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dread of it is peculiar to man,” or perhaps, that we are in. confiftent with ourselves when we so much dread that which we carelesly inflict on other creatures, that feel the pain as acutely as we.

JOHN. P. 281. 1. 10. follies dctb emmew.] Forces follies to lie in cover without daring to show themselves. John. Ibid.) And follies dotb emmcw

As faulcon doth the fowl.] Qu. faulconer. GRAY. L. 12. His filth within being caft. ] To cast a pond, is to empty it of mud. Mr. Upton reads,

His pond within being cast he would appear
A filth as deep as hell.

JOHN. L. 14. The princely Angelo -princely guards.] The stupid Editors mistaking guards for satellites, (whereas it here lignifies' lace) altered priefly, in both places, to princely. Whereas Shakespear wrote it priestly, as appears from the , words themselves,

'tis the cunning livery of hell, The damned'st body to invest and cover

With priestly guards.In the first place we see that guards here signifies lace, as referring to livery, and as having no sense in the signification of satellites. Now priestly guards means fanétity, which is the sense required. * But princely guards means nothing but rich lace, which is a sense the passage will not bear. Angelo, indeed, as Deputy, might be called the princely Angelo: but not in this place, where the immediately preceding words of, “ This outward-fainted Deputy, demand the reading I have here restored.

WARB. Ibid.] The first Folio has, in both places, prenzie, from which the other folios made princely, and every editor may make what he can.

Jonn.
L. 21.] For this rank offence, Hanmer. In other edit. from.

JOHN.
P. 282. 1. 1. Wben be would force it.] Put it in force.

L. 4. If it were damnable, &c. ] Shakespear fhews his knowledge of human nature in the conduet of Claudio. When Isabella first tells him of Angelo's proposal he an. swers with honest indignation, agreeably to his settled prin

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ciples, “ thou shalt not do't.” But the love of life being permitted to operate, foon furnishes him with sophistical arguments, he believes it cannot be very dangerous to the soul, fince Angelo, who is so wise, will venture it. John.

L. 13. delighted Spirit.] i. e, the spirit accustomed here to ease and delights. This was properly urged as an aggravation to the sharpness of the torments spoken of. The Oxford Editor not apprehending this, alters it to dilated. As if, because the spirit in the body is said to be imprisoned, it was crowded togetber likewise ; and fo, by death, not only set free, but expanded too; which, if true, would make it the less sensible of pain.

WARB. Ibid.] This reading may perhaps stand, but many attempts have been made to correćt it. The most plausible is that which substitutes the benighted Spirit, alluding to the darkness always fuppofed in the place of future punishment.

Perhaps we may read, with Mr. Upton, the delinquent Spirit, a word easily changed to delighted by a bad copier, or unskilful reader.

• John. Ibid.] Delighted Spirit is extremely beautiful, as it carries on the fine Antithesis between the joys of Life and the horrors of Death. Mr. Upton's change to delinquent, loses the whole spirit of the Poet's original sentiment." SEWARD.*

L. 19. - lawless and uncertain thoughts.] Conjecture sent out to wander without any certain direction, and ranging through all possibilities of pain.

L. 21. The wearieft, &c.] See the infamous with of Mecenas, recorded by Seneca, vor Ep.

Debilem facito manu,
Debilem pede, coxa, &c.

Vita dum supereft, bene eft, &c. War B.* · P. 283. I. 1. It's not a kind of Inceft.-) In Isabella's declamation there is something forced and far-fetched. But her indign tion cannot be thought violent when we consider her not only as a virgin but as a nun.

JOHN.. L. 12. but a trade.] A custom; a practice; an established habit. So we say of a man much addicted to any thing, be makes a trade of it.

JOHN. P. 284. 1. 1. Do not satisfie your resolution with hopes that are fallible.] A condemned man, whoin his confeffor had

JOHNS.

brought to bear death with decency and resolution, began anew to entertain hopes of life. This occasioned the advice in the words above. But how did these hopes satisfie his refolution ? or what harm was thére, if they did : We must ceriainly read, Do not falfifie jour rifoution with kop's that are fallible. And then it i ecomes a reatonable admonition. For hopes of life, by drawing him back into the world, would naturaliy elud or weaken the virtue of that resolution, which was raised only on motives of religion. And this his confeffor had reason to warn hi'n of. The term falfifie is taken from fencing, and signifies the pretending to aim a stroke in order to draw the adversary off his guard. So Fairfax. Now strikes he out, and now he falsifieth.

WARB. & CAPELL, L. 6. Hold you there.] Continue in that resolution. John.

P. 286. 1. 10. Only refer yourself to tkis, advantage.] 1 his is scarcely to be reconciled with any established mode of speech. We may read, only reserve yourself to, or only reserve to yourself this advantage.

John. Ľ. 18. -- the corrupt Deputy scaled.] To scale the Deputy, may be, to reach him notwithitanding the elevation of his place; or it may be, “ to strip him and discover his nakedness, though armed and concealed by the investments of authority.

Јону. P. 287. 1. 3. - bastard.] A kind of sweet wine then much in vogue. From the Italian, Bastardo. WARB.

L. 5. fince of two ufuries, &c.] Here a satire on usury turns abruptly to a satire on the person of the usurer, without any kind of preparation. We may be assured then, that a line or two, at least, have been lost. The subject of which we may easily discover, a comparison between the two usurers; as, before, between the two ufuries. So that for the future the passage should be read with the asterisks thus by order of lawu. *** a furr'd gown, æc.

WARB. Ibid.] Sir Thomas Hanmer corrected this with less pomp, thus “ since of two Ufurers the merrieft was put down, and the worfer allowed, by order of law, a furr'd gown, &c. His punctuaiion is right, but the alteration, fmall as it is, appears more than was wanted. Usury may be used by an easy licence for the Professors of Usury.

JOHNS.

L 11.- father.] This word should be expunged. John,

L. 23. The old editions have, I drink, I eat away myself, and live.] 'I his. is one very excellent Instance of the Saga. city of our Editors, and it were to be wished heartily, they would have obliged us with their physical Solution, how a Man can eat away himself and live, Mr. Bishop gave me that most certain Emendation, which I have su itituted in the Room of the former foolish reading; by the help where. of, we have this ealy tense; th it the Clown fed himself, and put cloaths on his Back, by exercising the vile Trade of a Bawd

THEOB. P. 288. 1. 8. That we were all, as some would seem to be

Free from all faults, as faults from seeming free !] i. e, as faults are deftitute of all comliness or seeming. The first of these lines refers to the Deputy's fanctified hypocrisy; the second, to the Clown's beastly occupation. But the latter part is thus ill expressed for the sake of the rhime.

WARB.

Sir T. Hanmer reads,

Free from all faults, as from fa Its seeming free. The interpretation of Dr. Warburton is deftitute of authority; though seemly is decent or comely, I know not that seeming is ever used for comeliness. The sense is likewise trifling, and the expression harsh. To wish “ that men were as free from faults, as faults are free from comeliness [instead of void of comeliness7” is a very poor conceit. I once thought it should be read,

O that all were, as all would seem to be,

Free from all faults, or from falfe seeming free.
So in this play,

O place, O power how dost thou
Wrench awe from fools and tie the wiser souls

To thy false seeming.
But I now believe that a less alteration will serve the turn.

Free from all faults, or faults from seeming free; ~ that men were really good, or that their faults were known," that men were free from faults, or faults from kypocrljy. So Isabella calls Angelo's hypocrisy, seeming,

JOHNS, Ibid.] The meaning seems to be this; “ Would we all

feeming

were as faultless in reality, as (some men would seem to be) from their outward appearance."

ANON.* L. 10. His neck will come to your waist, a cord, Sir.] That is, his neck will be tied like your waist with a rope. The Friars of the franciscan order, perhaps of others, wear a hempen cord for a girdle. Thus Buchanan,

- Fac gemant fuis Variata terga funibus.

John. L. 15. Pigmalion's images, newly made woman.] i. e. come out cured from a salivation.

WARB. Ibid.] I suppose the meaning of this very affected cant is, Are there no fresh women, no maidenheads, to be had now? For Pigmalion's ftatue newly made woman, was certainly a pure virgin.

REVISAL, * L. 17. = what sayA tbou to this tune, matter and method? is't not' drown'd in the last rain?] This strange nonsense should be thus corrected, “. It's not down i'th' last reign," i. e, these are severities unknown to the old Duke's time, And this is to the purpose.

WARB. Ibid.] Though it may be difficult to explain all that Lucio says in this scene; Mr Warburton has had the luck to make matters harder than he found them.

Lucio says, “ how now, noble Pompey? What at the wheels of Cæsar? &c. What reply? ha? What sayeft thou to this tune, matter, and method ? [i. e. what answer have you to make me ?] Is it [his reply or answer] not drown'd in the last rain ?" A proverbial phrase, to exprefs a thing which is loft.

CANONS. * Ibid.] Dr. Warburton's emendation is ingenious, but I know not whether the sense may not be restored with less change. Let us consider it. Lucio, a prating fop, meets his old friend going to prison, and pours out upon him his impertinent interrogatories, to which, when the poor fellow makes no answer, he adds, What reply? ba? wobat say 'A thou to this ? tune, matter, and metbod,is't not ? drowned i'th' last rain ? ba? what fay A thou, trot » &c.] It is a common phrase used in low raillery of a man crest-fallen and dejected, that he looks like a drown'd puppy. Lucio, therefore, asks him whether he was drowned in the last rain, and therefore cannot speak.

John.

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