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My own deservingo: but this will not serve; | We are, in the last place, to consider the All that I eat, or drink, or shall beget,

imaginary persons, or Death and Sin, who act Is propagated curse. O voice once heard

a large part in this book. Such beautiful esDelightfully, “Increase and multiply:" Now death to hear!

tended allegories are certainly some of the In me all

finest compositions of genius; but, as I have Posterity stands curst! Fair patrimony,

before observed, are not agreeable to the naThat I must leave ye, sons! O were I able

ture of an heroic poem. This of Sin and To waste it all myself, and leave you none! So disinherited, how would you bless

Death is very exquisite in its kiod, if not conMe, now your curse! Ah, why should all mankind, sidered as a part of such a work. The truths For one man's fault, thus guiltless be condemo'd

contained in it are so clear and open, that I If guiltless? But from me what can proceed

shall not lose time in explaining them ; but But all corrupt?

shall only observe, that a reader, who knows Who can afterwards behold the father of the strength of the English tongue, will be mankind, extended upon the earth, uttering'amazed to think how the poet could find such his midnight complaints, bewailing his exist. apt words and phrases to describe the actions ence, and wishing for death, without sympa- of those two imaginary persons, and partithizing with him in his distress.

cularly in that part where Death is exhibited

as forming a bridge over the chaos; a work Thus Adam to himself lamented loud

suitable to the genius of Milton. Through the still night; not now (as ere man fell) Wholesome and cool, and mild, but with black air, Since the subject I am upon gives me an Accompanied with daunps and dreadful gloom; opportunity of speaking more at large of such Which to his evil conscience represented

shadowy and imaginary persons as may be All things with double terror. On the ground

introduced into heroic poems, I shall beg Outstretch'd he lay ; on the cold ground and of Curs'd his creation ; death as oft accus'd

leave to explain myself in a matter which is Of tardy execution -

curious in its kind, and which none of the

critics have treated of. It is certain Homer The part of Eve in this book is no less pas.)

S and Virgil are full of imaginary persons, who sionate, and apt to sway the reader in her

' are very beautiful if poetry, when they are favour. She is represented with great tender. :

just shown without being engaged in any seness as approaching Adam, but is spurned

ories of action. Homer, indeed, represents from him with a spirit of upbraiding and in- S

- Sleep as a person, and ascribes a short part to dignation, conformable to the nature of man,

Well, him in his Iliad ; but we must consider, that whose passions had now gained the dominion

though we now regard such a person as enover him. The following passage, wherein

tirely shadowy and unsubstantial, the heathens she is described as renewing her addresses to

made statues of him placed him in their temhim, with the whole speech that follows it,

"; ples, and looked upon him as a real deity. bave something in them exquisitely moving When Homer makes use of other such alleand pathetic:

gorical persons, it is only in short expressions, He added not, and from her turn'd: But Evo which convey an ordinary thought to the Not ro repuls'd, with tears that ceas'd not flowing, mind in the most pleasing manner, and may And tresses all disorder'd, at his feet

rather be looked upon as poetical phrases, Pell humble; and embracing them besought

than allegorical descriptions. Instead of tellHis peace, and thus proceeded in ber plaint,

"Forsake me pot thus, Adam! Witness Heav'n ing us that men naturally fly when they are - What love sincere, and rev'rence in my breast terrified, he introduces the persons of Flight I bear thee, and unweeting have offended,

and Fear, who, he tells us, are inseparable Unbappily deceiv'd! Thy suppliant I beg, and clasp thy knees. Bercave me not

companions. Instead of saying that the time (Whereon I live ;) thy gentle looks, thy aid, was come when Apollo ougbt to have received Thy counsel in this uttermoyt distress,

his recompense, he tells us that the Hours My only strength, and stay! Forlorn of thee,

brought him his reward. Instead of describWhither shall I betake me! where subsist? While yet we live (scarce one short hour perhaps)

ing the effects which Minerva's ægis produced Between us two let there be peace," &c.

in battle, he tells us that the brims of it were

encompassed by Terror, Rout, Discord, Fury, Adam's reconcilement to her is worked up Pursuit. Massacre, and Death In the same in the same spirit of tenderness. Eve after figure of speaking, he represents Victory as wards proposes to her husband, in the blind- following Diomedes : Discord as the mother ness of her despair, that, to prevent their of funerals and mourning; Venus as dressed guilt from descending upon posterity, they by the Graces ; Bellona as wearing Terror and should resolve to live childless; or, if that consternation like a a garment. I might give could not be done, they should seek their own several other instances out of Homer, as well deaths by violent methods. As these senti-las a great many out of Virgil. Milton has ments naturally engage the reader to regard likewise very often made use of the same way the mother of mankind with more than ordi- of speaking, as where he tells us that Vicnary commiseration, they likewise contain a rory sat on the right hand of the Messiah, very fine moral. The resolution of dying to when he marched forth against the rebel anend our miseries does not show such a degree gels; that, at the rising of the sun, the Hours of magnanimity as a resolution to bear them, unbarred the gates of light; that Discord was and submit to the dispensations of Providence the daughter of Siv. Of the same nature are Our author has, therefore, with great delicacy, those expressions, where, describing the sing. represented Eve as entertaining this thought, ing of the nightingale, he adds, Silence was and Adam as disapproving it.

pleased;' and upon the Messiah's bidding

peace to the chaos, Confusion heard his wherein men put of their characters of busivoice.' ( might add innumerable instances of ness, and enjoy their very selves. These our poet's writing in this beautiful figure. It hours were usually passed in rooms adorned is plain that these I have mentioned, in which for that purpose, and set out in such a manpersons of an imaginary nature are introduced, ner, as the objects all around the company are such short allegories as are not designed gladdened their bearts; which, joined to the to be taken in the literal seusc, but only to cheerful looks of well-chosen and agreeable convey particular circumstances to the rea- friends, gave new vigour to the airy, produced der, after an unusual and entertaining man- the latent fire of the modest, and gave grace ner. But when such persons are introduced to the slow humour of the reserved. A judias principal actors, and engaged in a series of cious mixture of such company, crowned with adventures, they take too much upon them, chaplets of flowers, and the whole apartment and are by no means proper for an heroic po- glittering with gay lights, cheered with a proem, which ought to appear credible in its fusion of roses, artificial falls of water, and principal parts. I cannot forbear therefore intervals of soft notes to songs of love and thinking, that Sin and Death are as improper wine, suspended the cares of human life, and agents in a work of this nature, as Strength made a festival of mutual kindness. Such and Necessity in one of the tragedies of £s- parties of pleasure as these, and the reports chylus, who represented those two persons of the agreeable passages in their jollities, nailing down Prometheus to a rock; for have in all ages awakened the dull part of which he has been justly censured by the mankind to pretend to mirth and good humour, greatest critics. I do not know any imaginary without capacity for such entertainments ; for, person made use of in a more sublime man- if I may be allowed to say so, there are an ner of thinking than that in one of the pro-hundred men fit for any employment, to one phets, who, describing God as descending who is capable of passing a night in company from heaven, and visiting the sins of man- of the first taste, without shocking any memkind, adds that dreadful circumstance, · Be- ber of the society, over-rating his own part of fore him went the Pestilence.' It is certain the conversation, but equally receiving and this imaginary person might have been des contributing to the pleasure of the whole comcribed in all her purple spots. The Fever pany. When one considers such collections might have marched before her, Pain might of companions in past times, and such as one have stood at her right hand, Phrensy on her might name in the present age, with how left, and Death in her rear. She might have much spleen must a man needs reflect upon been introduced as gliding down from the the awkward gaiety of those who affect the tail of a comet, or darted upon the earth frolic with an ill grace! I have a letter from a in a flash of lighting. She might have correspondent of mine, who desires me to tainted the atmosphere with her breath. The admonish all loud, mischievous, airy, dull very glaring of her eyes might have scatter- companions, that they 'are mistaken in what ed infection. But I believe every reader will they call a frolic. Irregularity in itself is not think, that in such sublime writings the inen- what creates pleasure and mirth; but to see a tioning of her, as it is done in Scripture, man, who knows what rule and decency are. has something in it more just, as well as great, descend from then agreeably in our company, than all that the most fanciful poet could have is what denominates him a pleasant compabestowed upon her in the richness of his ima- nion. Instead of that, you find many whose gination.

L. mirth consists only in doing things which do

mirth co
not become them, with a secret consciousness

that all the world knows they know better: to No. 358.] Monday, April 21, 1712.

this is always added something mischievous - Desipere in loco. Hor. Od. xii. Lib. 4. ult. to themselves or others. I have heard of some 'Tis joyous folly that unbends the mind-Francis. very merry fellows among whom the frolic

was started, and passed by a great majority, CHARLES LILLY attended me the other day, that every man should immediately draw a and made me a present of a large sheet of pa-tooth: after which they have gone in a body per, on which is delineated a pavement in and smoked a cobler. The same company, Mosaic work, lately discovered at Stunsfield at another night, has each man burned his near Woodstock * A person who has so much cravat; and one perhaps, whose estate would the gift of speech as Mr. Lilly, and can carry bear it, has thrown a long wig and hat into the on a discourse without a reply, had great op- same fire. Thus they have jested themselves portunity on that occasion to expatiate upon stark-naked, and run into the streets and so fine a piece of antiquity. Among other frighted women very successfully. There is things, I remember he gave ine his opinion, no inhabitant of any standing in Covent Garwhich he drew from the ornaments of the work, den, but can tell you an hundred good huthat this was the floor of a room dedicated to mours, where people have come off with a Mirth and Concord. Viewing this work, made little bloodshed, and yet scoured all the witty my fancy run over the many gay expressions hours of the night. I know a gentleman that I have read in ancient authors, which contain- has several wounds in the head by watched invitations to lay aside care and anxiety, poles, and bas been thrice run through the and give a loose to that pleasing forgetfulness body, to carry on a good jest. He is very

old for a man of so much good humour; but * See Gough's British Topography, vol. ji. p. 88. to this day he is seldom merry but he has ocVol. 11.

casion to be valiant at the same time. But, the shoulder, and offered to lay him a bottle of by the favour of these gentlemen, I am hum- wine that he was thinking of the widow. My bly of opinion, that a man may be a very with old friend started, and, recovering out of his ty man, and never offend one statute of this brown study, told Sir Andrew, that once in kingdom, not excepting that of stabbing. his life he had been in the right. In short, af

The writers of plays have what they call ter some little hesitation, Sir Roger told us in unity of time and place, to give a justness to the fulness of his heart, that he had just retheir representation; and it would not be ceived a letter from his steward, which acamiss if all who pretend to be companions quainted him that his old rival and antagowould couline their actions to the place of niet in the country, Sir David Dundrum, had meeting; for a frolic carried farther may be been making a visit to the widow.' 'Howbetter performed by other animals than men. ever,' says Sir Roger, I can never think that It is not to rid much ground, or do much mis- she will have a man that's half a year older chief, that should denominate a pleasant fel. than I am, and a noted republican iuto the low; but that is truly frolic which is the play bargain.' of the mind, and consists of various and un- Will Honeycomb, who looks upon love as forced sallies of imagination. Festivity of his particular province, interrupting our friend spirit is a very uncommon talent, and must with a jaunty laugh, • I thought, knight,' said proceed from an assemblage of agreeable qua- ne, thou hadst lived long enough in the world lities in the same person. There are some few not to pin thy happiness upon one that is a wowhom I think peculiarly happy in it, but it is man and a widow. I think that, without vaa talent one cannot name in a man, especially nity, I may pretend to know as much of the when one considers, that it is never very grate- female world as any man in Great Britain ; ful but where it is regarded by 'him who pos- though the chief of my knowledge consists in sesses it in the second place. The best man this, that they are not to be known.' Will that I know of for heightening the revel gaie- immediately, with his usual fluency, rambled ty of a company is Estcourt, whose jovial hu- into an account of his own amours. I am mour diffuses itself from the highest person now,' says he, upon the verge of fifty,' at an entertainment to the meanest waiter. (though by the way we all knew he was turnMerry tales, accompanied with apt gestures ed of three-score). You may easily guess,' and lively representations of circumstances continued Will, that I have not lived so long and persons, beguile the gravest mind into a in the world without having had some thoughts consent to be as humorous as hijnsolf. Add of settling in it, as the phrase is. To tell you to this, that when a man is in his good graces, truly, I have several times tried my fortune he has a mimickry that does not debase the that way, though I cannot much boast of my persou he represents; but which, taking from success. the gravity of the character, adds to the 'I made my first addresses to a young lady agreeableness of it. This pleasant fellow in the country; but, when I thought things gives one some idea of the ancient pantomime, were pretty well drawing to a conclusion, who is said to have given the audience, in her father happening to hear that I had fordumb-show, an exact idea of any character merly boarded with a surgeon, the old put foror passion, or an intelligible relation of any bade me his house, and within a fortnight afpublic occurrence, with no other expression ter married his daughter to a fox-hunter iu the than that of his looks and gestures. If all neighbourhood. who have been obliged to ihese talents in I made my next application to a widow, Estcourt will be at Love for Love to-morrow and attacked her so briskly, that I thought night, they will but pay him what they owe myself within a fortnight of her. As I waited him, at so easy a rate as being present at a upon her one morning, she told me, that she play which nobody would omit seeing, that intended to keep her fready money and joinhad, or had not, ever seen it before. T. ture in her own hand, and desired me to call

upon her attorney in Lyon's-Inn, who would No. 359.] Tuesday, April 22, 1712.

adjust with me what it was proper for me to

add to it. I was so rebuffed by this overture, Torva lexua lupum sequitur, lapus ipse capellam; that I never inquired either for her or her ai. Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella.

torney afterwards. Virg. Ecl. vi. 63.

L'A fuw months after, I addressed myself to Lions the wolves, and wolves the kids pursue,

a young lady who was an only daughter, and The kids sweet thyme, and still I follow you.

Warton.

of a good family. I danced with her at se

veral balls, squeezed her by the hand, said As we were at the club last night, I observ soft things to her, and in short made no doubt cd that my old friend Sir Roger, contrary to of her heart; and, though my fortune was not his usual custom, sat very silent, and, instead equal to hers, I was in hopes that her fond of minding what was said by the company, father would not deny her the man she had was whistling to himself in a very thoughtful fixed her affections upon. But as I went one mood, and playing with a cork. I jogged day to the house, in order to break the matter Sir Andrew Freeport, who sat between us ; to him, I found the whole family in confusion, and, as we were both observing him we saw and heard, to my unspeakable surprise, that the knight shake his head, and heard him say Miss Jenny was that very morning run away to himself, “A foolish woman! I can't believe with the butler. it.' Sir Andrew gave him a gentle pat upon 'I then courted a second widow, and am at

In

a loss to this day how I came to miss her, for, “MR. SPECTATOR, she had often commended my person and bel There is an evil under the sun, which has haviour. Her maid indeed told me one day, not yet come within your speculation, and is that her mistress said she never saw a gentle. the censure, disesteem, apd contempt, which man with such a spindle pair of legs as Mr. some young fellows meet with from particular Honeycomb.

persons, for the reasonable methods they take • After this I laid siege to four heiresses suc- to avoid them in general. This is by appearcessively, and, being a handsome young dog ing in a better dress than may seem to a rein those days, quickly made a breach in their lation regularly consistent with a small forhearts, but I don't know how it came to pass, tune; and therefore may occasion a judgment though I seldom failed of getting the daugh of a suitable extravagance in other particuter's consent, I could never in my life get the lars : but the disadvantage with which the old people on my side.

man of narrow circumstances acts and speaks, « I could give you an account of a thousand is so feelingly set forth in a little book called other unsuccessful attempts, particularly of The Christian Hero, that the appearing to be one which I made some years since upon anotherwise is not only pardonable, but neces. old woman, whom I nad certainly borne away sary. Every one knows the hurry of conclu. with flying colours, if her relations had not sions that are made in contempt of a person conne pouring in to her assistance from all that appears to be calamitous : which makes parts of England; nay, I believe I should it very excusable to prepare one's self for the have got her at last, bad not she been car-company of those that are of a superior quaried off by a hard frost.'

Jlity and fortune, by appearing to be in a bet. As Will's transitions are extremely quick, ter condition than one is, so far as such ap. he turned from Sir Roger, and, applying pearance shall not make us really of worse. himself to me, told me there was a passage 'It is a justice due to the character of one in the book I had considered last Saturday, who suffers hard reflections from any particuwhich deserves to be writ in letters of gold : lar person upon this account, that such perand taking out a pocket Milton, read the fol- sons would inquire into his manner of spendlowing lines, which are part of one of Adam's ing his time ; of which, though no further inspeeches to Eve after the fall.

formation can be had than that he remains so Oh! why did our

many hours in his chamber, yet, if this is Creator wise! that peopled highest heaven

cleared, to imagine that a reasonable creaWith spirits masculine create at last

ture, wrung with a narrow fortune, does not This novelty on earth, this fair defect

make the best use of this retirement, would Of nature, and not fill the world at once With meu, as angels, without feminine ?

be a conclusiou extremely uncharitable. From Or find some other way to generate

what has, or will be said, I hope no conseMankind? This mischief had not then befallin,

quence can be extorted, implying, that I would And more that shall befall, innumerable

have auy young fellow spend more time than Disturbances on earth, through female snares, And straight conjunction with this sex: for either

the common leisure which bis studies require, He shall never find out fit mate; but such

or more money than his fortune or allowance As some inisfortune brings him, or mistake;

may admit of, in the pursuit of an acquainOr whoin he wishes most shall seldom gain,

tance with bis betters : for as to his time, the Through her perversen988; But shall see her gain't By a far worse : for, if she love, witheld

gross of that ought to be sacred to more subBy parents; or his happiest choice too late

stantial acquisitions ; for each irrecoverable Shall meet already link'd, and wedlock bound

moment of which he ought to believe he stands To a fell adversary, his hate or shame :

religiously accountable. As to his dress, I Which infinite calamity shall cause To hurnan life, and household peace confound. shall engage inyself no further than in the

modest defence of two plain suits a year: Sir Roger listened to this passage with for being perfectly satisfied in Eutrapelus's great attention; and, desiring Mr. Honey-contrivance of making a Mohock of a man, coinb to fold down a leaf at the place, and by presenting him with laced and embroilend him his book, the knight put it up in dered suits, I would by no means be thought his pocket, and told us that he would read to controvert the conceit, by insinuating the over these verses again before he went to advantages of foppery. It is an assertion bed.

.. which admits of much proof, that a stranger

of tolerable sense, dressed like a gentleman, No. 360.] Wednesday, April 23, 1712. will be better received by those of quality

above him, than one of much better parts, De paupertate tacentes, Plus poscente ferent. Hur. Ep. xvii. Lib. 1. 13.

whose dress is regulated by the rigid notions

of frugality. A man's appearance falls withThe man who all his wants ronceals,

in the censure of every one that sces him : his Gains more than he who all his wants reveals.

Duncombe.

parts and learning very few are judges of;

and even upon these sew they cannot at first I HAVE nothing to do with the business of be well intruded; for policy and good breedthis day, any further than affixing the piece ing will counsel him to be reserved among of Latin on the head of my paper: which I strangers, and to support him.self only by the thiok a motto not unsuitable; since, if silence common spirit of conversation. Indeed among of our poverty is a recommendation, still the injudicious, the worde, “delicacy, idiom, more commendable is his modesty who con- fine images, structure of periods, genius, fire," ceals it by a decent dress.

and the rest, made use of with a frugal and coinely gravity, will maintain the figure of to all its professors. To all which severe stuimmense reading, and the depth of criti- dies I have thrown in, at proper interims, the cism.

I pretty learning of the classics. Notwithstan"All gentlemen of fortune, at least the young ding, which, I am what Shakspeare calls a fel. and middle aged, are apt to pride themselves low of no mark or likelihood, which makes me a little too much upon their dress, and conse- understand the more fully that since the regu. quently to value others in some measure uponlar methods of making friends and a fortune the same consideration. With what confusion by the mere force of a profession is so very slow is a man of figure obliged to return the civili- and uncertain, a man should take all reasonties of the hat to a person whose air and attire able opportunities, by enlarging a goood achardly entitle him to it! for whom neverthe- quaintance, to court that time and chance less the other has a particular esteem, though which is said to happen to every man. T. he is ashamed to have it challenged in so public a manner. It must be allowed, that any young tellow that affects to dress and appear gen- / No. 361.] Thursday, April 24, 1712. teelly, might, with artificial management, save

Tartaream intendit vocem, quá protinus omnis ten pounds a-year; as instead of fine holland he

Contremuit domus

'Virg. En. vii. 514. Inight mourn in sack-cloth, and in other particulars be proportionably shabby: but of what

The blast Tartarean spreads its notes around:

The house astonish'd treinbles at the sound. service would this sum be to avert any misfor. tune, whilst it would leave him deserted by the

I HAVE lately received the following letter Jittle good acquaintance he has, and prevent from a country gentleman : his gaining any other? As the appearance of an easy fortune is necessary towards making 'MR. SPECTATOR, one, I don't know but it might be of advantage "The night before I left London I went to sometimes to throw into one's discourse certain see a play called The Humorous Lieutenant. exclamations about bank stock, and to show a Upon the rising of the curtain I was very much marvellous surprise upon its fall, as well as the surprised with the great concert of cat-calls most affected triumph upon its rise. The ve-Iwbich was exhibited that evening, and began neration and respect which the practice of all to think with myself that I had made a mistake, ages has preserved to appearances, without and gone to a music-meeting instead of the doubt suggested to our tradesmen that wise playhouse. It aapeared indeed a little odd to and politic custom, to apply and recommend me to see so many persons of quality, of both themselves to the public by all those decora-sexes, assembled togсther at a kind of catertions upon their sigw-posts and houses which wauling, for I cannot look upon that per. the most eminent bands in the neighbourhood formance to have been any thing better, whatcan furnish them with. What can be more at-lever the musicians themselves might think of tractive to a man of letters, than that immenselit. As I bad no acquaintance in the house to erudition ofall ages and languages, which a skil. Jask questions of, and was forced to go out of ful bookseller, in conjunction with a painter, town early the next morning, I could not learn sball image upon his column, and the extre- the secret of this matter. What I would there. mities of his shop? The same spirit of main-fore desire of you, is, to give me some account taining a handsome appearance reigns among of this strange instrument, which I found the the grave and solid apprentices of the law (here company called a cat-call; and particularly to I could be particularly dull in proving the let me know whether it be a piece of music word apprentice to be significant of a barrister,) lately come from Italy. For my own part to and you may easily distinguish who has most be free with you, I would rather hear an Eng. lately made his pretensions to business, by the llish fiddle; though I durst not show my dislike whitest and most ornamental frame of his whilst I was in the play house, it being my window; if indeed the chamber is a ground-chance to sit the very next man to one of the room, and has rails before it, the fivery is of performers..

I am, Sir. necessity more extended, and the pomp of busi- Your most affectionate friend and servant. ness better maintained. And what can be a

JOHN SHALLOW, ESQ.' greater indication of the dignity of dress, than that burdensome finery which is the regular In compliance with Squire Shallow's request, habit of our judges nobles, and bishops, with i design this paper rs a dissertation upon the which upon certain days' we see them incum- cat-call. In order to make myself a master of bered! And though it may be said, this is the subject, I purchased one the beginning of awful, and necessary for the dignity of the last week, though not without great difficulty, state, yet the wisest of them have been re- being informed at two or three toy-shops that narkable, before they arrived at their present the players had lately bought them all up. I stations, for being very well-dressed persons. have since consulted many learned antiquaries As to my own part, I am near thirty ; and in relation to its original, and find them very since I left school have not been idle, which is much divided among themselves upon that para modern phrase for having studied hard. I ticular. " A fellow of the Royal Society who is brought off a clean system of moral philosophy, my good friend, and a great proficient in the and a tolerable jargon of metaphysics, from the mathematical part of music, concludes, from university; since that, I have been engaged in the simplicity of its make, and the uniformity the clearing part of the perplexed style and of its sound, that the cat-call is older than any matter of the law, which so hereditary descends of the inventions of Jubal. He observes very

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