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NOTE VII.- ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS is that which is founded on the contrast of one word or clause with another.


1. The faults of others should always remind us of our own.
2. He desired to protect his friend, not to injure him
3. But yesterday, the word of Cæsar might

Have stood against the world; now lies he there,

And none so poor to do him reverence. 4. A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches. 5 We can do nothing against the truth; but for the truth.

6. He that is slow to anger, is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city.





NOTE VIII.—The following examples contain two or more sets of Antitheses.


1. Just men are only free, the rest are slaves. 2. Beauty is like the flower of spring; virtue is like the stars of heaven. 3.

Truth crushed to earth shall rise again,

The eternal years of God are hers;
But error, wounded, writhes in pain,

And dies amid her worshipers. 4. A false balance is abomination to the Lord; but a just weight is his delight.

5. A friend can not be known in prosperity; and an enemy can not be hidden in adversity.

6. It is my living sentiment, and, by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying sentiment ; INDEPENDENCE NOW, and INDEPENDENCE FOREVER.



7. We live in deeds, not years,-in thoughts, not breath,-in feelings, 19t in figures on a dial. We should count time by heart-throbs. He mon lives, who THINKS THE MOST,-FEELS THE NOBLEST,-ACTS THE BEST

8 You have done the mischief, and I bear the blame.

9. The wise man is happy when he gains his own approbation; tho fool, when he gains that of others.

10. We must hold them as we hold the rest of mankind-enemies in war,-in peace, friends.


Note IX.—The sense of a passage is varied by changing the place of the emphasis.


1. Has James seen his brother to-day! No; but Charles has.

2. Has James seen his brother to-day! No; but he has heard from bim.

Has James seen his brother to-day! No; but he saw yours. 4. Has James seen his brother to-day? No: but he has seen his sister.

5. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but he saw him yesterday.

REMARK.—To determine the emphatic words of a sentence, as well as the degree and kind of emphasis to be employed, the reader must be governed wholly by the sentiment to be expressed. The idea is sometimes entertained that emphasis consists merely in loudness of tone. But it should be borne in mind, that the most intense emphasis may often be effectively expressed, even by a whisper.



INFLECTIONS are turns or slides of the voice, made in reading or speaking; as, Will you go to New

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All the various sounds of the human voice may be comprehended under the general appellation of tones. The principal modifications of these tones are the MONOTONE, the Risina INFLECTION, the FallING INFLECTION, and the CIRCUMFLEX.

The Horizontal Line (-) denotes the Monotone.
The Rising Slide ( ) denotes the Rising Inflection.
The Falling Slide (1) denotes the Falling Inflection.
The Curve

denotes the Circumflex.

The MONOTONE is that sameness of sound, which arises from repeating the several words or syllables of a passage in one and the same general tone. !

REMARK.—The Monotone is employed with admirable effect in the delivery of a passage that is solemn or sublime.



1. 0 thõū thāt rõllēst ābove, rõūnd ās thē shield of my fathērs . whēnce āre thỹ bēāms, 0 sūn, thị ēvērlāstīng light ? OSSIAN 2. 'Tis midnight's hõly höūr, ānd sīlēnce now

Is brööding, līke ā gēntlē spirit, o’ēr
Thē still and pūlselēss world. Hārk! on thē winds
Thē bēlls' dēēp tones āre swēlling; 'tīs thē knēli

Of thē dēpārtēd yēār. 3. God came from Tēmān, ānd thē Holy One from Möūnt Pārän Sēlāh. His glory cāvēred thē bēavens, ānd thē ēarth wās full of His prāise.

4. Bēfore Him wēnt thē pēstīlēnce, ānd būrning coals wēnt forth at His fêēt. Hē stood ānd mēasūred thể ēarth: Hē bēhēld, and drove āsūndēr thē nātions; ānd thē ēvērlāsting mõūntains wēre scāttēred, thē pērpētūāl hills dīd bow: Hīs wāys āre ēvērlāsting.

5. Thē hēavens dēclāre thē glory of God, ānd thē firmāmēnt showēth Ilis hāndy work. Dāy unto dāy üttērēth spēēch, and night ūnto night showēth knowlēdge. Thõre is no spēēch nor lānguāge, whēre thēir voice is not hēard. 6.

How briēf is life! how pāssing brief !

How briēf its jāīs ānd cāres !
It sēēms to bē in lēague with time,

And lēaves ūs ūnāwāres.



Thệ thūndēr rõlls: bē hūshed thē prõstrāte world,
Whīle clõūd to clõūd rētūrns thē sālēmn hymn.


REMARK.—The inappropriate use of the monotone,-a fault into which young people naturally fall,—is a very grave and obst' aate error. It is always tedious, and often even ridiculous. It should be studiously avoided.

The RISING INFLECTION is an upward turn, or slide of the voice, used in reading or speaking; as, Are you

lessons ?

prepared to recite your

The FALLING INFLECTION is a downward turn, or slide of the voice, used in reading or speaking; as, What are



In the falling inflection, the voice should not sink below the general pitch; but in the rising inflection, it is raised above it.

The two inflections may be illustrated by the following diagrams:

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8. If the flight of Dryden is Pope continues longer on the If the blaze of Dryden's fire is brighter,

the heat of Pope's is


more regular and

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(8 honor's lofty soul forever fled'?
Is virtue lost'? Is martial ardor dead'?
Is there no heart where worth and valor dwell' ?
No patriot WALLACE”? No undaunted TELL’?
Yes', Freedom, yes'! thy sons, a noble band,
Around thy banner, firm, exulting stand'.

REMARK.—The same degree of inflection is not, at all times ased, or indicated by the notation. The due degree to be employed, depends on the nature of what is to be expressed. For example; if a person, under great excitement, asks another :


Are you in

the degree of inflection would be much

earnest ?

greater, than he playfully asks : Are you in

Tho former inflection may be called intensive, the latter, common.



Direct questions, or those which may be answered by yes or no, usually take the rising inflection; but their answers, generally, the falling.


1 Will you meet me at the depot' ? Yes'; or, I will!
2. Did you inteni to visit Boston'? No'; or, I did not'.
3 Can you explain this difficult sentence'? Yes'; I can.
4 Are they willing to remain at home'? They are'.
5. Is this a time for imbecility and inaction'? By no means'.

6. King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets' ! I know that thou believest'.

7. Were the tribes of this country, when first discovered, making any progress in arts and civilization!! By no means!

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