passed No 375.) Salurday May 10 1712. through ; but it was rather to keep his affairs
Non Possidentem inulta vocaveris in method, and capable of a clear review, in Rectè beatum: rectius occupat case they should be examined by others, than
Nomen benti, qui deorum
Muneribus sapienter uti, that he built a renown upon any thing that was
Duramque callet pauperiem pati, past. I shall produce two fragments of his,
Pejusque letho flagitium timet. to demonstrate that it was his rule of life to
Hor. Od. ix. Lib. 4. 45. support himself rather by wbat he should per-|
We barbarously call them blest, form, than what he had done already. In the Who are of largest tenements possest, tablet which he wrote about him, the same year While swelling coffers break their owner's rest. in which he obtained the battle of Pharsalia,
More truly happy those who can
Govern that little empire man; there were found these loose notes of his own
Who spend their treasure freely, as 'twas given conduct, It supposed by the circumstances By the large bounty of indulgent heav'n; they alluded to, that they might be set down
Who, in a fix'd unalterable state,
Smile at the doubtful tide of Fate, the evening of the same night.
And scorn alike her friendship and her hate; "My part is now but begun, and my glory Who poison less than falsehood fear, must be sustained by the use I make of this
Loth to purchase life so dear.
Stepney. victory; otherwise my loss will be greater than
I HAVE more than once had occasion to that of Pompey. Our personal reputation will
"mention a noble saying of Seneca the philosorise or fall as we bear our respective fortunes.
pher, that a virtuous person struggling with All my private enemies among the prisoners
misfortunes, and rising above them, is an obshall be spared. I will forget this, in order to
lject on which the gods themselves may look obtain such another day. Trebutius is asham
"I down with delight. I shall therefore set before ed to see me: I will go to his tent, and be re
my reader a scene of this kind of distress in conciled in private. Give all the men of honour,
private life, for the speculation of this day. who take part with me, the terms I offered be
An eminent citizen, who had lived in good fore the battle. Let them owe this to their
' fashion and credit, was, by a train of accidents, friends who have been long in my interests.
and by an unavoidable perplexity in his affairs, Power is weakened by the full use of it, but ex
reduced to a low condition. There is a motended by moderation. Galbinius is proud, and will be servile in his present fortune : let
desty usually attending faultless poverty, him wait. Send for Stertinius: he is modest,
which made him rather choose to reduce his and his viatue is worth gaining. I have cool
manner of living to his present circumstances, ed me heart wish reflection, and am fit to re
than solicit his friends in order to support the
show of an estate when the substance was joice with the army to-morrow. He is a po
gone. His wife, who was a woman of sense polar general, who can expose himself like a
and virtue, bebaved herself on this occasion private man during a battle; but he is more
with uncommon decency, and never appeared popular who can rejoice but like a private man
so amiable in his eyes as now. Tostead of upafter a victory.
braiding him with the ample fortune she had What is particularly proper for the example brought, or the many great offers she had reof all who pretend to industry in the pursuit fused for his sake, she redoubled all the inof honour and virtue, is, that this hero was stances of her affection, while her husband was more than ordinarily solicitous about his re- continually pouring out bis heart to her in com. putation, when a common mind whold have plaints that he had ruined the best woman in thought itself in security, and given itself a the world. He sometimes came home at a loose to joy and triumph. But though this is time when she did not expect him, and surprisa very great instance of his temper, I mustled her in tears, which she
ed her in tears, which she endeavoured to con. confess I am more taken with his reflections ceal, and always put on an air of cheerfulness whon he retired to his closet in some disturb- to receive him. To lessen their expense, their ance upon the repeated ill omens of Calphur- eldest daughter (whom I shall call Amanda) nia's dream, the night before his death. The was sent into the country, to the house of an literal translation of that fragment shall con- honest farmer, who had married a servant of clude this paper
I the family. This young woman was appre"Re it so then. If I am to die to-morrow, hensive of the ruin which was approach. that is what I am to do to-morrow. It will ing, and had privately engaged a friend in the not be then, because I am willing it should be neighbourhood to give her an account of what then; nor shall I escape it, because I am un. passed from time to time in her father's affairs. willing. It is in the gods when, but in myself Amanda was in the bloom of her youth and how, I shall die. If Calphurnia's dreams are beaaty, when the lord of the manor, who often fumes of indigestion, how shall I behold the called in at the farmer's house as he followed day after to-morrow? If they are from the his country sports, fell passionately in love gods, their admonition is not to prepare me to with her. He was a man of great generosity, escape from their decree, but to meet it. I but, from a loose education, had contracted a have lived to a fulness of days and of glory: hearty aversion to marriage. He therefore what is there that Cæsar has not done with as entertained a design upon Amanda's virtue, which at present he thought fit to keep private. assured he will be soon at liberty. That cruThe innocent creature, who never suspected el letter would have broke his heart, but I his intentions, was pleased with his person; have concealed it from him. I have no comand, having observed his growing passion for panion at present besides little Fanny, who her, hoped by so advantageous a match she stands watching my looks as I write, and is might quickly be in a capacity of supporting crying for her sister. She says she is sure you her impoverished relations. One day, as he are not well, having discovered that my precalled to see her, be found her in tears over a sent trouble is about you. But do not think I letter she had just received from her friend, would thus repeat my sorrows to grieve thee. which gave an account that her father had No; it is to entreat thee not to make them in. lately been stripped of every thing by an exe-supportable, by adding what would be worse cution. The lover, who with some difficulty than all. Let us bear cheerfully an affliction found out the cause of her grief, took this occa- which we have not brought on ourselves, and sion to make her a proposal. It is impossible remember there is a power who can better to express Amanda's confusion when she found deliver us out of it than by the loss of thy his pretentions were not honourable. She was innocence. Heaven preserve my dear child ! now deserted of all her hopes, and had no pow.
• Thy affectionate mother, er to speak, but, rushing from him in the utmost disturbance, locked herself up in her chamber. He immediately despatched a mes. The messenger, notwithstanding he promissenger to her father with the following letter: ed to deliver this letter to Amanda, carried it
first to his master, who he imagined would be "SIR,
glad to have an opportunity of giving it into I have heard of your misfortunes, and have her hands bimself. His master was impatient offered your daughter, if she will live with me, to know the success of his proposal, and thereto settle on her four hundred pounds a year, fore broke open the letter privately to see the and to lay down the sum for which you are contents. He was not a little moved at so now distressed. I will be so ingenuous as to tell true a picture of virtue in distress ; but at the you that I do not intend marriage; but if you same time was infinitely surprised to find his are wise, you will use your authority with her offers rejected. However, he resolved not to not to be too nice, when she has an opportuni- suppress the letter, but carefully sealed it up ty of saving you and your family, and of mak again, and carried it to Amanda. All his ening herself happy.
I am, &c.' deavours to see her were in vain till she was
assured he brought a letter from her mother. This letter came to the hands of Amanda's He would pot part with it but upon condition mother. She opened and read it with great that she would read it without leaving the surprise and concern. She did not think it room. While she was perusing it, he fixed his proper to explain herself to the messenger, but, leyes on her face with the deepest attention. desiring him to call again the next morning, Her concern gave a new softness to her beau. she wrote to her daughter as follows:
ty, and, when she bust into tears, he could no
longer refrain from bearing a part in her sor'DEAREST CHILD,
row, and telling her, that he too bad read Your father and I have just received a let- the letter, and was resolved to make repater from a gentleman who pretends love to ration for having been the occasion of it. My you, with a proposal that insults our misfor-reader will not be displeased to see the se. tunes, and would throw us to a lower degree cond epistle which he now wrote to Amanda's of misery than any thing which is come upon mother. us. How could this barbarous man think that the tenderest of parents would be tempted "MADAM, to supply their wants by giving up the best of Lam full of shame, and will never forgive children to infamy and ruin? It is a mean and myself if I bave not your pardon for what I cruel artifice to make this proposal at a time lately wrote. It was far from my intention to when he thinks our necessities must compel us add trouble to the afflicted: por could any to any thing ; but we will not eat the bread of thing but my being a stranger to vou bave shame ; and therefore we charge thee not to betrayed me into a fault. for which, if I live, I think of us, but to avoid the snare which is laid shall endeavour to make you amends, as a son. for thy virtue. Beware of pitying us: it is not You cannot be unhappy while Amanda is your so bad as you perhaps have been told. All daughter ; nor shall be, if any thing can prethings will yet be well, and I shall write my vent it which is in the power of. child better news.
'Madam, I have been interrupted : I know not how
Your most obedient humble servant, I was moved to say things would mend. As I was going on, I was startled by the noise of one that knocked at the door, and bath! This letter he sent by his steward, and soon brought us an unexpected supply of a debt after went up to town himself to complete the which has long been owing. Oh! I will now generous act he had now resolved on. By his tell thee all. It is some days I have lived al- friendship and assistance Amanda's father was most without support, having conveyed what quickly in a condition of retrieving his per. little money I could raise to your poor father. plexed affairs. To conclude, he married AThou wilt weep to think where he is, yet be manda, and enjoyed the double satisfaction of