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than fool, and I grew very inquisitive upon this men, bottle companions, his fraternity of fops, head, not a little pleased with the novelty. I shall be brought into the conspiracy against My friend told me, there were a certain set of him. Then this matter is not laid in so barcwomen of fashion, whereof the pumber of six faced a manner before him as to have it in. made a committee, who sat thrice a week, under timated, Mrs. Such-a-one would make him a the title of “The Inquisition on Maids and very proper wife; but, by the force of their Bachelors." It seems, whenever there comes correspondence, they shall make it (as Mr. such an unthinking gay thing as myself to town, Waller said of the marriage of the dwarfs) as he must want all manner of necessaries, or be impracticable to have any woman besides her put into the inquisition by the first tradesman they design him, as it would have been in he employs. They have constant intelligence Adam to have refused Eve. The man namwith cane-shops, perfumers, toymen, coach-ed by the commission for Mrs. Such-a-one makers, and china-houses. From these several shall neither be in fashion, nor dare ever applaces these undertakers for marriages have as pear in company, should he attempt to evade constant and regular correspondence as the fu- their determination. ' neral-men have with vintners and apothecaries. The female sex wholly govern domestic life; All bachelors are under their immediate in and by this means when they think fit, they spection : and my friend produced to me a re- can sow dissentions between the dearest friends, port given in to their board. wherein an old nay, make father and son irreconcilable eneuncle of mine. who came to town with me, and mies, in spite of all the ties of gratitude on myself were inserted, and we stood thus : the one part, and the duty of protection to be paid uncle smoky, rotten, poor; the nephew raw, on the other. The ladies of the inquisition but no fool; sound at present, very rich. My understand this perfectly well; and where love information did not end bere ; but my friend's is not a motive to a man's choosing one whom advices are so good, that he could show me a they allot, they can with very much art insi. copy of the letter sent to the young lady who nuate stories to the disadvantage of his honesty is to have me; which I enclose to you: or courage, until the creature is too much dis
I pirited to bear up against a general ill recep“MADAM,
tion, which he every where meets with, and in “This is to let you know, that you are to be due time falls into their appointed wedlock married to a beau that comes out on Thurs- for shelter. I have a long letter bearing date day, six in the evening. Be at the Park. You the fourth instant, which gives me a large accannot but know a virgin for ; they have a count of the politics of this court ; and find mind to look saucy, but are out of counte- there is now before them a very refractory nance. The board has denied him to several person who has escaped all their machinations good families. I wish you joy,
for two years last past; but they have preti CORINNA." vented two successive matches which were of
his own inclination ; the one by a report that What makes my correspondent's case the his mistress was to be married, and the very more deplorable is, that, as I find by the re-day appointed, wedding-clothes bought, and port from my censor of marriages, the friend all things ready for her being given to anhe speaks of is employed by the inquisition to other ; the second time by insinuating to all take him in, as the phrase is. After all that his mistress's friends and acquaintance, that is told him, he has information only of one wo- he had been false to several other women, and man that is laid for him, and that the wrong the like. The poor man is now reduced to one; for the lady commissioners have devoted profess he designs to lead a single life ; but him to another than the person against whom the inquisition give out to all his acquaintance, they have employed their agent his friend to that nothing is intended but the gentleman's alarm him. The plot is laid so well about this own welfare and happiness. When this is young gentleman, that he has no friend to re- urged, he talks still more humbly, and protests tire to, no place to appear in, or part of the be aims only at a life without pain or reproach; kingdom to fly into, but he must fall into the pleasure, honour, and riches, are things for notice, and be subject to the power of the in- which he has no taste. But notwithstanding quisition. They have their emissaries and sub-all this, and what else he may defend himself stitutes in all parts of this united kingdom. with, as that the lady is too old or too young, The first step they usually take, is to find from of a suitable humour, or the quite contrary, a correspondence, by their messengers and and that it is impossible they can ever do other whisperers, with some domestic of the bache-than wrangle from June to January, every bolor (who is to be hunted into the toils they dy tells him all this is spleen, and he must have have laid for him), what are his manners, his a wife; while all the members of the inquisi. familiarities, his good qualities, or vices; not tion are unanimous in a certain woman for as the good in him is a recommendation, or him, and they think they altogether are better the ill a diminution, but as they affect to con- able to judge than he, or any other private tribute to the main inquiry, what estate he person whatsoever. has in him. When this point is well reported to the board, they can take in a wild roaring 'sir, Temple, March 3, 1711. fox-hunter, as easily as a soft, gentle young • Your speculations this day on the subject rop of the town. The way is to make all places of idleness has employed me, ever since I read upeasy to him, but the scenes in which they it, in sorrowful reflections on my having loitered have allotted him to act. Ais brother hunts-away the term (or rather the vacation) of ten
years in this place, and unhappily suffered a cal learning differ among one another, as to good chamber and study to lie idle as long. some particular points in an epic poem, I have My books (except those I have taken to sleep not bound myself scrupulously to the rules upon) have been totally neglected, and my which any one of them has laid down upon Lord Coke and other venerable authors were that art but have taken the liberty sometimes never so slighted in their lives. I spend most to join with one, and sometimes with another, of the day at a neighbouring coffee-house, and sometimes to differ from all of them, when where we have what I may call a lazy club. I have thought that the reason of the thing was We generally come in night-gowns, with our on my side. stockings about our heels, and sometimes but We may conclude the beauties of the fourtbe one on. Our salutation at entrance is a yawn book under three heads. In the first are those and a stretch, and then without more ceremony pictures of still-life, which we meet with in the we take our place at the lolling-table, where description of Eden, Paradise, Adam's bowour discourse is, what I fear you would not er, &c. In the next are the machines, which read out, therefore shall not insert. But I as- comprehend the speeches and behaviour of the sure you, sir, 1 beartily lament this loss of good and bad angels. In the last is the contime, and am now resolved, (if possible, with duct of Adam and Eve, who are the principal double diligence) to retrieve it, being effectu- actors in the poem. ally awakened, by the arguments of Mr. Slack, lo .the description of Paradise, the poet has out of the senseless stupidity that has so long observed Aristotle's rule of lavishing all the possessed me. And to demonstrate that peni-ornaments of diction on the weak unactive tence accompanies my confessions and con- parts of the fable, which are not supported by stancy my resolutions, I have locked my door the beauty of sentiments and characters. Acfor a year, and desire you would let my com cordingly the reader may observe, that the ex. panions know I am not within. I am with pressions are more florid and elaborate in these great respect,
descriptions, than in most other parts of the Sir,
poem. I must further add, that though the Your most obedient servant, drawings of gardens, rivers, rainbows. and the T.
N. B.' like dead pieces of nature, are justly censured
in an heroic poem, when they run out into an
unnecessary length-the description of ParaNo 321.] Saturday, March 8, 1711-12.
dise would have been faulty, had not the poet Nec satis est pulchra esse poemata, dulcia sunto. been very particular in it, not only as it is the
Hor. Árs Poct. ver. 99. scene of the principal action, but as it is re"Tis not enough a poem's finely writ;
quisite to give us an idea of that happiness It must affect and captivate the soul. Roscommon
| from which our first parents fell. The plan of
it is wonderfully beautiful, and formed upon TAOSE who know how many volumes have the short sketch which we have of it in holy been written on the poems of Homer and Virgil writ. Milton's exuberance of imagination has will easily pardon the length of my discourse poured forth such a redundancy of ornaments upon Milton. The Paradise Lost is looked on this seat of happiness and innocence, that upon, by the best judges, as the greatest pro- it would be endless to point out each pai'. duction, or at least the noblest work of genius, ticular. in our language, and therefore deserves to be I must not quit this head without further set before an English reader in its full beauty. observing, that there is scarce a speech of AdFor this reason, though I have endeavoured to am or Eve in the whole poem, wherein the sen. give a general idea of its graces and imper-timents and allusions are not taken from this fections in my first six papers, I thought my- their delightful habitation. The reader, durself obliged to bestow one upon every book in ing their whole course of action, always finds particular. The first three books I have al- himself in the walks of Paradise. In short, as ready despatched, and am now entering upon the critics have remarked, that in those poems the fourth. I need not acquaint my reader wherein shepherds are the actors, the thoughts that there are multitudes of beauties in this ought always to take a tincture from the woods, great author, especially in the descsiptive parts fields, and rivers; so we may observe, that our of this poem, which I have not touched upon ; first parents seldom lose sight of their happy it being my intention to point out those only station in any thing they speak or do ; and, if which appear to me the most exquisite, or the reader will give me leave to use the exthose which are not so obvious to ordinary pression, that their thoughts are always 'pareaders. Every one that has read the critics radisaical.' who have written upon the Odyssey, the Iliad, We are in the next place to consider the and the Æneid, knows very well, that though machines of the fourth book. Satan being they agree in their opinions of the great beau- now within prospect of Eden, and looking ties in those poems, they have nevertheless rouud upon the glories of the creation, is filled each of them discovered several master-strokes, I with sentiments different from those which he which have escaped the observation of the rest. discovered whilst he was in hell. The place In the same manner, I question not but any inspires him with thoughts more adapted to it. writer, who shall treat of this subject after me He reflects upon the happy condition from may find several beauties in Milton, which I whence he fell, and breaks forth into a speech have not taken notice of. I must likewise ob- that is softened with several transient touches serye, that as the greatest masters of criti- of remorse and self accusation : but at length
be confirms himself in impenitence, and in his! The conference between Gabriel and Satan design of drawing man into his own state of abounds with sentiments proper for the occaguilt and misery. This conflict of passions sion, and suitable to the persons of the two is raised with a great deal of art, as the open-speakers. Satan clothing himself with terror ing of his speech to the sun is very bold and when he prepares for the combat is truly subnoble :
lime, and at least equal to Homer's description
of Discord, celebrated by Longinus, or to that O thou that with surpassing glory crown'd,
of Fame iu Virgil, who are both represented Look'st from thy solo dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars with their feet standing upon the earth, and Hide their diminish'd heads; to thee I call, their heads reaching above the clouds : But with no friendly voice; and add thy name, O Sun! to tell thee how I hate thy beams.
• While thus he spake, th' angelic squadron bright That bring to my remembrance from what state
Turn'd fiery red, sharp'ning in mooned horns I fell, bow glorious once above thy sphere.'
Their phalanx, and began to hem him round
With ported spears, &c. This speech is, I think, the finest that is as
On th' other side Satan alarm'd,
Collecting all his might, dilated stood cribed to Satan in the whole poem. The evil
Like Teneriff, or Atlas, unremored: spirit afterwards proceeds to make his disco
His stature reach'd the sky, and on his crest veries concerning our first parents, and to Sat Horror plum'd. learu after what inanner they may be best at I must here take notice, that Milton is tacked. His bounding over the walls of Para every where full of hints, and sometimes litedise : his sitting in the shape of a cormorantral translations. taken from the greatest of upon the tree of life, which stood in the centerlih
ter the Greek and Latin poets. But this I may of it, and overtopped all the other trees of the reserve for a discourse by itself, because I garden; his alighting among the herd of ani
would not break the hread of th
se speculamals, which are so beautifully represented as:
stions, that are designed for English readers, playing about Adam and Eve; together with with such reflections as would be of no use but his transforming himself into different shapes, to the learned in order to hear their conversation ; are cir- I must, however, observe in this place, that cumstances that give an agreeable surprise tol..
able surprise to the breaking off the combat between Gabriel the reader, and are devised with great art, toland Satan, by the hanging out of the golden connect that series of adventures in which the
nescales in heaven, is a refinement upon Hopoet has engaged this artificer of fraud.
mer's thought, who tells us, that before the The thought of Satan's transformation intom
into battle between Hector and Achilles, Jupiter a cormorant, and placing himself on the tree
tree weighed the event of it in a pair of scales. of life, seems raised upon that passage in the
| The reader may see the wbole passage in the Iliad, where two deities are described as perch-100
mbed as perch-22d Iliad. ing on the top of an oak in the shape of vul
Virgil, before the last decisive combat detures.
scribes Jupiter in the same manner, as weighHis planting himself at the ear of Eve underling the faies of Turnus and Æncas. Milton. the form of a toad, in order to produce vain though he fetched this beautful circumstance dreams and imaginations, is a circumstance ofl from the Jliad and Æneid, does not only inthe same nature; as bis starting up in his own sert it as a poetical embellishment, like the auform is wonderfully fine, both in the literallthor's above-mentioned, but makes an artful description, and in the moral which is con- use of it for the proper carrying on of his facealed under it. His answer upon his being ble, and for the breaking off the combat bediscovered, and demanded to give an account Itween the two warriors. who were upon theof himself, is conformable to the pride and point of engaging. To this we may further intrepidity of bis character :
add, that Milton is the more justified in this «Know ye not then,' said Satan, fill'd with scorn, passage, as we find the same noble allegory . Know ye not me! Ye knew me once no mate in holy writ, where a wicked prince, some For you, there sitting where you durst not soar: few hours before he was assaulted and slain. Not to know me arguas yourselves unknown,
is said to have been 'weighed in the scales, The lowest of your throng
and to have been found wanting.' Zephon's rebuke, with the influence it bad I must here take notice, under the head of on Satan), is exquisitely grateful and moral. I the machines, that Uriel's gliding down to the Satan is afterwards led away to Gabriel, the earth upon a sun-beam, with the poet's device chief of the guardian angels, who kept watch to make him descend, as well in his return to in Paradise. His disdainful behaviour on this the sun as in his coming from it, is a prettiness occasion is so remarkable a beauty, that the that might have been adinired in a little fancimost ordinary reader cannot but take notice | ful poet, but seems below the genius of Milton. of it. Gabriel's discovering his approach at a The description of the host of armed angels distance is drawn with great strength and walking their nightly round in Paradise is of liveliness of imagination:
another spirit: • friends, I hear the troad of nimhde feet
So saying, on he led his radiant files,
Dazzling the tnoon ;
as that account of the hymns which our first
parents used to hear them sing in these their Not likely to part hepce without contest;
midnight walks is altogether divine, and in Stand firm, for in his look defiance low'rs.'
expressibly amusing to the imagination
We are in the last place, to consider the reeiving them without departing from the parts which Adam and Eve act in the fourth modesty of her character: in a word, to adbook. The description of them, as they first just the prerogatives of wisdom and beauty, appeared to Satan, is exquisitely drawn, and and make each appear to the other in its prosufficient to make the fallen angel gaze upon per force and loveliness. This mutual suborthem with all that astonishment, and those dination of the two sexes is wonderfully kept emotions of envy, in which he is represented : up in the whole poem, as particularly in the
speech of Eve I have before mentioned, and Two of far nobler shape, erect and tall, God-like erect, with native bonour clad
upon the conclusion of it in the following In naked majesty, seem'd lords of all;
lines: And worthy seem'd, for in their looks divine The image of their glorious Maker shone,
So spake our general mother, and with eyes Truth, wisdom, sanctitude severe and pure;
Of conjugal attraction unreprov'd, Severe, but in true fihal freedom plac'd :
And meek surrender, half embracing lean'd For contemplation he and valour formid,
On our first father; half her swelling breast For softness she and sweet attractive grace;
Naked met his under the flowing gold He for God only, she for God in him.
Of her loose tresses hid; he in delight His fair largo front, and eye sublime declar'd
Both of her beauty and submissive charms Absolute rule; and hyacinthine locks
Smild with superior love.Round from his parted forelock manly hung Clust'ring, but not beneath his shoulders broad. The poet adds, that the devil turned away She, as a veil, down to her slender waist
with envy at the sight of so much happiHer onadorned golden tresses wore
ness. Dishevell’d, but in wanton ringlets wav'd. So pass'd they naked on, nor shun'd the sight
| We have another view of our first parents of God or angel, for they thought no ill:
in their evening discourses, which is full of So hand in hand they pass'd, the loveliest pair
pleasing images and sentiments suitable to their That ever since in love's embraces met.
condition and characters. The speech of Eve There is a fine spirit of poetry in the lines
in particular, is dressed up in such a soft and which follow, wherein they are described as natural turn of words and sentiments, as cansitting on a bed of flowers by the side of a not be sufficiently admired. fountain, amidst a mixed assembly of ani. I shall close my reflections upon this book mals.
with observing the masterly transition which The speeches of these two first lovers flow the poet makes to their evening worship in the equally from passion and sincerity. The pro following lines: sessions they make to one another are full of Thus at their shady lodge arriv'd, both stood, warmth; but at the same time founded on Both turn'd, and under open sky ador'd truth. In a word they are the gallantries of
The God that made both sky, air, earth, and hear'u,
Which they beheld, the moon's resplendent globe, Paradise :
And starry pole: “ Thou also mad'st the night, When Adam first of men
Maker omnipotent, and thou the day," &c. " Sole partner and sole part of all these joys, Dearer thyself than all:
Most of the modern heroic poets have imi. But let us ever praise Him, and extol
| tated the ancieuts, in beginning a speech withHis bounty, following our delightful task,
out premising that the person said thus or thus ; To prunethese growing plants, and tend these flow'rs:lm Which were it toilsome, yet with thee were sweet."
but as it is easy to imitate the ancients in the To whom thus Eve reply'd. “O thou, for whom
Tomission of two or three words, it requires judg. And from whom I was forma, flesh of thy flesh, meni to do it in such a manner as they shall And without whom am to no end, my guide not be missed, and that the speech may begin And head, what thou hast said is just and right. For we to him indeed all praises owe
naturally without them. There is a fine inAnd daily thanks; I chiefly, who enjoy
stance of this kind out of Homer, in the twen. So far the happier lot, enjoying thee
ty-third chapter of Longinus. Pre-eminent by so much odds, while thou Like consort to thyself canst no where find," &c.
No. 322.] Monday, March 10, 1711-12. The remaining part of Eve's speech, in
- Ad humum morore gravi deducit et angit. which she gives an account of herself upon her
Hor. Ars Poet. v. 110. first creation, and the manner in which she was brought to Adam, is, I think, as beautiful a
-Grief wrings her soul, and bends it down to earth'
Francis. passage as any in Milton, or perhaps in any other poet whatsoever. These passages are It is often said, after a man has heard a story all worked off with so much art, that they are with extraordinary circumstances, it is a very capable of pleasing the most delicate reader, good one, if it be true:' but as for the following without offending the most severe.
relation, I should be glad were I sure it were • That day I oft remember, when from sleep,' &c.
false. It is told with such simplicity, and there
Jare so many artless touches of distress in it, A poet of less judgment and invention than that I fear it comes too much from the heart. this great author, would have found it very difficult to have filled these tender parts of the 'ME, SPECTATOR, poem with sentiments proper for a state of in- "Some years ago it happened that I lived in nocence; to have described the warmth of the same house with a young gentleman of love, and the professions of it, without artifice merit, with whose good qualities I was so much or hyperbole; to have made the man speak taken, as to make it my endeavour to show as the most endearing things without descend- many as I was able in myself. Familiar coning from his natural dignity, and the woman verse improved general civilities into an unfeigned passion on both sides. He watched an and, with the nauseous familiarity of such un. opportunity to declare himself to me; and I, bred brutes snatcbed the papers out of my who could not expect a man of so great an es- band. I was immediately under so great a contate as his, received his addresses in such terms, cern, that I threw myself at his feet, and begged as gave him no reason to belive I was displea- of him to return them. He, with the same sed with them, though I did nothing to make odious pretence to freedom and gaiety, swore bim think me more easy than was decent. he would read them. I grew more importunate, His father was a very hard worldly man, and he more curious, till at last, with an indignation proud; so that there was no reason to believe arising from a passion I then first discovered in he would easily be brought to think there was him he threw the papers into the fire, swearing any thing in any woman's person, or character, that since he was not to read them, the man that could balance the disadvantage of an un- who writ them should never be so happy as to equal fortune. In the mean time the son conti- have me read them over again. It is insignifipued bis application to me, and omitted no oc- cant to tell you my tears and reproaches made casion of demonstrating the most disinterested the boisterous calf leave the room ashamed and passion imaginable to me; and in plain direct out of countenance, when I had leisure to ruterms offered to marry me privately, and keep minate on this accident with more than ordiit so till he should be so happy as to gain his nary sorrow. However, such was then my confather's aprobation, or become possessed of his fidence in my husband, that I writ to him the estate. I passionately loved him, and you will misfortune, and desired another paper of the believe I did not deuy such a one what was my same kind. He deferred writing two or three interest also to grant. However, I was not so posts, and at last answered me in general, that Foungas not to take the precaution of carrying he could not then send me what I asked for ; with me a faithful servant, who had been also but when he could find a proper conveyance, I my mother's maid, to be present at the cere- should be sure to have it. From this time his mopy. When that was over, I demanded a letters were more cold every day than other, certificate to be signed by the minister, my and, as he grew indifferent I grew jealous. busband, and the servant l. just now spoke of. This has at last brought me to town, where I After vur quptials, we conversed together very find both the witnesses of my marriage dead, familiarly in the same house; but the restraints and that my husband, after three month's cowe were generally under, and the interviews we habitation, has buried a young lady whom he had being stolen and interrupted, made our be- married in obedience to his father. In a word haviour to each other have rather the impatient he shuns and disowns me. Should I come to fonddess wbich is visible in lovers, than the re- the house and confront him, the father would gular and gratified affection which is to be ob- join in supporting him against me, though he served in man and wife. This observation made belived my Story; should I talk it to the world, the father very anxious for his son, and press what reparation can I expect for an injury I him to a match he bad in his eye for him. To cannot make out? I believe he means to bring relieve my husband from this importunity, and me through necessity, to resign my pretensions conceal the secret of our marriage, which I to him for some provision for my life: but I had reason to know would not be long in my will die first. Pray bid him remember what he power in town, it was resolved that I should said, and how he was charmed when he laughed retire into a remote place in the country, and at the heedless discovery I often made of my. converse under feigned names by letter. We self; let him remember how awkward I was in long continued this way of commerce ; and I my dissembled indifference towards him before with my needle, a few books, and reading over company ; ask him how I, who could never and over my husband's letters, passed my time conceal my love for him, at his own request oan in a resigned expectation of better days. Be part with him for ever ? Oh, Mr. Spectator, pleased to take notice, that within four months sensible spirits know no indifference in mar. after I left my husband I was delivered of a riage : what then do you think is my piercing daughter, who died within a few hours after her affliction I leave you to represent my disbirths. This accident, and the retired manner tress your own way, in which I desire you to be of lite I led, gave criminal hopes to a neigh-speedy, if you have compassion for innocenco bouring brute of a country gentleman, whose exposed to infamy. folly was the source of all my affliction. This T.
"OCTAVIA.' rustic is one of those rich clowns who supply the want of all manner of breeding by the neglect of it, and with noisy mirth, haif under-1 No. 323.] Tuesday, March 11, 1711-12. standing and ample fortune, force themselves
- Modò vir, modò fæmina.
Virg. upoa persons and things, without any sense of time or place. The poor ignorant people where
Sometimes a man, sometimes a woman I lay concealed, and now passed for a widow, The journal with which I presented my wonderd I could be so shy and strange, as they reader on Tuesday last has brought me in secalled it, to the 'quire; and were bribed by him veral letters, with accounts of many private to admit him whenever he thought fit: i hap- lives cast into that form. I have the Rake's pened to be sitting in a little parlour which be- Journal,' the 'Scot's Journal,' the · Whorelonged to my owo part of the house, and mu- master's Journal,' and, among several others. sing over one of the fondest of my husband's a very curious piece, entitled, “The Journal of letters, in which I always kept the certificate a Mohock.' By these instances, I find that the of my marriage, when this rude fellow came in intention of my last Tuesday's paper has been