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well, that musical instruments took their first music as this might not be of service in a rise from the notes of birds, and other melodi-camp, I shall leave to the military men to conous animals; and what,' says he, 'was more sider.' natural than for the first ages of mankind to What this learned gentleman supposes in imitate the voice of a cat, that lived under the speculation, I have known actually verified in same roof with them ?' He added, that the cat practice. The cat-call has struck a damp into had contributed more to harmony than any generals, and frighted heroes off the stage. At other animal; as we are not only beholden to the first sound of it I have seen a crowned her for this wind instrument but for our string-head tremble, and a princess fall into fits. music in general.
The humourous lieutenant himself could not Another virtuoso of my acquaintance will stand it; nay I am told that even Almanzor not allow the cat-call to be older than Thespis, looked like a mouse, and trembled at the voice and is apt to think it appeared in the world of this terrifying instrument. soon after the ancient comedy; for which reason As it is of a dramatic nature, and peculiarly it has still a place in our dramatic entertain-appropriated to the stage, I can by no means ments. Nor must I here omit what a very approve the thought of that angry lover, who curious gentleman, who is lately returned from after an unsuccessful pursuit of some years, bis travels, has more than once assured me ; took leave of his mistress in a serenade of cat. namely, that there was lately dug up at Rome calls. the statue of a Momus, who holds an instru- I must conclude this paper with the accouut ment in his right hand very much resembling I have lately received of an ingenious artist our modern cat-call.
who has long studied this instrument, and is There are otbers who ascribe this invention very well versed in all the rules of the drama. to Orpheus, and look upon the cat-call to be He teaches to play on it by book, and to exone of those instruments which that famous press by it the whole art of criticism. He has musician made use of to draw the beasts about his bass and his treble cet-call; the former for him. It is certain that the roasting of a cat tragedy, the latter for comedy ; only in tragidoes not call together a greater audience of comedies they may both play together in conthat species than this instrument, if dexterous-cert. He has a particular squeak, to denote ly played upon in proper time and place. the violation of each of the unities, and has dif
But, notwithstanding these various and ferent sounds to show whether he aims at the learned conjectures, I cannot forbear thinking poet or the player. In short, he teaches the that the cat-call is originally a piece of English smut-note, the fustian note, the stupid-note, music. Its resemblance to the voice of some and has composed a kind of air that may serve of our British songsters, as well as the use of it, as an act-tune to an incorrigible play, and which is peculiar to our nation, confirms me which takes in the whole compass of the cat. in this opinion. It has at least received great call. improvements among us, whether we consider the instrument itself, or those several quavers No. 362.) Friday, April 25, 1712. and graces which are thrown into the playing of it. Every one might be sensible of this
Laudibus argnitur vini vinosus --
Hor. Ep. xix. Lib. 1. 6. who heard that remarkable overgrown cat-call which was placed in the centre of the pit, and
He praises wine; and we conclude from thence,
He lik'd his glass, on his own evidence. presided over all the rest at the celebrated performance lately exhibited at Drury-lane.
'MR. SPECTATOR, Temple, April 24. Having said thus much concerning the origin SEVERAL of my friends were this norning of the cat-call, we are in the next place to con- got over a dish of tea in very good health, sider the use of it. The cat-call exerts itself to though we had celebrated yesterday with more most advantage io the British theatre. It very glasses than we could have dispensed with, had much improves the sound of nonsense, and we pot been beholden to Brooke and Hellier. often goes along with the voice of the actor In gratitude therefore to those citizens, I am who pronounces it, as the violin or harpsichord in the name of the company, to accuse you of accompanies the Italian recitativo.
great negligence in overlooking their merit It has often supplied the place of the ancient who have imported true and generous wine, chorus, in the words of Mr.***. It short, a and taken care that it should not be adulbad poet has as great an antipathy to a cal-call terated by the retailers before it comes to the as many people have to a real cat.
tables of private families, or the clubs of honest Mr. Collier in his ingenious essay upon fellows. I cannot imagine how a Spectator music, has the following passage:
can be supposed to do his duty, without freI believe it is possible to invent an instru- quent resumption of such subjects as concern ment that shall have a quite contrary effect to our health, the first thing to be regarded, if we those martial ones now in use; an instrument have a mind to relish any thing else. It would that shall sink the spirits and shake the nerves, I therefore very well become your spectatorial and curdle the blood, and inspire despair and vigilance, to give it in orders to your officer cowardice and consternation, at a surprising for inspecting signs, that in his march he would rate. 'Tis probable the roaring of lions, the look into the interants who deal in provisions, warbling of cats and screech-owls, together with and inquire where they buy their several wares. a mixture of the howling of dogs, judiciously Ever since the decease of Colly-Molly-Puff, of imitated and compounded, might go a great agreeable and poisy memory, I cannot say I way in this invention. Whether such anti- have observed any thing sold in carts, or carri.
ed by horse, or ass, or, in fine, in any moviog in coversation. By conversing generally with market, which is not perished or putrefied; the dead, I grew almost unfit for the society of witness the wheel-barrows of rotten raisins, the living ; so by a long confinement I con almonds, figs, and currants, which you see tracted an ungainly aversion to conversation, vended by a mercbant dressed in a second and ever discoursed with pain to myself, and hand suit of a foot soldier You should consider little entertainment to others. At last I was that a child may be poisoned for the worth of in some measure made sensible of my failing, a farthing; but except his poor parents send and the mortification of never being spoke to, him to one certain doctor in town, they can or speaking, unless the discourse ran upon have no advice for him under a guinea. When books put me upon forcing myself amongst poisons are thus cheap, and medicines thus men. I immediately affected the politest dear, how can you be negligent in inspecting company, by the frequent use of which I what we eat and drink, or take no notice of hoped to wear off the rust I had contracted : such as the above-mentioned citizens, who but, by an uncouth imitation of men used to have been so serviceable to us of late in that act in public, I got no further than to discorer particular? It was a custom among the old I had a mind to appear a finer thing than I reRomans, to do him particular honours who ally was. had saved the life of a citizen. How much "Such I was, and such was my condition, more does the world owe to those who pre-/ when I became an ardent lover, and passionvent the death of multitudes! As these men ate admirer to the beauteous Belinda. Then it deserve well of your office, so such as act was that I really began to improve. This pas. to the detriment of our bealth you ought to sion changed all my fears and diffidences in represent to themselves and their fellow my general behaviour to the sole concern of subjects in the colours which they deserve to pleasing her. I had not now to study the acwear. I think it would be for the public tion of a gentleman ; but love possessing all good, that all who vend wines should be un-my thoughts, made me truly be the thing I der oath in that behalf. The chairman at had a miud to appear. My thoughts grew the quarter-sessions should inform the coun- free and generous; and the ambition to be try, that the vintner who mixes wine to his agreeable to her I admired, produced in my customers shall (upon proof that the drinker carriage a faint similitude of that disengaged thereof died within a year and a day after tak- manner of iny Belinda. The way we are in ing it) be deemed guilty of wilful murder, and at present is, that she sees my passion, and the jury shall be instructed to inquire and pre- sees I at present forbear speaking of it through sent such delinquents accordingly. It is no prudential regards. This respect to her she mitigation of the crime, nor will it be conceiv-returns with much civility, and makes my va. ed that it can be brought in chance-medley or lue fot her as little misfortune to me as is conman-slaughter, upon proof that it shall ap-sistent with discretion. She sings very charmpear wine joined to wine, or right Hereford- ingly, and is readier to do so at my request, shire poured into Port O Port: but his selling it because she knows I love her. She will dance for one thing, knowing it to be another, must with me rather than another for the same rea. justly bear the 'foresaid guilt of wilful murder: son. My fortune nust altar from what it is, for that he, the said vintner, did an unlawful before I can speak my heart to her : and her act willingly in the false mixture, and is there- circumstances are not considerable enough to fore with equity liable to all the pains to which make up for the narrowness of mine. But I a man would be, if it were proved that he de-write to you now, only to give you the characsigned only to run a man through the arm ter of Belinda, as a woman that has address whom he whipped through the lungs. This is enough to demonstrate a gratitude to her lover. my third year at the Temple, and this is, or without giving him hopes of success in his pas. show below. A ll intentiou, well proved, I sion. Belinda has from a great wit governed should meet with no alleviation, because it out- by as great prudence, and both adorned with ran itself. There cannot be too great severity innocence, the happiness of always being reaused against the injustice as well as crueltydy to discover her real thoughts. She has of those who play with men's lives, by pre-many of us, who now are admirers; but her paring liquors whose nature, for aught they treatment of us is so just and proportioned to know, may be noxious when mixed, though our merit towards her, and what we are in ourinnocent when apart : and Brooke and Hel-selves, that I protest to you I have neither jealier, who have ensured our safety at our lousy nor hatred towards my rivals. Such is meals, and driven jealousy from our cups in her goodness, and the acknowledgment of eveconversation, deserve the custom and thanks ry man who admires her, that he thinks he of the whole towp ; and it is your duty to re- ought to believe she will take him who best mind them of the obligation.
deserves her. I will not say that this peace Tam, Sir,
among us is not owing to self-love, which • Your humble servant, prompts each to think himself the best de
"TOM POTTLE.' server. I think there is something uncomMR. SPECTATOR,
mon and worthy of imitation in this lady's chaI am a person who was-long immured in a racter. If you will please to print my let. college, read much, saw little ; so that I knew ter, you will oblige the little fraternity of no more of the world than what a lecture or happy rivals, and in a more particular manview of the map taught me. By this means I ner,
Sir, improved in my study, but became unpleasant
Your most humble servant,
· WILL CYMON.'
No. 363.] Saturday, April 26, 1712. to him in a vision, 'adds, that every one had
four faces, and that their whole bodies, and -Crudelis ubique
their backs, and their hands, and their wings, Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima mortis imago.
Virg. Æn. 8. 268. / were full of eyes round about :
The cohort bright
Had, like a double Janus, all their shape
The assembling of all the angels of heaven, our first parents upon the breach of the com
se to hear the solemn decree passed upon man, is mandment that had been given them. We see " nea them gradually passing from the triumph of represented in very lively ideas. The Almigh
ir ty is here described as remembering mercy in their guilt, through remorse, shame, despair,
nd the midst of judgment, and commanding Micontrition, prayer and hope, to a perfect and complete repentance. At the end of the tepth/chael to deliver his message in the mildest book they are represented as prostrating them-/terms, lest the spirit of man, which was alreaselves upon the ground, and watering the earth dy broken with the sense of bis guilt and misewith their tears : to which the poet joins this ry shoul
hidry shoul fail before him : beautiful circumstance, that they offered up
- Yet lest they faint their penitential prayers on the very place
At the sad sentence rigorously urg'd,
For I behold them soft'ned, and with tears where their judge appeared to them when he
Bewailing their excess, all terror bide.' pronouuced their sentence :
The conference of Adam and Eve is full of They forthwith to the place Repairing where he judg'd them, prostrate fell
moving sentiments. Upon their going abroad, Before him rev'rent, and both confess'd
after the melancholy night which they had Humbly their faults, and pardon begg'd, with tears
passed together, they discover the lion and the Watering the ground. —
eagle, each of them pursuing their prey toThere is a beauty of the same kind in a wards the eastern gates of Paradise. There is tragedy of Sophocles, where Edipus, after a double beauty in this incident, not only as having put out his own eyes, instead of break-it presents great and just omens which are aling his neck from the palace battlements, ways agreeable in poetry, but as it expresses (which furnishes so elegant an entertainment that enmity which was now produced in the for our English audience) desires that he may animal creation. Ths poet, to show the like be conducted to Mount Cithæron, in order to changes in nature, as well as to grace his fable end his life in that very place where he was with a noble prodigy, represents the sun in exposed in his infancy, and where he should an eclipse. This particular incident has likethen have died, had the will of his parents been
wise a fine effect upon the imagination of the executed.*
reader, in regard to what follows; for at the As the author never fails to give a poetical same time that the sun is under an eclipse, a turn to his sentiments, he describes in the be- bright cloud descends in the western quarter ginning of this book the acceptance which of the heavens, filled with an host of angels. these their prayers met with in a short allego- and more luminous than the sun itself. The ry formed upon that beautiful paseage in holy whole theatre of nature is darkened, that this writ, 'And another angel came and stood at glorious machine may appear with all its lustre the altar, having a golden censer; and there and magnificence. was given unto him much incense, that he
-- Why in the east should offer it with the prayers of all saints Darkness ere day's mid-course ? and morning light
More orient in that western cloud that draws upon the golden altar, which was before the
O'er the blue firmament a radiant white, throne: and the smoke of the incense, which
And slow descends with something heavenly fraught?' came with the prayers of the saints, ascended He err'd not, for by this the heavenly bands up before God. I
Down from a sky of jasper lighted now
In Paradise, and on a hill made halt;
A glorious apparition --
I need not observe how properly this auDimentionless through heav'nly doors, then clad
thor, who always suits his parts to the actors With incense, where the golden altar fum'd By their great intercessor, came in sight
whom he introduces, has employed Michael in Before the Father's throne
the expulsion of our first parents from Para
dise. The archangel on this occasion peither We have the saine thought expressed a se-appears in his proper shape, nor in the facond time in the intercession of the Messiah, miliar manner with which Raphael the sociawhich is conceived in very emphatical senti- ble spirit entertained the father of mankind ments and expressions.
before the fall. His person, his port, and beAmong the poetical parts of scripture, which baviour, are suitable to a spirit of the highest Milton has so finely wrought into this part of rank, and exquisitely described in the followhis narration, I must not omit that wherein ing passage : Ezekiel, speaking of the angels who appeared
Th' archangel soon drew nigh,
Not in his shape celestial; but as man * This paragraph was not in the original paper in folio,
Clad to meet man: over his lucid arms but added on the republication of the papers in volumes.
A military vest of purple flow'd, * Rev. viii, 3, 4.
Livelier iban Melibaan, of the grain
Of Sarra, worn by kings and heroes old,
in Adam at the sight of the first dying man is In time of truce: Iris had dirt the woof:
touched with great beauty : His starry helm, unbuckled, show'r him prime la manhood where youth ended; by his side,
• But have I now seen death? Is this the way As in a glist'ring Zodiac, hung the sword,
I must return to native dust? O sight Satan's dire dread, and in his hand the spear,
of terror foul, and ugly to behold! Adam bow'd low; he kingly from his state
Horrid to think, how horrible to feel! Inclin'd not, but his coming thus declared.'
The second vision sets before him the image Eve's complaint, upon hearing that she was
lof death, in a great variety of appearances. to be removed from the garden of Paradise,
The angel, to give him a general idea of those is wonderfully beautiful. The sentiments are
effects which bis guilt had brought upon his not only proper to the subject, but have some
posterity, places before him a large hospital, thing in them particularly soft and womanish:
or lazar-house, filled with persons lying under • Must I then leave thee, Paradise ? Thus leave
all kinds of mortal diseases. How finely has Thee, native soil, these happy walks and shades, the poet told us that the sick persons lanFit haunt of Gods, where I had hope to spend
guished under lingering and incurable distemQuiet, though sad the respite of that day
pers, by an apt and judicious use of such imaThat must be mortal to us both? O flowers, That never will in other climate grow,
ginary beings as those I mentioned in my last My early visitation, and my last
Dire was the tossing, deep the groans; Despair Who now shall rear you to the sun, or rank
Tended the sick, busy from couch to couch; Your tribes, and water from th' ambrosial fount?
And over them triumphant Death his dart Thee, lastly, nuptial power, by me adorn'd
Shook, but delayed to strike, tho' oft invok'd With what to sight or smell was sweet: from thee With vows, as their cluef good and final hope. How shall I part? and wither wander down Into a lower world, to this, obscure
The passion which likewise rises in Adam And wild? How shall we breath in other air
on this occasion is very natural: Less pure, accustomed to immortal fruits ?'
Sight so deform what heart of rock could long Adam's speech abounds with thoughts which Dry-ey'd behold ? Adam could not, but wept. are equally moving, but of a more masculine Though not of woman born; compassion quellid and elevated turn. Nothing can be conceived
His best of man, and gave him up to tears. more sublime and poetical than the following the discourse between the angel and Adam. passage in it;
which follows, abounds with noble morals.ro
As there is nothing more delightful in poetry This most afflicts me, that departing hence
than a contrast and opposition of incidents, As from his face I shall be hid, deprived His blessed count'nance; here I could frequent,
the author, after this melancholy prospect of With worship, place by place where be vouchsaf'd death and sickness, raises up a scene of mirth, Presence divine; and to my sons relate.
love, and jollity. The secret pleasure that On this mount he appeared, under this tree
steals into Adam's heart, as he is intent upon Stood visible, among these pines his voice I heard; here with him at this fountain talk'd;
this vision, is imagined with great delicacy. So many grateful altars I would rear
I must not omit the description of the loose Of grassy turf, and pile up every stone
female troop, who seduced the sops of God, as Orlustre from the brook, in meinory Or monuments to ages, and thereon
they are called in Scripture. Offer sweet-smelling gums and flow'rs.
For that fair female troop thou saw'st, that seem'd In yonder nether world, where shall I seok
Of goddesses, so blythe, so smooth, so gay, His bright appearances, or footsteps trace?
Yet empty of all good, wherein consists For though I fed him angry, yet recall'd
Woman's domestic honour, and chief praise ; To life prolong'd and promis'd race, I now
Bred only and completed to the taste Gladly behold though but his utmost skirts
or lustful appetence, to sing, to dance, Of glory, and far off his steps adore.'
To dress, and troule the tongue, and roll the eye;
To these that solier race of men, whose lives The angel afterwards leads Adam to the
Religions titled them the sons of God, highest mount of Paradise, and lays before Shall vield up all their virtue, all their fame, him a whole hemisphere, as a proper stage for
Ignobly, to the trains and to the smiles those visions which were to be represented on
Of thoxe fair atheists -it. I have before observed how the plan of The next vision is of a quite contrary nature, Milton's poem is, in many particulars, greater and filled with the horrors of war. Adam at than that of the Iliad, or Æneid. Virgil's the sight of it melts into tears, and breaks out hero, in the last of these poems, is entertained into that passionate speech, with a sight of all those who are to descend
o what are these! from him ; but though that episode is justly Death's ministers, not men, who thus deal death admired as one of the noblest designs in the Inhumably to men, and multiply whole Æneid, every one must allow that this
Ten thousandfold the sin of him who slew of Milton is of a much higher nature. Adam's
His brother: for of whom such massacre
Make they, but of their brethren, men of men ?' vision is not confined to any particular tribe of mankind, but extends to the whole species. Milton to keep up an agreeable variety in
In this great review which Adam takes of his visions, after having raised in the mind of all his sons and daughters, the first objects he his reader the several ideas of terror which are is presented with exhibit to him the story of conformable to the description of war, passes Cain and Abel, which is drawn together with on to those softer images of triumphs and fesmuch closeness and propriety of expression. tirals, in that vision of lewdness and luxury The curiosity and natural horror which arises which ushers in the flood. I
As it is visible that the poet had his eye upon for which reason the reader might be apt to Ovid's account of the universal deluge, the overlook those many passages in it which dereader may observe with how much judgment serve our admiration. The eleventh and twelfth he has avoided every thing that is redundant are indeed built upon that single circumstance or puerile in the Latin poet. We do not here of the removal of our first parents from Parasee the wolf swimming among the sheep, nor dise; but though this is not in itself so great any of those wanton imaginations which Sene- a subject as that in most of the foregoing books. ca found fault with, as unbecoming this great it is extended and diversified with so many catastrophe of nature. If our poet has imi- surprising incidents and pleasing episodes, that tated that verse in which Ovid tells us that these two last books can by no means be looked there was nothing but sea, and that this sea upon as unequal parts of this divine poem. had no shore to it, he has not set the thought I must further add, that, had not Milton rein such a light as to incur the censure which presented our first parents as driven out of critics have passed upon it. The latter part Paradise, his fall of man would not have been of that verse in Ovid is idle and superfluous, complete, and consequently his action would but just and beautiful in Milton.
have been imperfect.
Jamque mare et tellus nullum discrimen babebant;
No. 364.). Monday, April 28, 1712.
- -Navibus atque A world of waters, and without a coast. Dryden. Quadrigis petimus bene vivere
Hor. Ep. xi. Lib. 1. 29. - Sea cover'd sea, Sea without shore-
Anxious through seas and land to search for rest,
Francis. In Milton the former part of the description does not forestall the latter. How much more! 'MR. SPECTATOR, great and solemn on this occasion is that which 'A Lady of iny acquaintance, for whom I follows in our English poet,
have too much respect to be easy while she is
doing an indiscreet action, has given occasion And in thcir palaces,
elad to this trouble. She is a widow, to whom the Where luxury late reigu'd, sca-monsters whelp'd And stabled
indulgence of a tender husband has intrusted
the management of a very great fortune, and tban that in Ovid, where we are told that the a son about sixteen, both which he is extremely sea-calf lay in those places where the goats fond of. The boy has parts of the middle size, were used to browse! The reader may find neither shining nor despicable, and has passed several other parallel passages in the Latin and the common exercises of his years with toleraEnglish description of the deluge, therein our ble advantage, but is withal what you would poet has visibly the advantage. The sky's be-call a forward youth : by the help of this last ingovercharged with clouds, the descending of qualification, which serves as a varnish to all the rains, the rising of the seas, and the ap- the rest, he is enabled to make the best use of pearance of the rainbow, are such descriptions his learning, and display it at full length upon as every one must take notice of. The cir- all occasions. Last summer he distinguished cumstavce relating to Paradise is so finely himself two or three times very remarkably, imagined, and suitable to the opinions of many by puzzling the vicar, before an assembly of learned authors, that I cannot forbear giving most of the ladies in the neighbourhood; and it a place in this paper.
from such weighty considerations as these, as
it too often unfortunately falls out, the mother Then shall this mount
is become invincibly persuaded that her son is Of Paradise, by might of waves, be mov'd Out of his place, push'd by the horned flood :
a great scholar; and that to chain him down With all his verdure spoil'd, and trecs adrift to the ordinary methods of education, with othDown the great river to th' op'ning gulf,
ers of his age, would be to cramp his faculties, And there take root; an island salt and bare,
and do an irreparable injury to his wonderful The haunt of seals and orcs and sea-mews' clang.'
capacity. The transition which the poet makes from I happened to visit at the house last week, the vision of the deluge, to the concern it oc- and missing the young gentleman at the teacasioned in Adam, is exquisitely graceful, and table, where he seldom fails to officiate, could copied after Virgil, though the first thought it not upon so cstraordinary a circumstance aintroduces is rather in the spirit of Ovid: void inquiring after him. My lady told me he
was gone out with her woman in order to How didst thou grieve then, Adam, to behold make some preparation for their equipage ; The end of all thy offspring, end so sad,
for that she intended very speedily to carry Depopulation! Thee another flood, Of tears and sorrow, a flood, thee also drown'd,
him to "travel.” The oddness of the expresAnd sunk thee as thy sons; till gently rear'd sion shocked me a little ; however, I soon reBy th' angel, on thy feet thou stood'st at last, covered myself enough to let ber know, that Though comfortless, as when a father mouros
all I was willing to understand by it was, that His children all in view destroy'd at once.
she designed this summer to show her son his I have been the more particular in my quo- estate in a distant country, in which he had tations out of the eleventh book of Paradise never yet been. But she soon took care to rob Lost, because it is not generally reckoned me of that agreeable mistake, and let me in- , among the most shining books of this poem ; to the whole affair. She enlarged upon young VOL. 11.