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V.

Darkling und lira we shall the marshes tread, their attention to what is delivered to them, No lay unsun, to chcat thc tedious way.

at the same time that they show the speaker III.

is in earnest, and affected himself with what he Tho wat'ry length of these nnjoyous inoors so passionately recommends to others. Violent

Does all the flow'ry meadowy pride excel; Through these I fly to her my soul adores;

gesture and vociferation naturaally shake the Ye flow'ry meaeows, empty pride, farewell.

hearts of the ignorant, and fill them with a

kind of religious horror. Nothing is more freIV. « Bach moment from the charmer I'm confin'd,

quent than to see women weep and tremble at My breast is turtur'd with impatient fires; the sight of a moving preacher, though he is Fly, my rein-deer, fly swifter than the wind, placed quite out of their hearing; as in EngThy tardy feet wing with my fierce desires.

land we very frequently see people lulled asleep

with solid and elaborate discourses of piety, "Our pleasing toil will then be soon o'erpaid, And thou, in wonder lost, shalt view my fair:

who would be warmed and transported out of Admire oach feature of the lovely maid,

themselves by the bellowing and distortions of Her artless charms, her bloom, her sprightly air. enthusiasm. VI.

If nonsense, when accompanied with such as But lo! with graceful motion there sbe swims, emotion of voice and body, has such an indiv

Gontly removing oach ambitious wavo;
The crowding waves transported clasp bor limbs: fence on men's minde, what might we not ex-
When, when, oh when shall I such freedoms have!pect from many of those admirable discourses
VII.

which are printed in our tongue, were they deIn vain, ye envious streams, so fast ye flow, livered with a becoming fervour, and with the To hide her from her lover's ardent gaze;

· most agreeable graces of voice and gesture! From every touch you more transparent grow, And all reveal'd the beauteous wanion plaga."

We are told that the great Latin orator very much impaired his health by the laterum con

tentio, the vehemence of action, with which he No. 407.] Tuesday, June 17, 1712.

used to deliver himself. The Greek orator was - abcst facundis gratia dictis.

likewise so very famous for this particular in Ovid, Met. Lib. xiii. 127. rhetoric, that one of his antagonists, whom he Eloquent words a graceful mannor want. T. had banished from Athens, reading over the Most foreign writers, who have given any oration which had procured his banishment, character of the English nation, whatever vices and seeing his friends admire it, could not forthey ascribe to it, allow, in general, that the bear asking them, if they were so much arpeople are naturally modest. It proceeds per- fected by the hare reading of it, how much haps from this our national virtue, that our more they would have been alarmed, had they orators are observed to make use of less gesture heard him actually throwing out such a storm or action than those of other countries. Our of eloquence? preachers stand stock still in the pulpit, and How cold and dead a figure, in comparison will not so much as move a finger to set off the of these two grcat men, does an orator often best sermons in the world. We meet with the make at the British bar, holding up his head same speaking statues at our bars, and in all with the most insipid serenity, and stroking public places of debate. Our words flow from the sides of a long wig that reaches down to us in a smooth continued stream, without those his middle! The truth of it is, there is often strainings of the voice, motions of the body, nothing more ridiculous than the gestures of an and majesty of the hand, which are so much English speaker: you see some of them runcelebrated in the orators of Greece and Rome. ning their hands into their pockets as far as We can talk of life and death in cold blood, ever they can thrust them, and others looking and keep our temper in a discourge which turns with great attention on a piece of paper that upon every thing that is dear to us. Though has nothing written on it; you may see many our zeal breaks out in the finest tropes and a smart rhetorician turning his hat in his hands, figures, it is not able to stir a limb about us moulding it into several different cocks, exI have beard it observed more than once, hy amining sometimes the lining of it, and somethose who have seen Italy, that an untravelled times the button, during the whole course of Englishman cannot relish all the beauties of his harangue. A deaf man would think he was Italian pictures, because the postures which are cheapening a benver, when perhaps he is talkexpressed in them are often such as are pecu-ing of the fate of the British nation. I rememJiar to that country. One who has not seen an ber, when I was a young man, and used to freItalian in the pulpit, will not know what to quent Westminster-hall, there was a counsellor make of that noble gesture in Raphael's picture who never pleaded without a piece of packof St. Paul preaching at Athens, where the thread in his hand, which he used to twist about apostles is represented as listing up both his a thumb or a singer all the while he was speak. arins, and pouring out the thunder of his rhe-ling: the wags of those days used to call it the toric amidst an audience of pagan philoso-thread of his discourse,' for he was unable to phers.

utter a word without it. One of his clienta, It is certain that proper gestures and vehe- who was more merry than wise, stole it from ment exertions of the voice cannot be too much him one day in the midst of his pleading; but studied by a public orator. They are a kind he had better have let it alone, for he lost his of comment to what he utters, and enforce cause by his jest. overy thing he says, with weak hearers, better I have all along acknowledged myself to be than the strongest argument he can make use a dumb man, and therefore may be thought a of. They keep the audience awake, and fix very improper person to give rules for orit. tory; but I believe every one will agree with of beings as it were in a chain, so man seems me in this, that we ought either to lay aside all to be placed as the middle link between ankinds of gesture (which seems to be very suit-gels and brutes. Hence he participates both able to the genius of our nation), or at least of flesh and spirit by an admirable tie, which to make use of such only as are graceful and in him occasions perpetual war of passions ; expressive.

0. and as man inclines to the angelic or brute

part of his constitution, he is then denominatNo. 408.] Wednesday, June 18, 1712

ed good or bad, virtuous or wicked ; if love,

mercy, and good-nature prevail, they speak Decet affectus animi neque se nimium origere, nec sub

bim of the angels: if hatred, cruelty, and jacere, serviliter.-Tall. de Finibus.

envy predominate, they declare his kindred The affections of the heart ought not to be too much in

to the brute. Hence it was that some of the dulged nor servilely depressed.

ancients imagined, that as men in this life ip"MR. SPECTATOR,

clined more to the angel or the brute, so after • I BAVB always been a very great lover of their death they should transmigrate into the your speculations, as well in regard to the sub- one or the other; and it would be no unpleaject as to your manner of treating it. Human sant notion to consider the several species of nature I always thought the most useful object brutes, into which we may imagine that tyof human reason; and to make the consider-rants, nisers, the proud, malicious, and illation of it pleasant and entertaining, I always natured, might be changed. ibought the best employment of human wit : L'As the consequences of this original, all other parts of philosophy may perhaps make passions are in all men, but appear not in all: us wiser, but this not only answers that end, constitution, education, custom of the counbut makes us better too. Hence it was that try, reason, and the like causes, may improve the oracle pronounced Socrates the wisest of or abate the strength of them; but still the all men living, because he judiciously made seeds remain, which are ever ready to sprout choice of human nature for the object of his forth upon the least encouragement. I have thoughts; an inquiry into which as much ex-heard a story of a good religious man, who, ceeds all other learning, as it is of more con- having been bred with the milk of a goat, was sequence to adjust the true nature and mea- very modest in public by a careful reflection sures of right and wrong, than to settle the he made on his actions; but he frequently had distances of the planets, and compute the time an hour in secret, wherein he had his frisks of their circumvolutions.

and capers; and if we had an opportunity of One good effect that will immediately examining the retirement of the strictest phiarise from a dear observation of human na- losophers, no doubt but we should find perture, is, that we shall cease to wonder at those petual returns of those passions they so art. action which men are used to reckon wholly fully conceal from the public. I remember, upaccountable; for, as nothing is produced Machiavel observes, that every state should without a cause, so, by observing the nature entertain a perpetual jealousy of its neighand course of the passions, we shall be able to bours, that so it should never be unprovided trace every action from its first conception to when an emergency happens ; in like manner its death. We shall no more admire at the should reason be perpetually on its guard proceedings of Cataline or Tiberius, when we against the passions and never suffer them to know the one was actuated by a cruel jealousy, carry on any design that may be destructive the other by a furious ambition : for the ac- of its security : yet at the same time it must tions of men follow their passions as naturally be careful, that it do not so far break their as light does heat, or any other effect flows strength as to render them contemptible, and from its cause; reason must be employed in consequently itself unguarded. adjusting the passions, but they must ever reol •The understanding being of itself too slow main the principles of action.

and lazy to exert itself into action, it is ne* The strange and absurd variety that is so cessary it should be put in motion by the gen. apparent in men's actions, shows plainly they tle gales of the passions, which may preserve can never proceed immediately from reason; it from stagnating and corruption; for they $0 pure a fountain emits no such troubled wa- are necessary to the health of the mind, as ters: they must necessarily arise from the the circulation of the animal spirits is to the passions, which are to the mind as the winds health of the body: they keep it in life, and to a ship; they only can move it, and they too strength, and vigour ; nor is it possible for the often destroy it: if fair and gentle, they guide mind to perform it offices without their asit into the barbour; if contrary and furious, sistance. These motions are given us with they overset it in the waves. In the same our being; they are little spirits that are born manner is the mind assisted or endangered by and die with us; to some they are mild, easy, the passions; reason must then take the place and gentle; to others, wayward and unruly, of pilot, and can never fail of securing her yet never too strong for the reins of reason charge if she be not wanting to herself. The and the guidance of judgment. strength of the passions will never he ac- •We may generally observe a pretty nice cepted as an excuse for complying with them : proportion between the strength of reason and they were designed for subjection; and if a passion ; the greatest geniuses have commonly man suffers there to get the upper hand, he the strongest affections, as, on the other hand, then betrays the liberty of his own soul. the weaker understandings have generally

'As Nature has framed the several species the weaker passions; and it is fit the fury of the coursers should not be too great for the is the subject of this paper, and that sensitive strength of the charioteer. Young men, taste, which gives us a relish of every differwhose passions are not a little unruly, give ent flavour that affects the palate. Accordingsmall hopes of their ever being considerable: /ly we find there are as many degrees of rethe fire of youth will of course abate, and is finement in the intellectual faculty as in the a fault, if it be a fault, that mends every sense which is marked out by this common day ; but surelv, unless a man has fire in his denomination. youth, he can hardly have warmth in old age. I know a person who possessed the one in We must therefore be very cautious, lest, so great a perfection, that, after baving tasted while we think to regulate the passions, weten different kinds of tea, he would distinguish, should quite extinguish them, which is putting without seeing the colour of it, the particular out the light of ihe soul; for to be without sort which was offered him; and not only so, passion, or to be hurried away with it, makes but any two sorts of them that were mixed a man equally blind. The extraordinary se- together in an equal proportion; nay, he has verity used in most of our schools has this fatal carried the experiment so far, as, upon tasting effect, it breaks the spring of the mind, and the composition of three different sorts, to most certainly destroys more good geniuses name the parcels from whence the three sethan it can possibly improve. And surely it veral ingredients were taken. A man of a is a mighty mistake that the passions should fine taste in writing will discern, after the be so entirely subdued: for little irregulari- same manner, not only the general beauties ties are sometimes not only to be borne with, and imperfections of an author, but discover but to be cultivated too, since they are fre- the several ways of thinking and expressing quently attended with the greatest perfections. himself, which diversify him from all other All great geniuses have faults mixed with their authors, with the several foreign infusions of virtues, and resemble the flaming bush which thought and language, and the particular auhas thorns amongst lights.

thors from whom they were borrowed. Since therefore the passions are the prin. After having thus far explained what is geciples of human actions, we must endeavour nerally meant by a fine taste in writing, and to manage them so as to retain their vigour, shown the propriety of the metaphor which is vet keep them under strict command; we must used on this occasion, I think I may define it to govern them rather like free subjects than be ' that faculty of the soul, which discerns slaves, lest, while we intend to make them the beauties of an author with pleasure, and obedient, they become abject, and upfit for the imperfections with dislike.' Ifa man would those great purposes to which they were de- know whether he is possessed of this faculty, I signed. For my part I must confess I could would have him read over the celebrated works never have any regard to that sect of philoso- of antiquity, which have stood the test of so phers who so inuch insisted upon an absolute many different ages and countries, or those indifference and vacancy from all passion; for works among the moderns which have the sancit seems to me a thing very inconsistent, for a tion of the politer part of our cotemporaries. man to divest himself of humanity in order to 1, upon the perusal of such writings, be does acquire tranquillity of mind; and to eradicate not find himself delighted in an extraordinary the very principles of action, because it is manner, or if, upon reading the admired paspossible they may produce ill effects. sages in such authors, he finds a toldness and "I am, Sir,

indifference in his thoughts, he ought to conYour affectionate admirer,

clude, not (as is too usual among tasteless readT. B.

ers) that the author wants those perfections which have been admired in him, but that he

himself wants the faculty of discovering them. No. 409.) Thursday, June 19, 1712.

He should, in the second place, be very care- Musxo contingere cuncta lepore. ful to observe, whether he tastes the distin

Lucr. Lib. i. 933. guishing perfections, or, if I may be allowed to To grace each subject with enliv’ning wit.

call them so, the specific qualities of the author

whom he peruses; whether he is particularly GRATIAN very often recommends fine taste pleased with Livy, for his manner of telling a as the utmost perfection of an accomplished story, with Sallust, for entering into those inman.

ternal principles of action which arise from As this word arises very often in conversa- the characters and manners of the person he tion, I shall endeavour to give some account describes, or with Tacitus for displaying those of it, and to lay down rules how we may outward motives of safety and interest which know whether we are possessed of it, and gave birth to the whole series of transactions how we may acquire that fine taste of writ- which he relates. ing, which is so much talked of among the He may likewise consider, how differently polite world.

he is affected by the same thought which preMost languages make use of this metaphor, sents itself in a great writer, froni what he is to express that faculty of the mind which dis. when he finds it delivered by a person of an tinguishes all the most concealed faults and ordinary genius; for there is as much differnicest perfections in writing. We may be sure ence in apprehending a thought clothed in Ci. this metaphor would not have been so general cero's language, and that of a common author, in all tongues, had there not been a very great as in seeing an objeet by the light of a taper, conformity between that mental taste, which or by the light of the sun.

2.

It is very difficult to lay down rules for the Our general taste in England is for epigram, acquirement of such a taste as that I am here turns of wit, and forced conceits, which have speaking of. The faculty must in soine degree no manner of influence either for the bettering be barn with us; and it very often happens, or enlarging the mind of him who reads them, that those who have other qualities in perfec- and have been carefully avoided by the greattion are wholly void of this. One of the most est writers, both among the ancients and moeminent matbematicians of the age has assured (derns. I have endeavoured in several of my me, that the greatest pleasure he took in read- speculations, to banish this gothic taste, which ing Virgil was in examining Æneas's voyage has taken possession among us. I entertained by tbe map ; as I question not but mayy a the town for a week together with an essay upmodern compiler of history would be delighted on wit, in which I endeavoured to detect severwith little more in that divine author than the al of those false kinds which have been admirbare matters of fact.

ed in the different ages of the world, and at the But, notwithstanding this faculty must in same time to show wherein the nature of true some measure be born with us, tbere are se- wit consists. I afterwards gave an instance of veral methods for cultivating and improving the great force which lies in a natural simplici. it, and without which it will be very uncertain, ty of thought to affect the mind of the reader, and of little use to the person that possesses it. from such vulgar pieces as have little else beThe most natural method for this purpose is to sides this single qualification to recommend be conversant among the writings of the most them. I have likewise examined the works of polite authors. A man who has any relish for the greatest poet which our nation, or perhaps fine writing, either discovers new beauties, or any other, bas produced, and particularized receives stronger impressions, from the mas- most of those rational and manly beauties terly strokes of a great author every time he which give a value to that divine work. I peruses him ; besides that he naturally wears shall pext Saturday enter upon an essay on bimself into the same manner of speaking and The Pleasures of the Imagination,' which, thinking

though it shall consider the subject at large, Conversation with men of a polite genius is will perhaps suggest to the reader what it another method for improving our natural is that gives a beauty to many passages of taste. It is impossible for a man of the greatest the finest writers both in prose and verse. As parts to consider any thing in its whole extent, an undertaking of this nature is entirely new, and in all its variety of lights. Every man be- I question not but it will be received with sides those general observations which are to candour.

0. be made upon an author, forms several reflections that are peculiar to his own manner of thinking; so that conversation will naturally

will naturally No. 410.1 Friday, June 20, 1712. furnish us with hints which we did not attend

Dum foris sunt, nihil videtur mundius, to, and make us enjoy other men's parts and Nec magis compositum quidquam, nec magis elogans. reflections as well as our own. This is the best Quæ, cum amatore suo cum cænant, liguriunt.

Qnæ, cum amatore reason I can give for the observation which

Harum videre ingluviem, sordes, inopiam :

Quàm inhonestae solæ sint domi, atque avidse eibi, several have made, that men of great genius in

Quo pacto ex jure hesterno panem atrum vorent; the same way of writing seldom rise up singly, Norte omnia hæc, salus est adolescentulis. but at certain periods of time appear together,

Ter. Eun. Act. v. Sc. 4. and in a body; as they did at Rome in the

When they are abroad, nothing so clean and nicely reign of Augustus, and in Greece about the dressed ; and when at supper with a gallant, they do but

cratec. L cannot think that Cor-piddle, and pick the choicest bits; but to see thotr nas. neille, Racine, Moliere, Boileau, La Fontaine, tiness and poverty at home, their gluttony, and how they

devour black crusts dipped in yestorday's broth, is a perBruyere, Bossu, or the Daciers, would have

foct antidote against wenching. written so well as they have done, had they not been friends and contemporaries.

Will HONEYCOMB, who disguises his present It is likewise necessary for a man who would decay by visiting the wenches of the town only form to bimself a finished taste of good writ- by way of humour, told us, that the last rainy ing, to be well versed in the works of the best night he, with Sir Roger de Coverley, was dricritics, both ancient and modern. I must con- ven into the Temple cloister, whither had esfess that I could wish there were authors of caped also a lady most exactly dressed from this kind, who, beside the mechanical rules, head to foot. Will made no scruple to acquaint which a man of very little taste may discourse us, that she saluted him very familiarly by his upon, would enter into the very spirit and soul name, and turning immediately to the knight, of fine writing, and show us the several sources she said, she supposed that was his good friend of that pleasure which rises in the mind upon Sir Roger de Coverly: upon which nothing less the perusal of a noble work. Thus, although could follow than Sir Roger's approach to saluin poetry it be absolutely necessary that the tation, with 'Madam, the same, at your serunities of time, place, and action, with other vice.' She was dressed in a black tabby manpoints of the same nature, should be tho- tua and petticoat, without ribands; her linen roughly explained and understood, there is striped muslin, and in the whole an agreeable still something niore essential to the art, some- second mourning ; decent dresses being often thing that elevates and astonishes the fancy, affected by the creatures of the town, at once and gives a greatness of mind to the reader, consulting cheapness and the pretension to which few of the critics besides Longinus have modesty. She went on with a familiar easy considered.

air, 'Your friend, Mr. Honeycomb, is a little surprised to see a woman here alone and un Who with cured charms lures the onwary in,

And sooths with flattery their souls to sin. attended; but I dismissed my coach at the

"Once from my window, as I cast mine oye gate, and tripped it down to my counsel's

On those that passed in giddy numbers by, chambers; for lawyers' fees take up too much A youth among the foolish youths I spy'd, of a small disputed jointure to admit any other

Who took not sacred wisdom for his guide.

“Just as the sun withdrew his cooler light expenses but mere necessaries.' Mr. Honey

And evening soft led on the shades of night, comb begged they might have the honour of He stole in covert twilight to his fate, setting her down, for Sir Roger's servant was And pass'd the corner near the harlot's gate; gone to call a coach. In the interim the foot.

When lo, a woman comes !

Loose her attire, and such ber glaring dress, man returned with 'no coach to be had ;' and

As aptly did the harlot's mind express: there appeared nothing to be done but trusting | Subtle she is, and practis'd in the arts berself with Mr. Honeycomb and his friend, to By which the wanton conquer heedless hearts:

Stubborn and loud she is; she hates her home, wait at the tavern at the gate for a coach, or

Varying her place and forta, she loves to roam: to be subjected to all the impertinence she

Now she's within, now in the street doth stray. must meet with in that public place. Mr. Ho Now at each corner stands, and waits her prey. neycomb being a man of honour, determined The youth she seiz'd; and laying now aside

All modesty, the female's justest pride, the choice of the first, and Sir Roger, as the

She said with an embrace, . Here at my house better man, took the lady by the band, lead

Ponce-offerings are, this day I paid my vows. ing her through all the shower, covering her I therefore came abroad to meet my dear, with his hat, and gallanting a familiar ac

And lo, in happy hour, I find thee here.

My chamber I've adorn'd and o'er my bed quaintance through rows of young fellowg.

Are coverings of the richest tap'stry spread, who winked at Sukey in the state she march

With linen it is deck'd from Egypt brought, ed off, Will Honeycomb bringing up the And carvings by the curious artist wrought : rcar.

It wants no glad perfume Arabia yields

In all ber citron groves, and spicy fields; Much importunity prevailed upon the fair

Here all her store of highest odour meets, one to admit of a collation, where, after de I'll lay thee in a wilderness of sweets; claring sbe had no stomach, and having eaten Whatever to the sense can grateful be

I have collected there want hut thee. a couple of chickens, devoured a truss of sal.

My husband's gone a journey far away, let, and drank a full bottle for her share, she

Much gold he took abroad, and long will stay: sung the Old Man's Wish to Sir Roger. He nam'd for his return a distant day.' The knight left the room for some time after

"Upon her tongue did such smooth mischief dwell,

And from her lips such welcome flatt'ry fell supper, and writ the following billet, which

Th'unguarded youth, in silken fettersty'd, he conveyed to Sukey, and Sukey to her friend

Resign'd his reason, and with ease comply'd. Will Honeycomb. Will has given it to Sir Thus does the ox to his own slaughter go, Andrew Freeport, who read it last night to the

And thus is senseless of the impending blow,

Thus flics the simple bird into the snare, club.

That skilful fowlers for his life prepare.

But let my sons attend. Attend may they I am not so mere a country gentleman, Whom youthful vigour may to sin betray; but I can guess at the law business you had Let them false charmers fly, and guard their hearts at the Temple. If you would go down to

Against the wily wanton's pleasing arts;

With care direct their steps, tor turn astray the country, and leave off all your vanities

To tread the paths of her deceitful way; but your singing, let me know at my lodg Lest they too late of her fell pow'r complain, ings in Bow-street, Covent-garden, and you

And fall, where many mightier have been slain." T. shall be encouraged by • Your humble servant,

No. 411.] Saturday, June 21, 1712.
ROGER DE COVERLEY.'

PAPER. I. My good friend could not well stand the ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION. railery which was rising upon him; but to put a stop to it, I delivered Will Honeycomb the Contents-The perfection of our sight above our other

senses. The pleasures of the imagination arise originalfollowing letter, and desired him to read it to

ly from sight. The pleasures of the imagination divided the board.

urder two heads. The pleasures of the imagination in

some respects equal to those of the understanding. The MR. SPECTATOR,

extent of the pleasures of the imagination. The advanHaving seen a translation of one of the

tagos a man receives from a relish of these pleasures,

In what respect they are preferable to those of the unchapters in the Canticles' into English verse

derstanding. inserted among your late papers, I have ventured to send you the seventh chapter of the

Avia Pieridum peragro loca nullius ante

Trita solo: juvat integros accedere fonteis, Proverbs in a poetical dress. If you think it

Atque haurire

Lucr. Lib. ;. 925 worthy appearing among your speculations, it

In wild unclear'd, to Muses a retreat, will be a sufficient reward for the trouble of

O'er ground untrod before I devious room,
Your constant reader,

And, deep-enamour'd, into latent springs

"A B. Presume to peep at coy virgin Naiads. « My son, th' instruction that my words impart,

Our sight is the most perfect and most de Grave on the living tablet of thy heart;

lightful of all our senses. It fills the mind And all the wholesome precepts that I give,

with the largest variety of ideas, converses Observe with strictest reverence and live.

with its objects at the greatest distance, and * Let all thy homage be to Wisdom paid, Seek for protection, and implore her aid;

continues the longest in action without being That she may keep thy soul from harm secure, tired or satiated with its proper enjoyments. Ao turn thy footst us from tho harlot's door. The sense of feeling can indeed give us a no

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